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ARABIC-ENGLISH 
DICTIONARY OF OUR'ANIG USAGE 



HANDBOOK OF ORIENTAL STUDIES 

HANDBUCH DER ORIENTALISTIK 

SECTION ONE 

THE NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST 

EDITED BY 

H. ALTENMULLER • B. HROUDA • B.A. LEVINE • R.S. O'FAHEY 
K.R. VEENHOF • C.H.M. VERSTEEGH 



VOLUME EIGHTY-FIVE 



ARABIC-ENGLISH 
DICTIONARY OF QURANIC USAGE 



ARABIC-ENGLISH 
DICTIONARY OF OUR'ANIC USAGE 



BY 



ELSAID M. BADAWI 
MUHAMMAD ABDEL HALEEM 




BRILL 



LEIDEN • BOSTON 
2008 



This book is printed on acid-free paper. 

A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. 



ISSN: 0169-9423 
ISBN: 978 90 04 14948 9 



Copyright 2008 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands 

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Printed in the Netherlands 



jjj tyjd Ija jjc jT :9.1c ^fl JlS ^fl UjS 0*-""! 4^ V 



No one ever wrote a book without, on the following day, saying, 

'Had such-and-such been changed it would have been better; 
had such-and-such been added it would have been more acceptable; 

had such-and-such been stated earlier it would have been 
preferable; and had such-and-such been omitted it would have been 

more elegant. ' 

Such a phenomenon is one of the great lessons and evidence of the 
inherent insufficiency of all members of the human race. 

3 al-QadI c abd 3 al-Rajam 3 al-BTsam (d. 596 A.H./1199 A.D.) 



FOREWORD 



From an early date, the study of the text of the Qur'an has been the 
central concern of all scholars in Islamic civilization. Before the 
death of the Prophet, if the believers did not understand the 
revelation, they could ask the Prophet himself. Many prophetic 
traditions relate how believers asked him about the meaning of a 
verse or a word, and how he explained its meaning to them. But after 
Islam had spread across a large area, and many new converts whose 
mother tongue was not Arabic began to recite the text and listen to its 
recitation, problems of comprehension became a real issue. From an 
early period, scholars collected difficult lexical items from the 
Qur'anic text. No less an authority than 3 ibn c abbas (d. 68 A.H./687 
A.D.) is often credited with the first commentary on the text. His 
Tafsir is quoted by many later commentators, and although the 
collections that have been published under this title probably do not 
go back to him, there can be no doubt that his explanations found 
their way into later commentaries through his students. Likewise, the 
treatise on the Lughdt 3 al-Qur 3 an that has been transmitted under his 
name may not really be his, but there can be no doubt that he 
initiated a concern about difficult lexical items in the text. 

In the first centuries of Islam, philological and theological 
exegesis of the Qur'an still went hand in hand, but in later times 
philology became a separate field. This led to the publication of 
treatises with titles such as Gharlb 3 al-Qur 3 an, in which difficult 
words with an obscure meaning were collected. Such treatises are 
reported from grammarians like 3 abu c ubayd, 3 ibn Durayd, 
°ibn Faris, 3 ibn 'al-Sikkft and Tha c lab, to mention only some of the 
best known. Most of these treatises have not been preserved, but the 
famous Kitdb tafsir gharlb 3 al-Qur 3 an by °ibn Qutayba (d. 
276 A.H./889 A.D.) was edited by Saqr (Cairo: 1958; repr. Beirut 
1978). 



viii 



FOREWORD 



The lexicographical exegesis of the Qur'an was not confined to 
wordlists, but it became an integral part of the Tafsir literature as 
well. The earliest commentaries on the Qur'an that have been 
preserved give us a fairly good picture of which items were regarded 
by the commentators as difficult. They explain difficult words in the 
text by paraphrasing them with other words that were more likely to 
be understood by their readers. Muqatil 3 ibn Sulayman (d. 150 
A.H./767 A.D.), for instance, paraphrases the word mubin whenever 
it occurs with bayyin 'clear', and when the phrase khalidina fiha 
occurs in a verse, Muqatil always adds °ay la yamutuna 'i.e., they do 
not die'. These are not exegetical, but lexicographical, remarks, 
instigated by the presumed lack of knowledge on the part of the 
believers. This procedure gives us a unique window onto the level of 
comprehension by common believers in the first and second 
centuries of Islam. One may assume that the overriding concern of 
the early commentators was to make sure that the believers 
understood every single word of the Holy Text. Yet, they were also 
interested in the meanings of the words as such, witness their interest 
in foreign loanwords in the vocabulary of the Qur' an. This became a 
controversial issue at a later period, but at this early stage was 
apparently not regarded as something out of the ordinary. Thus, for 
instance, Muqatil informs us that the word firdaws 'paradise' is a 
Greek word, and that the word "istabraq 'brocade' comes from 
Persian. This is purely lexicographical information, which does not 
serve any exegetical purpose. The tradition of quoting from the 
Qur'an to illustrate the basic meaning of words was continued by 
later lexicographers, even though they concentrated more on 
shawdhid from poetry. In the first dictionary of Arabic, the Kitdb °al- 
c ayn that is attributed to 3 al-KhaM 3 ibn 3 ahmad (d. 175 A.H./791 
A.D.), for instance, the number of quotations from the Qur'an is 
surprisingly low. 

Yet, the importance of the language of the Qur' an as a source of 
linguistic knowledge is obvious from the thousands of quotations in 
grammatical treatises. Some of the earliest grammatical treatises 
were direct commentaries on the text, for instance 3 al-Farra 3 's (d. 
207 A.H./822 A.D.) Ma c dnl 3 al-Qur 3 an and 3 al- 3 akhfash's (d. 215 
A.H./830 A.D.?) book with the same title. In these commentaries, 



FOREWORD 



ix 



lexicographical information was integrated in the general discussion, 
although the authors seem to have been more interested in analysing 
the linguistic structure of the text. In Sibawayhi's (d. 177 A.H./793 
A.D.?) Kitab the shift is complete: he quotes the Qur'an (more than 
440 times!), not in order to elucidate its meaning, but as evidence of 
the structure of Arabic, of which the text of the revelation is the 
prime example. 

Grammarians were primarily interested in the value of the text of 
the Qur'an as the most important source of correct Arabic. Their 
entire discipline was intended to be an ancillary to the religious 
sciences, but one sometimes gets the impression that they used this 
important function as an excuse for their passionate study of the 
Arabic language itself. Later grammarians routinely introduce their 
treatises by pointing out how important the study of grammar and 
lexicography is for the study of the Qur'an. The grammarian °al- 
Zamakhshari (d. 538 A.H./1144 A.D.), for instance, states in the 
introduction to his Mufassal that he felt compelled to write his 
grammar because of the slander advanced by the Shu c ubiyya against 
the Arabic language. He argues that God has chosen Arabic, rather 
than any foreign language, for His last revelation, which 
demonstrates its superiority. Therefore, knowledge of grammar is 
indispensable for all those who wish to understand this revelation 
and the Islamic sciences. Apparently, even when grammarians were 
mainly attracted by the subtleties of Arabic grammar, they still felt 
the need to justify their interest by pointing out how important the 
study of grammar was for understanding the Qur' an. 

The emphasis on the grammatical aspects of the language of the 
Qur'an rather than the lexical aspects is obvious from the many 
treatises on the declension of the Qur'an or the style of the Qur'an. 
By contrast, no special dictionaries of the Qur'anic lexicon seem to 
have existed in the Classical period. That is to say, there were 
collections of difficult words, but no dictionaries that dealt with the 
entire lexicon, no monographs dealing exclusively with the lexicon 
of the Qur'an. One reason for this apparent lack may have been that 
the lexicographers did not feel the need to compile such a dictionary 
because all words from the Qur' an could be found in any dictionary. 
In the modern age this has changed, and special dictionaries are now 



X 



FOREWORD 



produced regularly, chief among them being the Egyptian Mu c jam 
'alfaz D al-Qur D an 3 al-karlm published in two volumes by the Arabic 
Language Academy in Cairo (1970). 

The absence of trustworthy dictionaries used to be true of the 
Western study of Arabic, as well. All Orientalist lexicographers, 
from Golius to Dozy, did include the lexicon of the Qur'an in their 
dictionaries, but they do not seem to have felt the urge to compile a 
dictionary of those words exclusively contained in the revelation. For 
a long time, Flugel's concordance of the Qur'an (Leipzig, 1842) 
remained the only work in which all words were listed, albeit 
without a translation. The concordance was reprinted regularly (for 
instance, in New Delhi 1992), until it was superseded by c abd 3 al- 
Baql's concordance, 3 al-Mu c jam 3 al-mufahras li- 3 alfaz 3 al-Qur 3 an 
3 al-karlm (Cairo, 1958). 

In Islamic languages other than Arabic, dictionaries were 
compiled to facilitate the comprehension of the text of the Qur'an for 
common believers with little knowledge of Arabic. There is, for 
instance, a dictionary compiled by Shaikh Abduikarim Parekh 
entitled Complete Easy Dictionary of the Qur'an (Kuala Lumpur: 
Noordeen, 2003), in which each Arabic word has its meaning in 
English given beneath, in the order of the text. This dictionary was 
also translated into Bengali, Urdu, and Turkish. Other dictionaries of 
this category include Abdul Mannan Omar's Dictionary of the Holy 
Qur'an (Rheinfelden: Noor Foundation International, 3rd ed., 2005), 
though dictionaries of this kind were never meant to be scholarly 
research tools. 

The first Arabic/English Qur'anic dictionary, and for a long time 
the only one, was John Penrice's, Dictionary and Glossary of the 
Koran, which was published in 1873, and has been reprinted ever 
since. Nothing much is known about the author, except that he came 
from East Anglia, and that he was Patron of the Living in Little 
Plumstead in the Diocese of Norwich, as Serjeant mentions in the 
introduction to the reprint of 1971 (New York: Praeger). No other 
publications are listed under Penrice's name. Apparently, he was an 
admirer of the style of the Qur'an, of which he writes in his preface, 
'beauties there are, many and great; ideas highly poetical are clothed 
in rich and appropriate language, which not infrequently rises to a 



FOREWORD 



xi 



sublimity far beyond the reach of any translation'. Because of the 
difficulties the beginner in Arabic experiences in understanding the 
text, he decided to write a dictionary with the Arabic motto Silk 3 al- 
bayan fi manaqib 3 al-Qur"an, which he himself translates as 'a clue 
of elucidation to the intricate passages of the Kor-an'. 

Penrice's dictionary, which contains all words occurring in the 
text of the Qur'an, has been reprinted numerous times, the most 
recent reprint being that of 2004 (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications). 
Apart from the fact that it has become outdated, it has also become 
difficult to consult, because it uses Flugel's edition of the Qur'an and 
his numbering of the verses, which differs from that of the standard 
Cairo edition. In 2006, Duraid Fatouhi published a re-edition of the 
Penrice Dictionary (Kuala Lumpur: IBT Publications, 2006), in 
which he replaced the old numbering of the verses with that of the 
Cairo edition, and substituted more recent translations, such as that 
by Yusuf Ali, for those used by Penrice. The most recent 
Arabic/English Qur'anic dictionary is A Concise Dictionary of 
Koranic Arabic by Arne Ambros and Stephan Prochazka, which was 
published in 2004 (Wiesbaden: L. Reichert). As the title indicates, 
this is a concise dictionary, which does not give a detailed analysis of 
the lexicon. 

There was, therefore, a tremendous need for a new scholarly 
dictionary of the vocabulary of the Qur'an, with complete translation 
of all words, in which the abundant information in the commentary 
literature would be taken into account. Such a dictionary has now 
been compiled by two eminent scholars, Prof. Elsaid Badawi and 
Prof. Muhammad Abdel Haleem. The information in this dictionary 
is presented by root, as in most dictionaries, but an interesting feature 
is that at the beginning of each lemma the entire semantic range of 
the root is given, together with a frequency count of each form 
belonging to the root. This enables the reader to survey at one glance 
the semantic domain of the root. For each individual lexical unit, the 
meanings in different contexts are carefully distinguished. Thus, for 
an important notion like kitab, no less than fourteen different 
meanings are given, from 'written document' to 'prescribed 
punishment', each of which is illustrated with a quotation from the 
text, with full translation. Grammatical items have been given special 



xii 



FOREWORD 



attention. This means that the dictionary will serve as a very useful 
reference tool, not only for the specialist, but also for beginning 
readers, who inevitably need as much support as they can get in their 
first efforts to understand the text. 

One could hardly imagine a more qualified team of scholars for 
this tremendous task. They share a common background, both having 
received their first training at the Azhar University, where at an early 
age they studied the Qur'an and the Islamic sciences. They both 
continued their training in Britain, Prof. Badawi at the London 
School of Oriental and African Studies and Prof. Abdel Haleem at 
the University of Cambridge. Prof. Abdel Haleem now heads the 
Centre of Islamic Studies and teaches at the School of Oriental and 
African Studies, specialising in the stylistics of the Qur'an. He has 
published the book Understanding the Qur'an: Themes and Styles 
(London, 2001), that has become a standard text, as well as an 
English translation of the Qur'an, The Qur'an-A New Translation 
(Oxford, 2004), which received high praise in the press as a 
remarkable achievement, and which has been used in the present 
dictionary. Prof. Badawi has devoted the greater part of his career to 
setting up the Arabic Language department at the American 
University of Cairo, which, thanks to him, has become one of the 
best Arabic language departments in the Arab world. His 
Mustawayat 3 al-lugha J al-mu c asira ft Misr (Cairo, 1973) laid the 
foundations for the modern sociolinguistic study of the language 
situation in Egypt, and for sociolinguistics of Arabic in general. 
Together with Martin Hinds, he published the Dictionary of Egyptian 
Arabic (Beirut, 1986), and he is one of the authors of Modern 
Written Arabic: A Comprehensive Grammar (London and New 
York, 2004), which has become the standard reference grammar. 

It is a privilege to present this dictionary of Qur' anic usage to the 
many scholars all over the world who know that one cannot study 
Islam and Islamic civilisation without an intimate familiarity with the 
text of the Qur'an, and that one cannot hope to understand its 
meaning without a thorough knowledge of the Arabic language. 

Kees Versteegh 
University of Nijmegen. 



INTRODUCTION 



Enquiry into the meanings and nuances of Qur'anic vocabulary 
originates from the time of the Prophet Muhammad himself. 
Numerous traditions have reached us confirming that the Prophet 
was questioned by the companions concerning the meanings of, 
amongst other words, Jijill ( : ' al-kawthar; 108:1) and 
( 3 al-salat 3 al-wusta; 2:238) ( 3 al- 3 itqan, v. II, pp. 191-205). This 
trend continued after the death of the Prophet: we are told that the 
second Caliph, c umar 3 ibn 3 al-Khattab, whilst standing on the pulpit, 
interrupted his recitation of (16:47) j_i^i2 JSs. fiiilj (ya 3 khudhuhum 
c ala takhawwufin) to ask his audience of the meaning of 
(takhawwuf), whereupon a man from the tribe of Hudhayl is reported 
to have said, 'This is from our dialect and it means "take them to 
task, little by little'", and in support cited a line of poetry in which 
the word was used in that sense, ( 3 al- 3 itqan, v. II, pp. 87-8). 
Similarly, 3 ibn c abbas (d. 68 A.H./687 A.D.), acclaimed as the 
learned man of this 3 umma [the Muslims] »i» jJlc) as well as the 
exegete of the Qur'an ((jtjill jUa>ji), is reputed to have said that he 
remained ignorant of the exact meaning of 'Jala (fatir) in cIJZA\ 'Jala 
(fatir 3 al-samawat) (6:14) until one of two Bedouins who sought his 
arbitration regarding the ownership of a well, said to the other, li 
l$j Jaa ( 3 ana fatartuha) T am the one who split it open', (see 
3 al- 3 itqan, v. II, p. 113). 

Difficulty with some of the Qur'anic vocabulary as a result of 
the use of, for example, words better known in certain localities 
and/or a lack of knowledge of the larger contexts in which certain 
words occur, combined with the general lack of knowledge of Arabic 
brought about by the spread of Islam amongst non-Arabs, made the 
need to explain lexical items in the Qur'an more urgent. This 
situation led to the establishment and development of the science of 
Exegesis (jo^iull ^c), which came to represent one of the greatest 



xiv 



INTRODUCTION 



branches of Qur'anic Studies. Surprisingly, however, interest in 
Qur'anic idiom as an independent discipline remained comparatively 
modest. Furthermore, such somewhat limited interest as did exist 
centred around specific groups of Qur'anic words: the jl jail ^jjjc. 
(gharib "al-Qur^an), a term which refers to words considered to be 
less commonly known; jl CjUJ (lughat 3 al-Qur 3 ari), i.e. those 
words which were thought of as belonging to dialects of certain 
tribes; jljall (majaz 3 al-Qur 3 ari) or jljall ^U^ 3 (tashbihat 

3 al-Qur 3 an), those Qur'anic words which were used in the 
metaphorical sense; while studies dealing with jjLkill j oj^-jll 
( 3 al-wujuh wa'l-naza'ir) discussed those words which were used to 
convey different nuances in various contexts, termed » j=. j (wujuh), as 
contrasted with jjU^j (naza 3 ir), i.e. words considered to be used in the 
same way throughout the text. In addition to this large and expansive 
vestige of literature dealing with certain aspects of Qur'anic idiom, 
there were works concerned with what became to be known as JiUfyl 
k±£L^\ ( D al-°alfaz 3 al- 3 islamiyya) i.e. vocabulary which came to 
acquire a new Islamic nuance through its usage in the Qur'an and 
Hadlth. The first recorded extant example of this genre was °abu 
Hatim 'ahmad 3 ibn Hamdan 3 al-Razi's (d. 322 A.H./932 A.D.) 
pioneering work <i£L*y\ Jilifyl ^ (^al-zinatu fi'l-'alfaz 

^al-^islamlyya). 

It was 3 al-Raghib 3 al- Isfahan! (d. 503 A.H./1108 A.D.) who 
produced the most important major work, and perhaps the first of its 
kind, devoted to the Qur'anic vocabulary in its entirety, as opposed 
to those works devoted to specific groups of lexical items. Albeit 
belated, his work here is parallel with that of 'al-Khalll °ibn 3 ahmad 
(d. 175 A.H./791 A.D.) who, in his dictionary {kitab 
"al- c ayn) transformed Arabic lexicography from a field of study 
concerned merely with exotic and rare words to one demonstrating a 
universal concern with the entire vocabulary of the Arabic language. 
Although 3 al-Raghib refers to the subject of his enquiry as being the 
meanings of all of the words of the Qur'an, and although he makes 
no distinction in his treatment of the Qur'anic vocabulary between 
what is considered commonly and less commonly known, the book 
was published several times under misleading titles indicating that it 
was only concerned with jl J& (gharib 3 al-Qur 3 ari). It seems 



INTRODUCTION 



XV 



that no one considered it plausible to have a dictionary devoted to the 
vocabulary of the Qur'an independent of works of commentary. 
Recently however, this situation has been remedied and this work 
has been republished under the more befitting title of jljall ohji* 
^jSII (mufradat 3 alfaz ; 'al-Qur 'an 3 al-karlm). 

In stating his preference for this new title the editor says, 'We 
believe as a certainty that this new title is the closest to reflecting the 
book's contents, as the author did not only concern himself with 
obscure words in the Qur'anic vocabulary, but also with familiar 
ones Indeed, 3 al-Raghib was of the opinion, expressed in the 
introduction to his book, that of all the disciplines needed for the 
study of the Qur'an those concerned with the language itself should 
come first, and, of these, those concerned with the meanings of the 
Qur'anic vocabulary should be considered of primary importance. 
3 al-Raghib's implicit call for more attention to the study of the 
Qur'an's vocabulary might have been instrumental in the appearance 
over the years of works similar to his, such as <_ijJil ju*sj ili-J ix*c 
JiUfyl ( c umdat 3 al-huffaz fl tafsir 3 ashraf 3 al- 3 alfaz) by 3 ahmad °ibn 
Yusuf, generally known as 3 al-Halabi (d. 756 A.H./1355 A.D.). 
However, these remained comparatively few, paradoxically, perhaps 
because of the great value of 3 al-Raghib's own work on the subject. 
Some of the particularities of Qur'anic usage became largely 
integrated in general lexicographical works such as mj 3 ^ jU (lisan 
3 al- c arab). The appearance, between 1953 and 1970, of jl jail JiliS 
j^jSlI (mu c jam 3 alfaz 3 al-Qur 3 an 3 al-karlm) published by the Arabic 
Language Academy of Egypt, followed by its revised edition in 
1989, did little for the advancement of the subject. 

In the West, Qur'anic lexicography seems to have been almost 
ignored. Although translation of the Qur'an into various European 
languages goes as far back as 1143, with the completion of a Latin 
translation by Robert Ketenensis of Chester, and in spite of the great 
interest shown by the various churches in studying the history and 
text of the Qur'an as the great book of Islam, it was not until the year 
1873 that the first work devoted to the vocabulary of the Qur'an by a 
Western scholar, to our knowledge, appeared under the title jLull tSlL. 
jl jail t_jalL« - A Dictionary and Glossary of the Kor-an. The author, 
who signed himself merely as 'John Penrice, the Lodge, Norfolk', 



xvi 



INTRODUCTION 



exhibited a great command of the subject throughout this pioneering 
work. However, the lack of, in particular, contextualised examples 
illustrating the range of sub-meanings of the various entries provided 
in Penrice's work and its comparatively limited scope, together with 
the fact that subsequent work on the subject-valuable as it was-was 
restricted to specific groups of Qur'anic vocabulary (as in the case 
of, for example, Mustansir Mir's 1989 Verbal Idiom of the Qur'an), 
only illustrates the lacuna in the library of Qur'anic Studies. This 
demonstrates the need for a comprehensive, fully researched and 
fully contextualised Arabic-English dictionary of Qur'anic usage 
compiled in accordance with modern lexicographical methods and 
based completely upon both the Classical Arabic idiom (derived 
from works such as Slbawayhi's Kitdb, 3 ibn-Ya c Ish's Mufassal, 
Lisdn 3 al- c arab and Lane's dictionaries) and the work of 
authoritative commentators on the Qur'an (such as Muqatil, 3 al- 
Tabarl, 3 al-QurtubI, °al-Razi and many others). True, Qur'anic 
scholars continue to find assistance in Lane's magnificent work An 
Arabic-English Lexicon, particularly since the author includes 
pertinent Qur' anic usages in numerous places in his work. However, 
the appearance in 1960 of Hans Wehr's A Dictionary of Modern 
Written Arabic and the role it has played in elevating the study of 
Modern Standard Arabic outside the Arab world has only 
accentuated the need for a parallel dictionary devoted specifically to 
the language of the Qur'an. 

The present Dictionary of Qur'anic Usage attempts to fill this 
gap. The work is based upon the interpretations by classical Qur'anic 
commentators of the contextualized occurrences of the finite 
vocabulary items used in the Qur'anic text according to the 
widespread reading of Hafs (o^- j 5 ) (d. between 180-90 
A.H./796-805 A.D.) through c asim &) (d. 127 A.H./744 A.D.) 
as rendered in the Egyptian printed text of the Qur'an. The 
authenticity of a particular reading of the Qur'an, according to the 
eminent ninth century Qur'anic scholar 3 ibn °al-Jazari, is based (as 
stated in his work jAJI jail ^ jJisJI ( 3 al-nashr fi'l-qira'at 3 al- 
c ashr) p. 9) among other things such as chain of transmission (-li-JI), 
upon its conforming to a grammatically acceptable mode of Arabic 
language structure (in his words: ... jlj cjaa! j s*l J JS Every 



INTRODUCTION 



xvii 



reading that agrees with the tenets of the Arabic language even by a 
single interpretation ...). The role of structural analysis in 
interpreting literary texts in general, and the Qur'anic text in 
particular, cannot be overestimated. As Montgomery Watt has noted, 
'the Arabic language is such that there are often several different 
ways of "taking" a sentence, and these ways yield at least slightly 
different meanings ... This kind of thing occurs much more 
frequently in Qur'anic Arabic, and there is often something to be 
said for each of several possibilities' {Companion to the Qur'an, pp. 
10-11). This particular feature of the language of the Qur'an often 
makes interpreting the text an unending journey of discovery, and 
supports a multitude of interpretations which, in turn, necessitates a 
high degree of familiarity with the various nuances of a particular 
word and the contexts in which they occur. Modern interpretations of 
the Qur' an, such as, for example, the present drive to reinterpret the 
Qur'an on the basis of modern scientific discoveries, particularly 
space travel, is a case in point. Although legitimate and indeed 
necessary, such interpretations remain outside the scope of this work. 

For the purpose of the present work, acceptable interpretations of a 
particular Qur'anic verse are those founded on the authority of the 
particular commentator/s in question, and the validity of the 
structural analysis they apply to the text to justify their 
interpretations within both the immediate and larger context in which 
it occurs. Of equal importance to the grammatical structure of the 
discourse for our purposes here, if not of even greater significance, is 
the capacity of many derived forms such as verbal nouns and 
participles to play varied roles within the discourse, some of which 
are not always well defined, thus opening the way not only for varied 
interpretations of the text, but for ambiguity of meaning as well. For 
example, in addition to conveying the basic meaning of an action or 
happening (^^>JI), the verbal noun (j-i^ll) often functions in many 
contexts as a noun, noun of place, noun of time or, in many contexts, 
as admitting the possibility of its functioning as a number of these at 
the same time. For example, whereas the word Jj> clearly functions 
as a noun in (9:111) jlijSllj cW^lj sljjSlI ^ a^c a true 
promise given by Him in the Torah, the Gospel and in the Qur'an; 



xviii 



INTRODUCTION 



and as a verbal noun in (75:17) Ajli'jSj l&L 'Ji collecting and 
reciting it [correctly] is Our own responsibility; it could be 
interpreted as either a noun or verbal noun in (72:1) £*£J *1 *J>\ '^j 
Xx^z. Uli j5 VjJ I jJlia ^jaJI jij # /zas been revealed to me that a 
group of jinn listened in [on a recitation of the Qur'an] and said, 
'We have heard a wondrous reading' [also interpreted as: wondrous 
Qur'an]. Similarly the participial form functions as such in 
(2:41) jal£ Jj IjjjSj Vj do not be the first to disbelieve in it; and as 
a noun in (78:40) OjS CiiS (^2^ jalSil Jjsjj awe? the disbeliever would 
say, 'How I wish I were [mere] dust'; but it could be interpreted as 
either in a great many contexts in the Qur'an, such as (64:2) (eiS ji 
;>> J^iaj "jal£ J^iaa J»Sak //e it is who created you, yet some of you are 
denying [Him] and some are believing (or, some are disbelievers and 
some are believers). The difficulty exercised in interpreting the 
various contexts in which fL* occurs stems mainly from the fact that 
measures of 'nominality' and 'participiality', of which this particular 
word could be formed, vary so much from one context to the other, 
that it makes it difficult, in these contexts, to assign it to a nominal or 
a participial function. While nominality is sufficiently evident in 
(22:78) Ija ^Jj Ji* I> 'oi")'"'^ j* He called you Muslims-both in 
the past and in this [message]; and participiality is equally evident in 
(3:84) 'oJ4^ <! lp-jj and we are submitting to Him; it is not possible 
to decide one way or the other in a great number of contexts, such as 
(15:2) IjilS 'j IjjiS 'jjjJI 'SJ* Luj those who disbelieve may come 

to wish they had submitted to God (or, to have been Muslim). In the 
current work, the morphological designations provided in square 
brackets at the beginning of the entries reflect this situation in the 
options they provide. 

Almost 100 grammatical words (particles, nouns and verbs) 
occur in the Qur'an, many of which are among the most frequently 
used words in the text. These have been given particular attention 
insofar as they convey various nuances of meaning in the Qur'an, 
and features particular to the Classical period and to Qur'anic 
discourse are explored in detail. Examples of these are the roles 
played by various demonstratives in signifying relative distance, both 
physical and metaphorical, as indicative of intricate relationships 
between interlocutors (for which see the entry for The nuances 



INTRODUCTION 



xix 



of meaning conveyed by the employment in various contexts of the 
prepositions is another case in point. 

The Dictionary follows the Arabic root system and is composed 
of 28 sections, each of which is devoted to one letter of the Arabic 
alphabet, with the exception of the letter 'alif representing the long 
open vowel /a/ (which the phonological rules of Arabic do not permit 
to function as a first radical of an Arabic verbal root). Roots are 
naturally arranged in accordance with the alphabetical order of their 
constituents. However, a note here should be made regarding the 
classification of roots with geminated second and third radicals. 
Unlike the tradition followed in Western lexicography, e.g. Lane and 
Wehr, such roots are classified in accordance with the order they 
should have in consideration for the second and third radicals. 
Consequently the root s-b-b appears after the root s-b-^ and not 
before it. Words of foreign origin remaining as individual vocabulary 
items, e.g. jjiU, are listed according to their alphabetical order and 
so are grammatical words belonging to no apparent Arabic roots, 
such as (^ill. Arabicised words classified by Arab philologists under 
Arabic roots and sharing the semantic field of the root with other 
derivatives, e.g. o* 1 ^ are included under those roots. Foreign proper 
names, e.g. ijjJ, 4jcUJ and <-V*!, are classified in accordance with 
their Arabicised forms but, in instances such as jjl, where it could be 
thought that the name is derived from j/jfi, cross references are 
provided. Contrary to current conventions, transliterated hamza and 
c ayn are accorded full alphabetical letter status. Consequently, 
vowels preceded by initial hamza or initial c ayn are never 
capitalized, even if the words in which they occur happen to be 
proper names or begin new sentences, cf. "ahmad, but not ''Ahmad 
and c ad, but not °Ad. Cross references are also provided for words 
such as *UJ, whose true root may cause some difficulty. Because 
the demarcation line between derivatives of roots, the third radicals 
of which are either j or are not always clear, many such roots are 
treated together with the third radical marked as both j and i$ 
w/y). 

Each root is treated in the following way: 

1 - An inventory of the basic concepts covered by the root is 



XX 



INTRODUCTION 



provided in an attempt to show the range of semantic scatter it 
encompasses. The dictionary senses detailed in this section are 
derived from the classical language, which may or may not include 
all the Qur'anic senses and could be used, when compared with the 
entries in the third section, to show the senses brought into the 
Arabic language by the Qur'an. It is generally noted that what can be 
called semantic kinship between derivatives of Arabic, and also 
Semitic, roots is culture-bound and not always evident. Also, it is a 
commonly acknowledged feature of Arabic that abstract derivatives 
usually stem from concrete ones (e.g. 'beauty' from lU=- 

'camel'; 'attractiveness' from gl« 'salt' and I jS 'to read' from * jS 
'a single milking of an animal'). Bringing together semantic 
derivatives of a root arranged, when relevant, in a sequence starting 
from the concrete and ending with the abstract, is likely to shed light 
on the way in which these concepts are related to one another and 
also on the manner in which each and all of those derivatives cover 
the total semantic field of that root. Examination of this total picture 
is also likely to provide further means of appreciating the use of 
derivatives of that root in the Qur'an. 

2 - An inventory of the particular morphological derivatives of 
that root actually occurring in the Qur' an, together with the number 
of times they occur. A comparison of the frequency of occurrence of 
the various derivatives of a certain root and also of the total number 
of occurrences of all derivatives of this root with that of other roots 
should be an indication of the relative importance the Qur'an 
ascribes to concepts covered by the various roots. Figures provided 
for the frequency of content derivatives are based upon the 
Concordance of Muhammad Fu'ad c abd 3 al-Baqi, Jiti& u^j^iJ 
^jill ji jail ( 3 al-mu c jam 3 al-mufahras li 3 alfaz 3 al-Qur 3 an 3 al-Karlm), 
whereas those of the grammatical words not included in the 
Concordance of c abd °al-Baqi are based upon the Concordance of 
3 isma c Il c amayirah and c abd 3 al-Hamid Mustafa ^ jjU^II j CjI jjS/I 
(^jSlI jl jail (Mu c jam 3 al- 3 adawat wa 3 al-dama 3 ir fl'l-Qur 3 an 3 al- 
karlm). With regard to those words and roots of potentially non- 
Arabic origin, little attention, beyond what is provided by Arab 
philologists, has here been given to the etymology of Qur'anic 
words, largely because we agree with Versteegh (1993, p. 89) that, 



INTRODUCTION 



xxi 



'It is much more difficult to understand how the assumption of a 
foreign origin for obscure Qur'anic words can contribute to their 
understanding'. Contemporary research in the subject, furthermore, 
tends not to give enough consideration to the fact that Arabic, Syriac, 
Hebrew and Ethiopic all share a common origin, a fact that will 
undoubtedly often make it difficult to distinguish between cases of 
borrowing and cases of parallel development. Considerations of time 
have prevented the authors from including the various Readings 
(cjUjS), save for a few instances. 

3 - Dictionary entries for each of the derivatives listed in 
accordance with the order in which they occur in c abd 3 al-Baqi's 
Concordance. Because the Dictionary is concerned with actual 
Qur'anic usage, headwords are given in one of the morphological 
forms they actually occur in the Qur'an in both Arabic script and 
transliteration. For example, verbal forms of which no perfect forms 
occur are given in the imperfect, but if there is no imperfect then 
they are given in the imperative. Passive forms are as a rule included 
under the active forms and only given separate entries if they 
contribute nuances of meaning beyond that of the active forms. Dual 
and plural forms are likewise treated in relation to their singular 
forms. Feminine forms occurring in Arabic with a td° marbuta are 
rendered in the transliterated forms with a final tanwin in order to 
circumvent the convention for representing the ta D marbuta as 'ah' 
or dropping it altogether. 

Roman numerals mark divisions along morphological and/or 
syntactic lines, e.g. noun and participle and/or transitive and 
intransitive, whereas Arabic numerals mark divisions along semantic 
lines and lower-case letters mark semantic sub-divisions. The various 
sub-meanings cited for each entry reflect the range of contextual 
meanings as elucidated by the classical Qur'an commentators 
consulted in the compilation of this dictionary. Because of the 
difficulty inherent in trying to define the often very subtly different 
meanings of vocabulary items as they occur in various contexts, 
particularly in a foreign language, the role of the illustrative 
examples in approximating meaning remains paramount. This 
difficulty is particularly evident, as it is in other languages, in the 
case of prepositions. The line of demarcation between the various 



xxii 



INTRODUCTION 



divisions of meaning in some cases is not clear cut, and a certain 
degree of overlap is unavoidable. In such instances, rather than 
ignoring fine nuances of meaning and collapsing entries together 
under one definition, items with a similar, but not identical, range of 
meaning are kept separate and given definitions that reflect the 
affinity between them. Examples of such items can be found under 
the entries for roots such as J<$\ and V j/j. Alternative 

interpretations of headwords occurring in the same verses are noted 
and, when sufficiently different, are classified under different sense 
divisions. 

The glosses for the illustrative examples are based upon M.A.S. 
Abdel Haleem's translation The Qur'an-A New Translation by 
M.A.S. Abdel Haleem. However, because the purposes of the 
dictionary are not always identical with the purposes of a translation, 
changes are made when necessary. In glossing illustrative verses, 
particular attention has been given to trying (albeit not always 
successfully) to parallel the structure of the original as much as 
possible, in some cases to the detriment of 'style elegance'. Arabic 
forms and structures particularly difficult to render in matching 
structures in English include transitive and intransitive verbs, passive 
and active verbs and nominal sentences whose predicates are 
nominal clauses. Particular difficulties are met in glossing the 
absolute object (JlkJI <Jj*i«ll) which occurs quite frequently in the 
Qur'an, because of the absence of parallel syntactic function in 
English. The mode of glossing thus varies from one context to the 
other, as in the rendering of HJSj and 11U in (4:164) J*>j» jJSj 
HJSj but to Moses God spoke directly, and (4:65) ^ I V P 
HJlii IjaLuj S\u>a tu. Ik'ja. and then they will find no constraint in 
their hearts regarding your judgement, and yield completely; and 
(33:56) l^X-j I jXj I jLa bless him [the Prophet] and salute him 
with greetings of peace (or alternatively, surrender yourselves 
completely to his guidance). Verses detailing future events in the past 
tense (usually to emphasise the inevitability of their occurrence), are 
as a rule rendered in the present tense in the English gloss, as in 
(39:73) \'J*j jl °44j I'jSjI 'jjill and those who are mindful of 
their Lord are conveyed to the Garden in groups. Groups of words 
whose collective contextual meanings differ from a literal reading of 



INTRODUCTION 



xxiii 



their substantive parts are considered, as in other language 
dictionaries, as idiomatic. Such entries are indicated by asterisks and 
placed at the end of the sub-meanings to which they are most closely 
related, with their literal meaning provided within square brackets 
when necessary, as in *(34:49) a»j U>j iJJaOl IsSb «t=- the truth 

has come and falsehood is dumbfounded (or, vanquished, or, 
powerless) [lit. neither begins nor repeats [an utterance]]. However 
the degree of transparency of such phrases, or more precisely the 
lack of it, is not always the same in all cases, and the application of 
the asterisk remains a matter of judgement, as in *(33:10) yjfll cjJjj 
jalskJI fear gripped everyone [lit. and hearts rose into the throats] 
and in *(58:14) l->}£1\ Jic. 'qjsL^ they swear to the truthfulness of a 
falsehood [lit. they swear on the lying]. Occurrences of words used 
idiomatically in various places and with various nuances, e.g. and 
L_iU^.i, are gathered together in order to provide further reference to 
important themes in the Qur'an to that provided by the statistical 
information discussed in section 2 above. The designation 
'jurisprudence', [jur.], marks particular usages of headwords, e.g. sV 
and e jS, the full meanings of which can only be obtained from 
outside the Qur'anic text. The glosses provided in such cases should 
be considered as mere indications of the technical meanings of such 
usages. 

The complete meaning of a word, as semanticists insist, is 
nothing less than all the contexts in which it appears within a certain 
corpus, here the Qur'anic text. One of the main aspects of the 
Qur'anic text which has been, and still is, a subject of difference of 
opinion between commentators is the various modes of interpretation 
to which a word can lend itself in various Qur'anic contexts. 
Adherence to the givens of the language structure of the Qur'anic 
text in harmony with the work of Qur' anic interpreters who adhere to 
the same principles places a limitation to the likely or unlikely 
imaginable meanings of any word in its immediate or extended 
contexts. We do not dismiss interpretations which are not based on 
the same linguistic principles, e.g. 3 ibn c arabi's or scientific 
principles, but they fall outside the scope of this Dictionary. 

In the course of the seven years it took to complete work on the 



xxiv 



INTRODUCTION 



Dictionary of the Qur'an the authors received generous assistance 
from many colleagues, friends, institutes and foundations. They are 
above all indebted to the Yamani Cultural Foundation, without 
whose generous and sustained assistance throughout the duration of 
the project they would never have been able to maintain the work 
and bring it to a successful conclusion. Thanks also are due to the 
Abdullah Mubarak Al-Subah Foundation in Kuwait and to the 
Kuwaiti Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs for their financial 
support. Research facilities were provided by the Centre of Islamic 
Studies of the School of Oriental and African Studies in the 
University of London and by the American University in Cairo. The 
authors are grateful to Professor Colin Bundy, now ex-director of 
SOAS, and to Professor Tim Sullivan, Provost of AUC and to 
Professor Ann Lesch, Dean of the School of Humanities and Social 
Sciences, AUC, for being there to help when help was much 
needed. The authors are indebted to a number of colleagues for 
undertaking numerous revisions of the manuscript. In alphabetical 
order they are: Mrs Fionnuala Badawi, Dr Alex Bellem, Dr Helen 
Blatherwick, Ms Posy Clayton, Dr Kate Daniels, Mrs Harfiyah 
Haleem and Ms Lisa White. To the dedication of these colleagues, 
their encouragement, expertise and love for language, the project 
owes a great deal. Thanks also are due to Dr Mustafa Shah for 
helping with some of the bibliographical entries, to Mr Lamaan Ball 
for providing the Qur'an data bank from which verses quoted in the 
text were downloaded and to Dr Rahman Haleem and Mr 
Mohammad Zaki Badawi for the computer programming and 
retrieval systems they devised for the particular needs of the project. 
The authors are grateful to the great scholar and friend, Professor 
Kees Versteegh, for his constant encouragement, and for writing 
such a generous foreword to this work. The authors have benefited 
from suggestions made by a number of colleagues. In this regard a 
special mention must be made of Professor Mahmoud al-Rabie, Dr 
Stefan Sperl, Mr Badr Al-Mutairi, Dr Marianna Klar, Ms Amira 
El-Ghandour and again Dr Helen Blatherwick who has been 
involved on this project on an ongoing basis. The tasks of 
coordinating the work of others, weeding out discrepancies and 
preparing, single-handed, a camera-ready copy of the manuscript, 



INTRODUCTION 



XXV 



with the thousand-and-one jobs involved, fell to the highly talented 
Ms Ni'ma Burney. With remarkable attention to detail, exceptional 
ability in both English and Arabic and exemplary dedication to the 
project, she put together a final copy acceptable to 
Brill. Acknowledgement is also due to Trudy Kamperveen, our 
editor at Brill, for her suggestions, her encouragement and 
determination to spur us on, as well as her final check of the 
manuscript. 

aSjI UUa of Vji iS^H^ l2T l»j UA UU* ^JUl aSj Jui-I j 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 



accus. 


accusative 


gen. 


genitive 


act. part. 


active participle 


i.e. 


that is 


A.D. 


Anno Domini 


imper. 


imperative 


adj. 


adjective 


imperf. 


imperfect 


adv. 


adverb 


intens. 


intensive 


affirm. 


affirmative 


interj. 


interjection 


A.H. 


year of the Hijra 


intrans. 


intransitive 


card. 


cardinal 


jur. 


jurisprudence 


cf. 


compare 


masc. 


masculine 


coll. 


collective 


n. 


noun 


comp. no. 


compound numeral 


no. 


number 


dem. 


demonstrative 


nom. 


nominative 


dimin. 


diminutive 


ord. 


ordinal 


e.g. 


for example 


part. 


particle 


elat. 


elative 


pass. 


passive 


ellipt. 


elliptical 


pass. part. 


passive participle 


fern. 


feminine 


perf. 


perfect 



xxv i INTRODUCTION 



pi. 


plural 


rel. 


relative 


prep. 


preposition 


sing. 


singular 


pron. 


pronoun 


trans. 


transitive 


pronom. 


pronominal 


v. 


verb 


q.v. 


which see 


v. n. 


verbal noun 


quad. v. 


quadrilateral verb 


> 


changed into 


quasi-act. 


adjectival active 


* 


idiomatic usage 




participle 






quasi-pass. 


adjectival passive 








participal 







i / hamza 



SJa^JI 3 al-hamza (t) the first letter of the alphabet; it represents a 
glottal stop. It is distinguished from <_iil °alif (although the two are 
occasionally, albeit inaccurately, used interchangeably) which 
represents a somewhat front (or back) open long vowel (see <-ili 
W(2)). 

\ °a particle occurring 497 times in the Qur'an and functioning as: I 
interrogative particle (fUiuU preceding both nominal and 

verbal sentences (cf. J*), whose answer is 'yes' or 'no'. In 
contexts like that of (5:116) ^ ^ did you say to the 
people?, where interrogative hamza precedes a word beginning 
with hamza, one of two processes may take place a) one of the 
two hamzas elides altogether, as in (19:78) ii5l ^ Lijill jJAil 
lijji, j^k'jll has he penetrated the unknown or received a pledge to 
that effect from the Lord of Mercy? or b) the second hamza 
together with the fatha of the preceding one are, in some 
readings, fused into a long open vowel lal. This case is 
orthographically rendered in some Qur'anic texts as ft, in some as 
U and in others as T; as in (10:59) 'ji* ^ has God given you 
permission [to do this]? Interrogative hamza is used in the Qur'an 
basically in rhetorical senses such as the following: 1 to seek 
acknowledgement (94:1) '<£jLa ^11 ^'jJa jJ did We not relieve your 
heart for you [Prophet]! 2 to reprove (37:95) ^ 'oJ£*$ do 

you worship what you hew out [with your own hands [I 3 to deny 
(17:40) £Uj *S$XA 'qa iijlj 'jjjjlb j«S>Sj J^UlaUl what? Has your Lord 
favoured you people with sons and taken daughters for Himself 
from the angels? 4 to gently invite (57:16) °J 1 j^ 1 * l« ^ 
lS^I t> Jjj ^ (4fj^ w nof f/me for believers that their 



hearts become humble to the remembrance of God and the truth 
that has come down? 5 to express wonder (25:45) >-«l£ d£j J\ js °J 
Jkl s i« Aave yow «of considered the way of your Lord, how He 
lengthens the shadow? 6 to express incredulity (12:90) cAi 
<-£»Ji could it be that you are Joseph? 7 to express irony (11:87) 
lijOc i£u U 'A'ju °J ItfjJu ^K>LJ does your religion [lit. prayer] tell 
you to forsake what our forefathers worshipped? 8 to express 
contempt (21:36) J^lli j££ ^ill Ijai w f/ie owe who demeans 
[lit. mentions] your gods? 9 to instil a sense of urgency (3:20) Jfj 
j>lX>ii 'jj^Vlj IjSjl 'jjjll say to f/iose w/io were g/ve« f/ie 
Scripture, as well as those without one [also interpreted as: those 
who do not read], 'Do you too devote yourselves to Him alone?' 
Interrogative hamza is often followed by one of the three 
connective particles wa (J) fa- (i) and thumma (fi), all of which 
lend emphasis to the discourse as a whole, as in (7:69) j 'A^-y 
J^jiil Jkj <^ I> f^fe you find it so strange that a 
reminder should come to you from your Lord-through a man 
from among you— to warn you?; (17:68) jjII Life <■ °j> 'f^^ 
c?o yow /eeZ secure that He will not cause a side of the shore to 
swallow you up; (10:51) ^ J^li U lij ^ is it [only] then, when 
it has befallen you, that you will believe? II short-distance 
vocative and/or intimate particle (s^j^l ^4) (q.v. Ij ya). It is said 
to occur once in the Qur'an in one of the variant readings of 
(39:9) as Jjlll ibli cjjli > °(>1 yow w/io worship devoutly during the 
night! instead of the standard reading lP ^jlS > '(> jj or /ie 
iv/io worships devoutly during the night III hamza of equalisation 
(between two propositions) (aj^II s'_>«a), where S introduces the 
first proposition and the second is normally introduced by <J "am 
(q.v.), giving the meaning of 'whether (... or whether)', occurring 
usually, but not necessarily after, t\'J>* sawa 3 (making a set phrase 
... ... I ... Jic d yj, 'it is all the same whether', 'it doesn't matter 

whether') (2:6) 'oy**ji V ^ (J (><hj^>* 'jj^ j^' *u! fl-s 

/or f/zose w/zo disbelieve, it makes no difference whether you warn 
them or not-they will not believe. 

"adam [borrowing from Hebrew occurring 25 times in the Qur' an. 
Philologists, however, derive it from the root 3 -d-m denoting, 



3 



among other things, the colour brown, the colour of the earth 
from which Adam was fashioned] Adam (20:115) £1* J) jiTj 
Uijc. <1 iaj JJj '^^uua JjS '(> We also commanded Adam before you, 
but he forgot and We found him lacking in constancy; *(7:26) ^S^j 
children of Adam, humankind. 

The Qur'an describes that having created man, God 
commanded the angels to prostrate before Adam (2:34 and 
15:29-33); it also relates that Adam and his wife enjoyed the 
bounties of heaven before they were enticed by Satan to eat from 
the forbidden tree (7:20). Having violated God's command both 
Adam and Eve were banished to Earth (7:24), although reference 
is made to his having been forgiven for the transgression 
(20:122). Adam is also described as someone God has tested but 
found lacking in resolution (20:115). The Qur'an accentuates the 
fact that Adam was created from clay and that the nature of his 
creation and being serves as an analogue for the human status of 
Jesus (3:59). The dispute between the two sons of Adam, Cain 
and Abel, is movingly narrated in the Qur'an (5:27-32). 

jjl "azar [borrowing of ambiguous origin occurring once in the 
Qur'an, which philologists classify under the root °-z-r 
while recognising it as a foreign name] variously described as the 
name of Abraham's father, an abusive epithet for Abraham's 
father, or the name of the chief idol referred to in (6:74) J13 ilj 
iijjl 'j'j; <Jj pJAljjj remember when Abraham said to 
his father, J azar, 'How can you take idols as gods?' 

Allusions to Abraham's father also occur in the Qur'an in 
(9:114 and 19:42-9), in which Abraham rebukes his father for 
embracing polytheism. Abraham also beseeches the Lord to 
forgive his father, denouncing the worship of idols (37:85-99 and 
43:26-8). It was explained, however, (9:114) that Abraham had in 
fact asked forgiveness for his father only after agreeing with him 
on a grace period during which the father would make up his 
mind regarding Abraham's call to the new religion. Later, when 
Abraham realised that his father was still 'an enemy of God', he 
denounced him and refused to have anything to do with him. 



4 



Jl "al (see J/_*/t 3 -h-l). 

lj 3 abun (see j/lj/S "-b-w). 

JjjUI (see J/^/i -6-/). 

3 abariq [pi. of n. jajil J ibriq, occurring once in the Qur'an. 
Philologists classify it under the root j/ j/v &-r-g although they 
recognise it as a borrowing from Persian] pitchers, jugs, flagons 
(56:18) °i> LftuM'j glasses, flagons and a cup 

full of pure liquid. 

lj/lj/S ^-b-b herbage, pasture, yield of the land; to up and go, to 
prepare to go; water; mirage. Of this root, £J "abb occurs once in 
the Qur'an. 

ui °abb [n. a rare word the meaning of which was reportedly 
not known to c umar 3 ibn °al-Khattab, the second caliph {°al- 
"itqan)] food produced from the land, herbage, pasture (80:31) 
lit j ^Sij and fruits and fodder. 

j/i_j/S "-b-d long time, eternity; to go wild; to desert, to be deserted; 
wild animals. Of this root, \4 3 abadan occurs 28 times in the 
Qur' an. 

IjjS 3 abadan [adverbial] 1 forever, eternally, very long time 

(4:122) jlg-jV 1 gj^J {j* CLll^JU-a]l IjlaCj l^iale. ^jjillj 

Ijj! l^ji 'jjjlU. as for those who believe and do good deeds, We will 
admit them into gardens graced with flowing streams; there they 
are to remain for ever 2 [enhancing negation] ever a) 
expressively, as in (9:108) \"4 don't you ever pray in it b) 

elliptically, as in (24:17) lil I ji jk; °J ^Wj God admonishes 
you [not] to revert to the like of this [sin] ever. 

^jaIjjI Ibrahim [borrowing from Hebrew occurring 69 times in the 
Qur'an. Philologists classify it under b-r-h-m although 

they recognise it as foreign] the Prophet Abraham (Gen. XII.5) 
(3:68) lji«r* 'jjillj ^jjll liij sjiil "jjjill '^&\'Jh qAjW 'Jt [certainly,] 



5 



the people who are most deserving of Abraham are those who 
follow his ways, this Prophet, and those who are sincere 
believers; * ^'Ji name of Sura 14, Meccan, so-named for the 
mention of Abraham in verses 35-41. 

Abraham is described in the Qur'an as the friend of God (4: 
125). He is also a hanif 'of pure faith'. The Qur'an refers to 
Abraham's introspective quest for the portents of God's creation 
and majesty (6:75-9). A further aspect to this is covered in (2: 
260) when Abraham asks God to reveal to him how the dead are 
resurrected. His total obedience to God is shown in his offering 
his son for sacrifice on seeing this in a vision (37:99-111). The 
Qur' an attaches great significance to the role of Abraham and his 
son Ishmael in the construction of the Ka c ba and the 
establishment of the rites of pilgrimage (2:125-8; 22:26-7; 3:96- 
7) and how Abraham settled his offspring in the barren valley of 
Mecca (14:35-7); while (2:129) speaks of Abraham asking God 
to raise among its inhabitants a prophet who would recite God's 
scripture and impart its teachings. Crowning it all, God calls him 
a nation unto himself, a patriarch (16:120), and says that the most 
deserving of him are those who follow him, the Muslims and their 
Prophet (3:68). 

j/i_j/S 3 -b-q (of a slave) to flee from one's master, to bolt; to mutiny; 
to hide; (of a she-camel) to deny its milk. Of this root, $ "abaqa 
occurs once in the Qur'an. 

JjS J abaqa a/u [v. intrans.] to run away from one's master 
(37:140) jjklidl iiiil J\ 'jj \\ when he fled [from his Master] to 
the overloaded ship. 

J/lj/S 3 -b-l camels, to acquire camels, to look after camels; to stay 
away from one's wife, a monk; droves, flocks, bundles; 
successive waves. Of this root, two forms occur three times in the 
Qur'an: JJ °ibil twice and Jjjrf "ababil once. 

JjI °ibil [coll. n. for both male and female camels; no singular] 
1 camels (6:144) j^l jsjII t>j a P a i r of camels and a 

pair of cattle 2 clouds (according to an interpretation of verse 



6 



88:17) cjak UuS JjVI 'jj!>^ ^> f/iey not see how clouds [also 
translated as camels] are formed! 

"ababll [pi. of n. aJQ "ibbalatun, J j3 "fl*w/ or aILJ 
Ibalatun or a pi. n. with no singular] droves, various groups, 
successive waves (105:3) JjjU IjSJa J-j'j fl«<i He sent ranks 
of birds against them. Reference here is made to the futile attempt 
to destroy the Ka c ba by Abraha, a Christian Ethiopic ruler of 
South Arabia. Tradition relates that this event occurs in year 570 
A.D., termed 'the Year of the Elephant' (JjsII fic), in which year 
the Prophet is said to have been born. The Qur'an relates that 
flocks of birds hurled pellets of hard-baked clay at the marauding 
army rendering them like cropped stubble. 

o-uLj 'iblis [borrowing from Greek 'diabolos' occurring 11 times in 
the Qur'an, although a number of philologists derive it from 
iju/J/ij b-l-s because of the 'utter despair' (oS&l °iblds) the Devil 
had fallen into as a result of the curse God put on him following 
his disobedience] the Devil, Satan (17:61) I J&J US ilj 

V] I jikli when We said to the angels, 'Bow down before 
Adam, ' they all bowed down, but not 3 iblls. 

'iblis is a primary character in the creation story: he refuses to 
obey the divine command to bow before Adam, arguing that he 
himself had been created from fire whereas Adam was created 
from clay (15:33; see also 2:34 & 7:11). He entices Adam to eat 
from the forbidden tree and has him cast from Heaven. He 
himself is reprieved until the Day of Judgement, but vows to 
mislead mankind up to that day. It is this banishment together 
with his vow to mislead mankind that serves as the context for 
God's sending messengers and guidance (15:32-42). The Qur'an 
describes him as a member of the genus of the jinn, while he is 
also classified as having an angelic identity. 

3 ibn (see j/b/^b-n-w). 

fUjl ^abna^ (see j/o/^b-n-w) 



3 ibnatun (see j/^/^b-n-w). 



7 



j/lj/S °-b-w father, ancestor, fatherhood, to father; to be benevolent; 
to possess, to be characterised with. Of this root, three forms 
occur 117 times in the Qur'an: Lit °abun 46 times; jlji °abawan 
seven times; and *Ui "aba" 64 times. 

y "abun [n., when in construct (4iUd) > nominative (j- J _>*) Ji 
"abu, accusative y^c^ U "a^a, and genitive ^ 3 a£f; pi. 

*d 'a&a'] 1 father (33:40) J.S1U. j !> u 'jlS U Muhammad is 
not the father of any one of you men 2 grandfather, forefather 
(12:6) jUlfj pjAljjj Jji I> ^jji (Jc- U!J US as //<? perfected it 
earlier on your two forefathers, Abraham and Isaac 3 forefather, 
ancestor (22:78) '^'J>\ Q> the faith of your forefather 
Abraham 4 possessor of, characterised by, closely associated with 
(111:1) Luj t-^i li cjii may the hands of 3 abu Lahab [lit. the 
father of Hellfire, i.e., he who will end in Hellfire] be ruined!, 
may he be ruined too. 

£l jjS "abawan [dual of iJ 3 abun\ 1 father and mother together, 
the two parents (7:27) aj^JI 't> J^^i US 'jLLjlill foi^ V £l» 
children of Adam, do not let Satan seduce you-as he ousted your 
[two] parents from the Garden 2 two fathers, two forefathers 
(12:6) jUlfj jjAljjj ji '(> l&'jl Jin l^J US as He perfected it 
earlier on your two forefathers, Abraham and Isaac. 

ls/<-j/! °-b-y aversion, disdain; to refuse, to turn down, to reject. Of 
this root, 3 aba occurs 13 times in the Qur'an. 

yji "aba [v. trans.] 1 to refuse (2:282) Ut US Lukj 'J LIS Lib V j 
<M «o scribe should refuse to write as God has taught him; 
*(9:32) sjjj ^jj 'J V) Aill (jjtj Z?m? Got/ refuses [anything] save to 
perfect His light 2 to be averse to, to dislike, to disdain 
(9:8) 'fijjE J&j fSjj^=lw ^ey give yow satisfaction with their 

mouths, but their hearts are averse. 

(3*^1 °ittasaqa (see J/lh/j w-s-g). 

'(JSj) "atqana (see tD/j/^ t-q-ri). 



JsH\ 3 ittaqa (see is/<j/j w-g-y). 



8 



ISjjS 3 atawakka 3 (see i/d/j w-k- 3 ). 

<g/&fi 3 -t-y to come, to arrive, to bring, to bring forward; to commit; 
to direct; to afflict; to bestow; to become possible, to become 
suitable; to yield, to fruit. Of this root, eight forms occur 536 
times in the Qur'an: Ji\ 3 ata 252 times; I >1 3 utu once; j$ 3 ata 204 
times; 'jij 3 utiya 67 times; <J\ 3 at! seven times; <0 3 atiyatun three 
times; ^jL ma 3 tiyy once and (j_A£ mu 3 tun once. 

'flffl i I [v. intrans.] 1 to come (61:6) I> J Ij<3^j 
iwkt awJ bringing good news of a messenger to come after me 
whose name will be 3 ahmad 2 to be (in a place) (20:69) I j*£-= Ujj 
ji dik ja.HJI Vj jaAl« '4 s w/iaf f«ey wave produced is only the 
trick of a sorcerer, and a sorcerer will not succeed wherever he 
may be 3 to revert to, to become, to return to being (12:93) I Ja'i\ 
I'ji-aj CjU ^kj (^Jc » jSSi Ija ^j^uCi) take this shirt of mine and lay 
it over the face of my father-he will become able to see 4 [with 
prep. to come upon, to overrun (5 1 :42) V] $e. c£l f J^Js '(> jij U. 
pj/jK ajE<^ leaving nothing it came upon, but reducing [ all of] it 
to dust 5 [with prep, j] to bring out, to bring forth, to disclose 
(5:108) l«Vj s'jl^iillj I y ^lli f/u's way, w more //£e/y 
f«af f«ey disclose the testimony in its proper form 6 [with prep, j] 
to find out, to account for, to come up with, to bring out (21:47) 
lli Jjji '(> Jjk tKLa "(jj j even if /f &e f/ie weight of a mustard 
seed, We will bring it out [We will account for it] 7 [with prep, j] 
to bring, to present (17:92) ^ jSSXAj <UL. '} or you bring 
God and the angels [before us] face to face II [v. trans.] 1 to 
come to (26:89) ^ m& ^ i> save for the one who comes 
before God with a sound heart 2 to give, to come up with, to 
perform (3:188) ... Ij3 'jjk'ji 'jjill *jL«kj V Jo nof f/u>ifc f«af 
fwose w/io exw/f in what they have given ... 3 to enter (2:189) IjjI'j 
llil'j^l "(> cj jilll so ewfer houses by their [main] doors 4 to destroy, 
to visit with retribution, to attack (16:26) J&ljill j> ^ ^ but 
God visited with destruction what they built at the very 
foundations 5 to commit, to do, to perform (27:54) 'fdj HJiaAill qjB 
'oJj^p how can you commit this abomination with your eyes wide 
open! 6 to perform a sexual act (29:29) JVjN 'tiJ& how can 
you come at men [in lust[? 7 [with prep, jc] to approach, to come 



9 



by *(37:28) jj-ull jc UjjjIj j£k yow came to us from a position of 
power [lit. You approached us from the right hand side] 8 [with 
prep, j] to bring someone (something) (27:38) '^1 
which of you can bring me her throne ? 

"utu [pass. v. with prep, j] to be brought something or 
someone, to be provided with (2:25) I jli §>«j i> U>> I jSjj UK 
l^jLii <j IjjI'j '{j* Uajj ^jJI lii, whenever they are given 
sustenance from the fruits of these gardens, they will say, 'We 
have been given this before,' [because] they would be provided 
with [things] resembling one another (74:52) 'J J4> isj^ l£ jjjj Jj 
i'j^L Ukla eac/i owe o/ f/iem demands that he should be 
brought scrolls [written revelation] unrolled [before his very 
eyes]. 

jfi °dtd [a phonetically ambiguous form of either v. Ill (Jm 
°ata, orthographically becoming jS) or v. IV (j$ 3 a 3 ta, also 
orthographically becoming jti p ata). Contextually there seem to 
be good grounds for assigning the 204 occurrences of J$ p ata in 
the Qur'an to form IV rather than form III. However the subject 
must remain open] I [trans.] 1 to yield, to produce (18:33) l5l£ 
both gardens produced their [proper] yield 2 to 
settle up, or to pay up, dues (6:141) 'fj* A5k 'J£\ lij ejZ '<> I JS. 
ojlloa. so eat of their fruit, when they bear fruit, and pay its dues 
[the poor's share] on the day of harvesting it II [doubly trans.] 1 
to hand someone something (12:31) *c&* ?Vj l£ cdi'j and 
s/ze handed each one of them a knife 2 to give something to 
someone (6:83) jc. J^Aljil liliuli Uuk^ smc/i was Our 
argument [which] We gave to Abraham against his people 3 to 
decide to give (2:233) lil ^Uk bvi J^jVjI I J>u±'jLz 'J j^iij y'j 
t_i yjUlb '^li U °fl«L ant/ /fyow m'ili to have your children suckled 
[by other than their mother [ there will be no blame on you if you 
hand over [ to the suckling woman [ what you have decided to give 
[her[ in fairness 4 to bring, or fetch, something to someone 
(18:62) lil'.sc iUil Jli he said to his servant, 'Fetch us our 
lunch. ' 

jj °utiya [pass, of both v. Ill and v. IV (see under Ji\ 3 ata)] 1 
to be given (84:7) '■Q.&'jjji '<> Ui whoever is given his record 



10 



in his right hand; *(2:101) Lst&il I j5 j 'cb^ (epithet for the Jews in 
particular and also for the Christians) those who were given the 
Scripture 2 to be granted something (20:36) J^J^ 
God said, 'Moses, you have been granted your request. ' 

<jjT 3 atl [act. part., fern. "*s?\ 3 atiyatun] 1 someone who or 
something which is coming (15:85) &-£J ci'j and the Hour is 
certainly coming 2 someone who or something which comes 
(44:19) cw- Jd=^ I come to you with clear authority. 

fliy 'ltd 3 [v. n.] 1 the act of giving (16:90) JiJb 'yL 'k\ q\ 
... ^'JSi jlukVlj God commands justice doing good, and 

giving to relatives ... 2 paying (24:37) 'jc. Vj s'jlki ^ J* j 
sl£jll f tii] j s!>lUl ^la] j j£j people who are not diverted, either by 
commerce or profit, from remembering God, upholding the 
prayer and paying the prescribed alms. 

"jk* ma 3 tiyy [pass, part.] that which is fulfilled, carried out 
(19:61) list J'ij aj] truly His promise will always be fulfilled. 

£jj>« mu 3 tun [pi. of act. part. Ji$*mu 3 ti\ those who give, grant, 
pay up (4:162) slljl! 'jj5>Uj s^lUl oi^'j ?/iose w/io perform the 
prayers and pay up prescribed alms. 

Jj/Jj/S 3 -th-th abundance, great wealth; (of hair and tree branches) to 
be thick, intertwined; to be fleshy; furnishings. Of this root, £jl3 
3 athath occurs twice in the Qur' an. 

3 athath [coll. n.] 1 furnishings (16:80) IaJjjIj l^jlJ '^'j 
jja. ,Jj lilij U jU<J;i j a«<i /rom their wool, their fur and their 
hair, [they have] furnishings and [other] uses/enjoyments for a 
while 2 property, wealth (19:74) l2o ',yJJi ft j'jS '<> L&M 
Ijj jj /iow marcy a generation before them have We destroyed; who 
surpassed them in riches and outward splendour. 

j/Jj/S 3 -th-r trace, mark, track, remnants, remains; landmarks, 
monuments; authority, favour; to mark; deeds; to pass along, to 
transmit; to favour, to prefer. Of this root, five forms occur 21 
times in the Qur' an: jpjj yu 3 thar once; 'Jii 3 athara five times; jj! 
3 athar three times; jlSl 3 athar 1 1 times and s'jO 3 atharatun once. 



11 



jjjj yu°thar [imperf. of pass. v. jj 3 uthira] to be handed down 
from one generation to the next (74:24) Jijj "J^ V] Ija y Jlia awe? 
/ie sa/c?, T/iw is just ancient sorcery [learned from previous 
generations]. ' 

>T "athara [v. IV, could also be v. Ill, see discussion under Ji\ 
°ata, trans.] to prefer, to put ahead of, to favour (87:16) 'jjJA£ 
U&ll yet you [people] prefer the life of this world; *(59:9) 
JSe. ujjjd they give [others] preference over themselves 
[they are self-denying]. 

jjS °athar [n., pi. °athdr] 1 trace, mark, impression (48:29) 
j jklJI Jil '(> ^ j '^lliu. f/ze/r mark is on their faces from the 
traces of prostration 2 sign, manifestation, evidence (30:50) JMi 
XgJ* 'iu JiajVl ^ ^jyS Aill A^akj jljli J] /oofc, f/zew, rte 
manifestations of God's mercy, how He restores the earth to life 
after death 3 deeds, impact, relics (40:21) rjSIVjs^S °j4v ^ ^ Ijj^ 
o^jfr' were stronger than them and made a more 

impressive impact upon the land; *(20:84) <j Jil Jc. f V j JJ* f/iey 
are there following in my footsteps 4 teachings, as in one 
interpretation, preferred by °al-Razi, of (20:96) Cj'jLu Jla 
J jL.J!l Jit '(> 4^45 cjlauSa <j I jjLuj /ze sa/<f, 7 saw what they did not 
see, so I took in some of the teachings of the Messenger' 
[according to the other, and more popular, interpretation: 7 took a 
handful from the footstep of the Messenger']. 

SjIjS 'atharatun [n./v. n.] a trace, vestige, remnant, relic (46:4) 
fie. '(>|ja °j Ij» JjS i> ^IjSj ^jjjI bring me a previous scripture or 
some vestige of handed down knowledge. 

J/di/S °-th-l tamarisk tree; to be deep-rooted, to be of noble origin; to 
acquire great wealth; to endure. Of this root, <J» °athl occurs once 
in the Qur' an. 

J3 3 athl [coll. n.] tamarisk bush (wood-giving trees) (34:16) 
JjJ5 Jiu. 'jjx. f'^j jSj Ja^k. jsi l^jljj j£i?- fi^Vj awe? We 

replaced for them their two gardens with two others that yielded 
bitter fruit, tamarisk bushes and a few lote trees. 



f/di/S "-th-m sin, crime, guilt, to sin, to commit a crime. Of this root, 
six forms occur 48 times in the Qur'an: $ 3 ithm 35 times; jifi 
'athim twice; 3 athimln once; J atham once; JLyl J athlm 
seven times and jLyti ta^thim twice. 

$ 3 i^m [n./v. n.] 1 sin, guilt (5:29) * jjj 'J d 

jUll '(j* "(jjSja / would rather you were burdened with my sin 

as well as yours and became one of the inhabitants of the Fire 2 
chastisement, blame, censure (2:182) £j] jl 
<i $ bvi jjl^i anyone has reason to suspect that the 

testator has made a mistake, or done wrong, and so puts things 
right between the parties, he will incur no censure; *(5:107) Ia=uU 
£j] the two of them had committed a sin [lit. merited a sin]. 

£j! "'athim [act. part., pi. p athimin] sinner, guilty, evildoer 
(76:24) IjjiS °J\ HjIc J4i« y=s Vj ji-ali so submit patiently to 

the judgement of your Lord; do not obey any sinner or disbeliever 
among them. 

flii "atham [v. n./n.] punishment for committing a sin (25:68) 
idlj J«ij '(>j whoever does this will face the penalty. 

^athim [quasi-intens. act. part.] hardened sinner (2:276) Aillj 
^yljUS JS Liau V Gog? Joes ?iof /ove any ungrateful hardened 
sinner. 

fjjfa ta^thim [v. n.] 1 (the act of) causing someone to commit a 
sin, involving someone in a sinful act (52:23) _>il V HAS uj^j^ 
jLub V j f/iey pass around cups of wine, which cause neither idle 
talk nor sin [lit. in which there is neither idle talk nor a cause for 
sin] 2 accusing someone of committing a sin, recrimination 
(56:25) Vj l*ja 'oji^y V f/iere f/iey w/// /zear ?io /cf/e talk or 
recrimination. 

jr/jr/S '-j'-j to inflame; to incite; to be fast; (of fire) to crackle; (of 
water) to be salty, to be bitter. Of this root, jrt?i °ujdj occurs three 
times in the Qur' an. 

^rlsi °ujaj [quasi-act. part.] (of water) bitter, salty (56:70) °ji 
tijj&z V'jia Iklkl aUl*^. ?/ We wanted, We could make it [sweet 



13 



drinkable water] bitter-will you not be thankful! 

j/jr/i 3 -j-r wages, reward for work done; to hire, to engage; rent, to 
rent; dowry. Of this root, four forms occur 108 times in the 
Qur'an: jkb ta°jur once; jkbL4 "ista'jara twice; jkl 3 ajr 93 times 
and jjki "wjitr 12 times. 

Jklli ta°jur [imperf. of v. Jkl 'ajara, trans.] to go into 
contractual agreement, to work as a hired person or to hire 
someone to work as a hired person (28:27) ^j&I esJkJ '&4& °j AfJ cPl 
^ka. ^jUi ^jkti °jl (jJc. j£U / w/sft fo marry you to one of these two 
daughters of mine, on condition that you hire yourself to me for 
eight years. 

Jktij ^ista^jara [v. X trans.] to hire, to rent (28:26) Uil'jaJ cJli 
Ltt^l <Jj^ ^jkblJ Cy> 'JjP- bi PjiIj one o/ f/ze ?wo [daughters] 

said, 'Father, hire him-the strong, trustworthy man is the best 
person you could hire. ' 

jkl °ajr [n., pi. jjkf J ujur] 1 wages, payment for work done 
(65:6) bVjj*' b* f^l b*^»jl 'up zj suckle [your babies] for 
you, pay them their wages [for it] 2 reward (26:109) ajL ^<xJ Uj 
"jjjJUJI Li'j VI c5 jk^ b! jk^ i> / <io nof ask you any reward for it, 
for my only reward is with the Lord of all beings 3 dowry (4:25) 
t_i jjkSJU !>jj».f b* >'* j b*5*' cPk b* 50 marry them with their 
people 's consent and give them their dowries in accordance with 
the norms. 

J/jr/i 3 -j-l a large ditch for collecting water, to collect water; an 
appointed time, to fix a date; a cause; to consent. Of this root, six 
forms occur 44 times in the Qur'an: Jkl "ajjala once; Jkl 'ujjila 
once; Jkl °ajal 39 times; jjikl ^ajalayn once; Jk> mu^ajjal once 
and Jkl °ajl once. 

Jkl "ajjala [v. II, trans.; pass. v. Jkl "ujjila] to fix a time, to 
appoint a time (6:128) u5 cJkl ^ill uL! UiLj anc? now we have 
reached the appointed time You decreed for us. 

Jkl 3 a/aZ [n.] 1 appointed time (7:34) V *lk fjU jkl d JST, 
Vj 4c.U« qJj^Lu there is an appointed time for every 



14 



people: when their appointed time comes they cannot hasten a 
single moment nor delay 2 [dual J^kl 3 ajalayn] term, period 
(28:28) 'Jlis. 'd>j&- S*i ejjiaS LtfeVl whichever of the two terms I 
[choose to] fulfil, let there be no censuring of me. 

Jk>« mu°ajjal [pass, part.] timed, pre-ordained (of time) 
(3:145) ^tk> OjS o^k °<J no sow/ may d/e, 

save &y f/ie /eave of God, at an appointed time. 

J»i J a/7 [n.] cause, sake, on account of (5:32) jfe. l£2& ^Sli JJ I> 
. . . Ajl JjjI JluJ ^ o« account of this, We decreed to the children of 
Israel that . . . 

i»j 3 ahad(see */z/jw-h-d). 

Vc/' '-kh-dh to take, to hold; to acquire; to take to task, to put a stop 
to, to frustrate; to immobilise; to take after; to earn. Of this root, 
12 forms occur 277 times in the Qur'an: ia.1 'akhadha 123 times; 
iaj 'ukhidha eight times; i^ljj yu 3 akhidh nine times; ii2l 
3 ittakhadha 124 times; 3 akhdh five times; siil 3 akhdhatun 
once; iil 3 akhidh once; jjiil 3 akhidhin twice; iU2l 3 ittikhadh once; 

muttakhidh once; jjiaia muttakhidhln once and ol^i. 
muttakhidhat once. 

jil 3 akhadha u [v. trans., pass. v. id 3 ukhidha] 1 to take (4:20) 
Ulu Ai« I jiilj !>La IjLkja |>ljaJ J^lej awo* [even if] you have given any 
one of them [as a dower] a ton [of gold], do not take any of it 
[back[ 2 to take away, remove (6:46) J^jU-aiij 'f&al*> <M ia.1 °j] ?/ 
Goo* were to take away your hearing and your sight 3 [with prep. 
j] to grab, to take hold of (7:150) Ajlj ajJ jjJ'jj iilj awo* /ie took 
hold of the head of his brother, dragging him to him; *(2:206) 
(■Mb SjjJI m's arrogance drives him to stick to his sins [lit. f/ie 
/?n'ae in sinning overtook him]; *(9:50) I> UjUl bill jS we Ziave 
taken our precautions beforehand; *(10:24) L>i»jVl piil f«e 

earf/i /ias fafcew o« to ornaments 4 to accept, to take on board, to 
follow (5:41) »jiia l& jAuj y fAey say /to eac/z other], 'If 
you are given this [ruling], accept it!' 5 to punish, to take to task 
(29:40) ajj-ij ^ so We punished each one of them for their 
sins 6 to afflict, to overtake, to seize (7:78) J* I jkLali 2ik*jll J^iila 



15 



"ijj-ojU. 'ft, jIj an earthquake seized them: by the next morning they 
were lying dead in their homes 7 to overpower, to overwhelm, to 
overtake (2:255) ?y Vj <±* '*±ih V neither slumber nor sleep 
overtakes Him 8 [with prep, j] to try, to test, to afflict (7:130) jfiTj 
'jjjUb 'jjc. j| Jc Uia.1 We fn'eJ Pharaoh 's people with the passage 
of time [lit. the years]. 

i^ljj yu^akhidh [imperf. of v. Ill, trans.] to take to task, to hold 
to account, to punish (2:286) UUak.1 j! Uu*j y UjiljS V luj Lord, tfo 
not take us to task if we forget or make mistakes. 

iajj "ittakhadha [v. VIII] I [trans.] 1 to take for oneself, to 
adopt (16:51) Vj •M! j* m 1 ^ ^ <J^J Goc? said, 'Do 

not take two gods '—for He is the one God 2 to fashion for oneself, 
to create for one's use (29:41) iUTj <S1I qJi !> I jiiil 'jjill JS* 
Ijjj tijikjl pj^ill f/iose iv/io tofce protectors besides God are like a 
spider taking for itself a house 3 to select, to follow, to take 
(18:63) Jaall Uiw iijlj ant/ /f toofc to way mto f/ie sea in a 
wondrous manner 4 to exact, to acquire, to require, to obtain 
(18:77) I'jy $6. cjikjV olS *jJ but if you had wished you could have 
exacted payment for [doing] it 5 to take something as (23:110) 
tj^ 'ft jkJi^jli but you made them [lit. took them as] a laughing 
stock; *(1 1:92) Ijj^ p&l'jj « j yow /zave turned your backs on 
Him, you have put Him out of your minds [lit. you put Him behind 
you]; *(19:88) I'ij 'j-kjll \ JlSj f/iey say, T/ie Lord of Mercy 
has begotten offspring' [lit. tafew aw offspring] 6 [with prep. i>] 
to derive something out of (16:67) 4i» "oj- 1 ^ 2 m^^Ij Jjajll P'j^ i>j 
Ul«k li'jj'j \"^u*from the fruits of date palms and grapes you derive 
intoxicants and wholesome provisions II [doubly trans.] 1 to use 
something for the purpose of (58:16) fca. ^Uyl Ijii2l f/i<?y Aave 
wsed f/zez'r oadzs to cover up [their false deeds] 2 to take, adopt 
someone as (4:125) ^Ja. pjAljjj <M iiilj God took Abraham as a 
friend. 

iii "akhdh [v. n.] taking, taking to task, punishment (11:102) 

ijAu jLill ^JLk ^Aj lSJ^' '^j ^llj^J SWC/z W the 

punishment of your Lord for towns in the midst of their sins: His 
punishment is terrible and severe. 



16 



SiiS 3 akhdhatun [n. of unit] a taking, a gripping; an instance of 
taking to task; to seize; to take to task (69:10) J^jj Jj1»j \'J^»s 
ajjI'j siJ '^Aia-U to they disobeyed the messenger of their Lord, so 
He seized them with an immense gripping. 

j^T "akhidh [act. part.; pi. jjjiJ "akhidhin] 1 one who takes or 
accepts something (51:16) '^ij J^tli U 'jj.ii.li f/iey w/ZZ Z?e taking 
what their Lord gives them 2 one who takes hold of, one who 
controls (11:56) lfe-=>li> iili ja V] JjIj i> ^» there is no animal but 
He is in complete control of it [lit. taking hold of its forelock]. 

jUjI "ittikhadh [v. n.] (act of) adopting or taking something to 
be something else (2:54) J**l\ ^P^W J^Jk '^kjj [indeed] you 
have wronged yourselves by taking the calf [for a deity[. 

muttakhidh [act. part.; pi. ui- 1 ?^ muttakhidhln; pi. fern. 
cJi'^L muttakhidhat] 1 one who takes for him/herself something 
or someone (4:25) oliaia Vj cl^^L Jjc. not committing 

adultery or taking lovers 2 one who takes someone for (18:51) U'j 
'j jl h'J iii ciuS a«J / would not take those who lead others 
astray for supporters. 

3 -kh-r to delay, to postpone; to put behind; the end; the other, 
the last. Of this root, 13 forms occur 250 times in the Qur'an: 
"akhkhara 14 times; 'j^&yu 'akhkhar once; "_>Aj ta^akhkhara three 
times; aJj^-^yasta^khirun six times; ^j^tLi musta J khirin once; 
jil 'akhar 15 times; 'akharan twice; ujj^ °dkharun 22 

times; i/jai 'ukhra 26 times; >i 3 ukhar five times; j?J 'dkhir 30 
times; 3 dkhirTn 10 times and s'ja.VI 3 al- 3 akhira 115 times. 

jil "akhkhara [v. II, trans.] 1 to delay, to defer (11:8) Ujii 'jij 
Ui 4 ji Ja s'j jiaii Jil J] Lj'jkJI J4>^ We t/eZcry the chastisement 
till a reckoned appointment they are sure to say, 'What is holding 
it up?' 2 to grant respite, to respite, to reprieve (63:10) Vjl t_fj 
t_jjja Jkl ,_sjjja.l my Loni, z/ Fow would only reprieve me for a 
little while 3 to put off, to leave undone (82:5) cL^ U [ym 
cSj^'j each soul will know what it has done and what it has left 
undone. 

jijj yu'akhkhar [imperf. of pass. v. J ukhkhira] to be 



17 



delayed, to be held back, to postpone (71:4) 'j^^ V ill lij jJ 'J\ 
when God's appointed time arrives it cannot be postponed. 

jib ta°akhkhara [v. V, intrans.] 1 to hold back, to lag behind 
(74:37) °j 'J illi °(>1 to f/iose of you who choose to go 
ahead or lag behind 2 to come after, to follow (48:2) U 4J1I ji^l 
jiU Uj t«Sjjj '(> ->J9j f/iaf Got/ may forgive what has gone past of 
your sins and what comes after 3 to delay (2:203) f»y ^ <1S I j'jfc^j 
■uL j>jj !>li ji.b 411c. juj !>\i jxa'jj (ji I>3 pl'j jJ" remember God 
on the appointed days, if anyone is in a hurry to leave after two 
days, there is no blame on him, nor is there any blame on anyone 
who delays. 

(jjjitjLj yasta^khirun [imperf. of v. X, jiiij ^ista'khara, 
intrans.] 1 to delay, to hold back (7:34) V $M ilk fili Jkt Jit jklj 
'jj^piiuy Vj <cl^ 'jjjalluy f/iere is a« appointed time for every 
people-when their appointed time comes they cannot hasten a 
single moment nor delay 2 to remain behind (23:43) jU I> j£<2 U 
jjjitLy U j llkl «o community can go before its appointed time or 
remain behind. 

£jjitiui!« musta 'khirin [pi. of act. part. j^Aj!^ musta^khir] one 
who is holding back, lagging behind (15:24) J^ia '^vit./J li»L jSTj 
'jjja.liulll li»lc. jSIj ant/ We fcnow f/ie owes of you who press forward 
in the forefront and We know the ones who lag behind. 

jil "akhar I [n./quasi-act. part.; dual jljkl 'akharan, pi. <jjji.T 
'akharun; fem. i/jii 'ukhra (1) pi. "ukhar\ 1 the other one 

(12:36) (^ij jai ^rj jiVi jiij jB-ac-i ^rj tJkia.i jis 

I'jja. one o/ them said, 'I saw myself pressing grapes', and the 
other said, 'I saw myself carrying bread on my head' 2 additional 
or further one (39:68) i/jit <& £jj P then it is blown in it another 
[time] II [adjectivally] 1 another/other (20:18) ls'J^ wklki^j 
and I have other uses for it 2 different (23:14) jili Uk aULii p 
then We construct him into a different creation/creature 3 
additional (6:19) tsj»t 3k!li ^Jll ^ 'j jji^liU J^jI do you really bear 
witness that there are other gods beside God? 4 [derogative] 'that 
other one too!' (53:19-20) i/ji&l sli.j i/j^J ^ #M 
consider 'allat and °al- c uzza, and that other, third, one-Manat! 



18 



jjkl "ukhra (2) [n.] 1 the last one (7:38) Ikj-k l^a I jkjG fij 
... JiV j^f fit jit cJIS wTif/Z, w/ie« ?/iey feave a// successively gathered 
in [Hellfire], the last of them will say of the first ... 2 the rear, the 
end part, behind (3:153) jci J ik! Jie. 'ojjj Vj 'ojV-=2 jj 
^Slji.1 wfeen yow /Zee? in mindless panic [lit. ?iof paying heed to 
anyone] while the Messenger was calling out to you from behind 
you. 

, ~ * 

jil ^akhir I [n./quasi-act. part.; fern, s'ji.1 J akhiratun; pi. 

°dkhirin] 1 last, latter (10:10) 'jj^k!! Ljj <!1 £»kil J pkljcj jkl*j and 

f/ie Z<xst of their prayer, 'Praise be to God, Lord of all Beings'; 

* >VI [attribute of God] ^e £v<?r Lotting (57:3) '>Vlj jTjSfl ji #e 

is f/ie Firs* and f/ie Latt; *(2:217) SjkVl fne Latt /i/e as opposed to 

the near one (U&l) (q.v.), the Hereafter; *(29:64) s>VI jl'J fne 

La^f Abode, the Hereafter 2 end, final part (3:72) Jjil ^jlb I _>M* 

ojili I jjiSI j jtkill 4k j I jiali jjiSI ^ believe in what has been 

revealed to the believers at the beginning of the day but reject it 

at the end of it 3 preceding, past, previous (38:7) jUJ liki ^ 

JptiaJ V] I i* °J> SjiVI we nave nof neard of this in the past religion- 

this is nothing but invention II [n.] coming generations 

(5:114)^Si« Ujilij UfjS/ I'jjc Ul JjjSj .ttia// fee for us a 

festival, the first and the last of us [the coming generations] and a 

sign from You. 

j/£/S °-kh-w brother, brotherhood; friend, companion; to take as a 
friend, to fraternise; ties. Of this root, seven forms occur 96 times 
in the Qur'an: H J akhun 52 times; JjjiJ ^akhawayn once; y'ji.1 
3 ikhwdn 22 times; Sjil "ikhwatun seven times; Cikl "wfcfe eight 
times; (#if 3 ukhtayn once and Ciljil ^akhawat five times. 

£S "akhun [n., (in construct (filial) > jJ 3 akhu\ lit J akha; ^1 
'afc/if; dual (jjja.1 3 akhawayn\ pi. y'ji.1 "ikhwan and SjaJ 
'ikhwatun)] 1 brother (12:8) UJ J) tjkl « jilj j2 Joseph and 
his brother are [indeed] dearer to our father than we are 2 
compatriot (7:85) IjijkS fill! u?^ Jjj and to the people of Midian 
[We sent] their brother [compatriot] Shu c ayb 3 [jur.] a fellow 
human being (2:178) Mjj*k!b g^sli 7^ I> <J ^ik I>a fewf if 
someone [the culprit] is relieved from some [of the penalty] by 



19 



his [aggrieved] brother [in humanity], then there shall be 
conformity [to his wish[ in fair practice 4 the like of (17:27) *J\ 
jjjLUJJI I jjis 'ui>^ squanderers are the like of the devils 5 
brothers and sisters together [ 3 ikhwan and s'ja.1 3 ikhwatun] 
(4:176) u3"^l ^ jSiBi iU^j s^kj I but if there are 
[surviving] brethren, male and female together, the male is 
entitled to twice the share of the female 6 fellows in the faith 
[jlja.1 3 ikhwdn] (33:5) J^iOi I bp ^ 

J^SjIIjaj jjUl ^ J>Sjlja.li name f/iem [your adopted children] after 
their [biological] father s-this is more equitable with God-if you 
do not know who their fathers are, [address them as[ your 
'brothers-in-religion' and wards. 

cjil 3 ukht [n.; dual J^i.] 3 ukhtayn; pi. cA'jii 3 akhawat] 1 sister 
(4:23) ... ^Sjljiij f^lij f^jl^a' 'f^jlc- c^'jk forbidden to you [in 
marriage] are your mothers, your daughters, your sisters ... 2 
milk-sister (4:23) ... feU^jll '<> '(^iljiJj ... '^1^1 ii^^k 
forbidden to you are your mothers ... your milk-sisters ... 3 
fellow, counterpart (7:38) l^ii cjiJ ^1 Cjk'j LJS every G 
community enters, it curses its counterpart [lit. sister]. 

j/j/S '-J-J abomination, hardship, disaster, affliction; to befall, to 
afflict; shameful. Of this root, lij 3 iddan occurs once in the Qur'an. 

IjJ 3 iddan [quasi-act. part.] abominable, detestable, loathsome 
(19:88-9) lil ^ '-^ ''^j lP^jS ^ 1 j^j and they say, 'The Lord 
of Mercy has begotten offspring', how abominable is this thing 
you assert. 

o-yj° J ! °idrls (see o»/j/id-r-s). 

fjl 3 ddam (see ?/if\f\ D - D -d-m). 

(i/j/S '-cf-y to ripen, to become due; to snare, to prepare; to convey, 
to bring about; to pay. Of this root, two forms occur six times in 
the Qur'an: J^y, yu 3 addi five times and JI'J 'add 3 once. 

jjj yu 3 addi [imperf. of v. II i/i 'acWa trans.] 1 to pay up, to 
return (4:58) l*S»t J] pUU&l I 'j '^kjitj aJII Got/ commands you 



20 



SI 



to return trusts to their owners 2 [with prep. Jl] (44:18) y ji j 
itx. [saying to them,] 'Hand over to me the slaves of God'. 

*ri ''add'' [v. n.] restitution, paying up, handing over (2:178) 
jlikb ajJJ Ui jjk^lb jp-titi "c'^ ajJ '(> aJ ^iL °(>a but if the culprit 
[lit. someone] is relieved from some [of the penalty] by his 
[aggrieved] brother [in humanity], then there shall be conformity 
[to his wish] in fair practice, and restitution [of the remaining 
part of the penalty] to him [the aggrieved] in a good way. 

jj °idh I adverb of time occurring 309 times in the Qur'an, 'when 
... ', 'at the time of ... ', and structurally functioning as: the first 
part of a construct (<aU^]) of which the second part is either a 
nominal clause, as in (9:40) jUJ! <^s Ua jj when both of them were 
in the cave, or a verbal one, as in (9:40) I jj& 'jjill <^J^ ij when 
the disbelievers drove him out. As an adverb ij complements a 
verbal element; however in the Qur'an and as a device for 
drawing maximum attention to what follows, ij quite frequently 
initiates sentences, with no such element explicitly preceding it 
(leaving it to the reader/listener, so to speak, to add such an 
element as clarifies certain aspects of the situation), as in (14:6) 
Jli ij j and [ remember or mention here is made of the 
moment] when Moses said to his people. The device is 
particularly used in the Qur'an as a means of connecting parts of 
a subject/story spread over a long discourse, as in Sura 8 (JliiVl 
'the Spoils'), in which the story of the Badr campaign is told. 13 
of the first 49 verses, which directly deal with the story, begin 
with ij, thereby sustaining the attention and keeping the long 
discourse together. The second part of the ij construct may be 
replaced with compensation nunation (^jkUl jjjjj) (q.v.) if it 
refers to a preceding part of the discourse that is clearly 
understood, as in (56:84) 'oJJ^> i%^ 'f&j while you, at that 
moment, [i.e. the moment (previously mentioned) when the soul of 
a dying person reaches his gullet], gaze on. ij also occurs as a 
second part of a construct (at the same time as being the first part 
of a following one) with words signifying 'time', such as hin, 
?ji yawm, a*j ba c d, as in (99:4) U jUiJ ixa^ on that Day it will 
tell its story and (3:8) LiniA ij ^ lijB j- jp V l£j our Lord, cause not 



21 



our hearts to deviate after You have guided us II 'idh (il) may 
also be interpreted in some contexts as signifying causation (Jj£«j), 
as in (43:39) 'oj£ <^ ^ 'f:"^ 1 '4 fj^ lAj ot <^ it w ?7/ 
not avail you today, it is because of your having done wrong that 
you are sharing in the chastisement, and also in an interpretation 
of verse (46:11) ^ li* uA?^ ^ ^ ijj because they 
have not been guided by it, they will say, 'This is an ancient 
fabrication. ' 

|jj 3 idha occurs 423 times in the Qur'an and functions as: I [adverb 
of time indicating the future ( J\iu««\\ jUTj and implying 

conditional dependency (i=> j£&), between its two complements, of 
which the first is always a verbal clause] 'when', 'as in' (23:101) 
"jjkLi Vj m^" 3 ' jjH-ail ,ji ^jj lili wften f/ie Trumpet is 

blown, the ties between them will be as nothing and they will not 
ask about each other. The complements of lil (like those of il, 
q.v.) may elide, if understood from the preceding discourse, and 
become compensated for by compensation nunation (^Jcti 
(q.v., n), as in (23:34) 'aJjJsl lil J&l 'jilj and if you 

obey a mortal like you, you will then definitely lose out. In such 
cases ambiguity may arise between what may be considered as an 
instance of lil or an instance of °jil "idhan (q.v.). lil may, together 
with its two clauses, also express habitual action, as in (4:142) cj\ 

(jiiLill (jjeljJ (_s^-">£ 0L-all Ij^la lil j Ji^cjli. jAj jjcpLaj (jjaaLLall 

iUS V) <M Vj ^ hypocrites try to deceive God, but it is He 

who causes them to be deceived; when they stand up to pray, they 
do so sluggishly, showing off in front of people, and rarely 
remember God. lil is often combined with the so-called 
'redundant' ma (sjSIjII U), which lends emphasis to the entire part 
of the discourse in which it appears giving a meaning of 
'whenever ...' (9:92) ^UVi\ U lil ^jjjJI ^Jc Vj «or « f/iere 
blame attached to those who, whenever they came to you 
[Prophet] to provide them with a mount ... II [particle of surprise 
(also classified as an adverb of place or time) (sLulll <-ij^)] 'all of 
a sudden', 'lo and behold!', 'there it was!', preceding a nominal 
clause, as in (20:20) J>^z lili UUlli he threw it down and-lo 

and behold! -it was a moving snake. 



IjJ/'^jJ 3 idhan occurs 31 times in the Qur'an and indicates 
consequence then, in that case then, it 

would follow...', as in (4:53) o»Uil ^ t> '.Vi 1 "' °f4* ^ 

Ijjij or, Jo f/iey own a share of what He possesses?, if so, then 
they would not give to people [so much as] the groove of the date 
stone, 'jjj which is written in the text of the Qur'an, not with a nun, 
but with an 3 alif (lil), overlaps in various contexts with instances 
of the adverbial lil whose two complements are elided (cf. lit). In 
fact some grammarians consider all occurrences of 'jij as being 
instances of that type of lil. The implication for interpreting these 
ambiguous contexts is significant since 'jij implies consequential 
relation while the adverbial lil implies conditional dependence. 

3 -dh-n ear, to hear; to know, information, to inform; to seek 
permission, to permit; to declare, declaration, to warn. Of this 
root, 12 forms occur in 104 places in the Qur'an: 'ji 3 adhina 19 
times; 'jii 3 udhina six times; 'jil 3 adhdhana three times; jib 
ta'adhdhana twice; 'adhana twice; 'jitL4 'ista'dhana 12 
times; yil 3 adhan once; £pj J id/tn 39 times; cp> mu 3 adhdhin 
twice; Jji 3 udhun five times; pjjif 3 udhunayn once and ijlS 3 adhan 
12 times. 

0$ 3 adhina a I [v. intrans.] 1 to permit, to allow, to give leave 
(78:38) J>^jl1 <U 'jii '<> V] "uj- 4 ^ ^ vw'W «of speak except the 
one to whom the Beneficent gives permission 2 [with prep. —J] to 
listen to, to give ear to, to obey (84:2) £±>i'j and listened 

to its Lord and obeyed 3 [with prep, j] to allow something to be 
done, to sanction (42:21) 'jit '?\ U j/J "j> J4J I j^'_>i 
or have they partners who ordained for them, in matters of faith, 
that which God has not sanctioned? 4 [with prep, j] to be warned 
of (2:279) ^J^jj Aiil J> <-sj=>-j ' jjila I jk£ JJ bp yow do nof [desist 
from consuming interest], then be warned of hostility from God 
and His Messenger II [v. trans, with J 'an + v.] to give one's 
permission, to permit the doing of; to ordain (24:36) 4111 'c$ pjjj ^ 
<2J l^ji jS^j 'J houses [of worship], God has ordained that 
they be raised high and that His name be remembered in them. 

0.if 3 udhina [pass, v.] to be allowed, to be given leave 



23 



(22:39) (4*4 'dJ^k those who are being attacked are 

permitted [to defend themselves] because they have been 
wronged. 

"adhdhana [v. II, intrans. with J "an + v. or with prep, j] to 
declare, to announce publicly, to proclaim (22:27) gkib oljll ^ 
and proclaim the Pilgrimage to humankind. 

£jb ta^adhdhana [v. V, intrans.] to make known, to declare, to 
solemnly proclaim (14:7) J^j'jjjV '?*J&> 'jjJ '^ij 'lP" -fj 
[remember] when your Lord proclaimed, 'If you are thankful, I 
will give you more. ' 

Oil °ddhana [v. IV, trans.] 1 to inform, to apprise, to tell, to 
confess, to admit (41:47) jj^I 'q* li» L> ^JUili I ^Sli ^l^b" btfl '^pli 
a«<i on the Day He calls to them, 'Where are My partners?' they 
will answer, 'We admit to You, not one of us is a witness ' 2 to 
warn (21:109) f\'j>* je- '^ilc JSa but if they turn away, say, 

'I have warned you all in the same way. ' 

^jbLl "ista"dhana [v. X, trans.] to seek permission or leave 
(24:62) j4v> b^ b-^ ^IjjjbLJ lili so if they ask your 

leave to attend to some of their private affairs, allow whomsoever 
of them you wish. 

Oli! "adhan [n./v. n.] proclamation, declaration (9:3) <M b° b'^j 
jisS/l g^JI j>'jj l^UII <1 jl-'jj awe? a proclamation from God and His 
Messenger to all people on the day of the Great Pilgrimage. 

bit 3 idhn [n./v. n.] permission, leave (11:105) b^ ^ P^K*! 
Ajib V) a«<i o« f/ie <fay when [the Day of Resurrection] comes, no 
soul will speak except by His permission. 

bj£ mu'adhdhin [act. part.] public crier (12:70) ^ b- 1 ^ b^ ^ 
'j jS JU 'j^jj 'jjJI f/ien a crier called out, 'You camel riders!, you are 
thieves. ' 

0$ "udhun [n.; dual "udhunayn; pi. b 1 ^ "adhan] ear (2:19) 
p'j^JI 'jik ijcljUl 'j> J^jlili ^ ^'ti I ' i J 'ojI^h they put their fingers 
into their ears to keep out the thunderclaps for fear of death; 
*(9:61) y j* [derogatory] he listens and believes just anything 



24 



that is said to him! [lit. he is an ear, i.e., gullible]; *(18:11) li'jlia 
^jlili (Jc. We sealed their ears or We stopped them hearing [lit. 
We struck on their ears]. 

ts/i/i D -dh-y harm, injury, damage; to wrong, to harm; high 
tumultuous waves. Of this root, three forms occur 24 times in the 
Qur'an: ^ 3 adha 10 times; lspJ 3 udhiya five times and ls^ 3 adhd 
nine times. 

isJl 'flj/ifl [v. IV, trans.] 1 to offend, to trouble, to 
inconvenience, to malign, to affront (33:53) ^jill csPjy 'iP- "dfor 
that inconveniences the Prophet 2 to punish, to take to task (4:16) 
Uijila (J'Mj if any two of you commit [a lewd act] 

punish them both. 

"udhiya [pass, of v. IV] 1 to be harmed, to be injured, to 
be persecuted (6:34) Ujlaj '^d\ jSk Ijijj a?ici were persecuted 
until Our aid came to them 2 to be molested, accosted, harassed, 
solicited (33:59) I> 'cx$e- lh*°>^ 9^4j '<^fj ^MjjV ^1 1*3^ 
'Jjjjj !Xi 'ja'jiu 'J ^ dlli Prophet, tell your wives, your 

daughters and women of the believers to draw their garments 
over them-this is more likely to make them recognisable and so 
not be harassed. 

j'A 3 adhd [n./v. n.] 1 disease, affliction, injury, ailment, to 
trouble (2:196) A£js <Jj °q* lS^» t-t j *o if any of 

you is ill, or has an ailment of the scalp, he should compensate 2 
ill-treatment, offence, insult (3:186) !> IjSjl 'jjill 'q* (yLL&j 
I'jjjS ^il I jSj^il 'jjjll °»SLa awe? yow are swre fo hear from those 
who were given the scripture before you, and from those who 
associate others with God, a lot of insults 3 little hurt, trifling 
damage (3:111) ij$ V] '^JJ^u y they will never [be able to] inflict 
on you but a trifling damage 4 hardship, inconvenience, to be 
afflicted by affliction (4:102) '} ;> ^il ^ y '£$c c Uk Vj 
^Sjkli I 'jl LS ^J* °fi& it is no sin for you to lay aside your arms 
if you are afflicted by heavy rain or illness 5 painful condition, 
impurity, soiling (2:222) ^ii ji Ja ^IjjlLyj a«(i f/iey as£ 

you [Prophet] about menstruation, say, 'Menstruation is an 
impurity/painful condition. ' 



25 



ij/j/i °-r-b power, purpose, need; knot; intelligent, resourceful, able 
and fit. Of this root, aj'J 3 irbatun and Ls ju ma°drib occur once 
each in the Qur'an. 

Aj'J "irbatun [n./v. n.] sexual desire, potency, sexual capability; 
desire for women (24:31) Jp- 'ogJcH J ... bfc^j*^ VI b<s%j "ui^ Vj 
. . . Jlkjl 't> <jjVI J jl a«<i «of to reveal their charms except to 
their husbands ...or such men as attend them who have no sexual 
desire .... 

Lijt» ma* drib [pi. of n. AjjL ma^rubatun] purposes, uses 
(20:18) (j j^-l v J-° fe? cs^j t^r^ I*; (_A*t? ^* if w 

my stajf, I lean on it; I beat down leaves with it for my sheep (or, I 
restrain my sheep with it) and I have other uses for it. 

o^/j/i 3 -r-d the earth, earth, land; to be flat; to be fatty; to be 
touched. Of this root, 3 ard occurs 46 1 times in the Qur' an. 

L£j °ard [n.] 1 [with the definite article —II] the Earth (16:3) 
jklj lya'JiVj pl'jaUl tjk He created the heavens and the Earth in 
truth 2 land, soil (36:33) IaL&jM a£J £>ajVl QQVj and a sign for 
them is the dead land, We bring it to life 3 ground (50:44) jLiu 'fjj 
Icl'ju ' f 4i. IpajVl w/?oti f/ie Day when the ground is split asunder 
from about them, and [humankind] emerges in haste 4 country, 
land (20:57) <J>* J*\i ^='J i> l^j^ have you come to 

drive us from our land with your sorcery, Moses? 5 domain 
(29:56) jj^li ^Qi AkJj l ^a'J I 'oiiSI My believing 

servants!, My domain is vast, so worship Me and Me alone; 
*(12:9) llajl I j^jjal j ^jl-jj I jiSI Joseph or cast him forth in 
some land [lit. throw him on the ground]. 

^/j/S °-r-k lote-tree, to feed on such a tree, to stay put near such 
trees; couches, soft furnishings. Of this root, e&l'J °ara°ik occurs 
five times in the Qur'an. 

iM'ji 3 ara 3 ik [pi. of n. "afikatun] couches (18:31) V*j5 "o^si 
iiljl jS/l (Jc. therein they will be reclining on couches. 

°iram [proper name occurring once in the Qur'an] name of the 



26 



legendary capital city of °ad (q.v.) (89:6-7) jUu Jai i_iS ji jj 
pLuJI pli f J j /iave jom considered how your Lord dealt with the 
people of c dd, of 3 iram, the city of lofty pillars! 

The place is also linked with the Prophet Hud, who was sent to 
the people of c ad. A number of classical commentators also speak 
of 3 iram in the context of a tribe. 

j/j/i °-z-r back; strength; to encompass; wrap, loin cloth; to support, 
to brace, to back up. Of this root, two forms occur once each in 
the Qur'an: jjl 3 azara and "Jj 3 azr. 

jjT 3 azara [v. IV, trans.] to back up, to prop up, to bolster, to 
strengthen (48:29) *&y* jfe. is'jLAk yj&Ai s'jjla sii^. like a 

seed that puts forth its shoot, and strengthens it, and grows thick, 
and rises straight upon its stalks. 

jjl °azr [v. n./n.] power, strength, capability (20:31) csj'J *-i 
augment my strength through him. 

jjT °dzar (see alphabetically j/j/S 3 -z-f). 

J/J/1 '-z-z to whiz, to buzz, to hum; to agitate, to shake up, to incite, 
to stir up. Of this root, two forms occur once each in the Qur'an: 

jjj ta°uzz and j 3 azz. 

jjh ta'uzz [imperf. of v. j 3 azza, trans.; v. n. S J 3 azz] to set in 
confusion, to stampede, to confuse (19:83) jc osJallill UL»'j li jj jJ 
Ijl JJkjjj "jjjilill Ziave yow «of considered that We let the devils 
loose on the disbelievers to confuse and incite them [to sin]. 

ui/j/i °-z-f to draw near, to be in a hurry, to be cowardly. Of this 
root, two forms occur three times in the Qur'an: <_ijl 3 azifa once 
and 3 al- 3 azifatu twice. 

•-•J 3 az.ifa a [v. intrans.] to draw near (53:57) pa J the 
imminent Hour draws near. 

AijVI 3 al- 3 az.ifatu [act. part./n.] that which is approaching, an 
epithet of the Day of Judgement (40:18) ls'j! L> jHI jj <ajVI 'fjj jJkjiij 
and warn them of the ever-approaching Day, when the 



27 



hearts are next to the throats. 
jJalJ ^asatir (see j/Ja/o« s-t-r). 
Jallul 3 ashat (see ^/ij/<_h s-b-t). 

(jjjluil 'istabraq [borrowing from Persian occurring four times in the 
Qur'an] thick silk material, brocade (55:54) |> I^LLj JSja ^ "o^° 
jjfU are reclining on couches lined with brocade. 

j' ala j 3 ishaq [proper name of Hebrew origin occurring 14 times in 
the Qur'an] Prophet Isaac (Gen. XX.2) (12:6) Jc'j £j 
jUlulj ^jAlj^j Jja 'qa 'ijL'JA je. US 1-jjSju Jc cmc? //e perfects His 
blessing on you and the House of Jacob, just as He perfected it 
earlier on your two forefathers, Abraham and Isaac. 

The Qur'an speaks of how the birth of Isaac was promised to 
Abraham despite his wife's advanced age, and how she met the 
news with utter astonishment (11:71 and 15:53). Isaac is often 
mentioned in the company of other distinguished prophets. 

j/oV' °s-r shield, shackles, bondage, to shackle, to capture; captive; 
family, limbs, physique, body structure. Of this root, five forms 
occur six times in the Qur'an: qJjJ& ta'siriin once; "jJ "asr once; 
"jjJ 3 asir once; is'jJ 3 asra twice and i/jliJ 'usara once. 

ta^sir [imperf. of v. 'jJ 3 asara, trans.] to take as prisoner 
of war, to take as captive (33:26) lifjs 'oJjJ^j 'oj£& some of 
them you killed and some you took captive. 

>J 3 asr [n.] physique, build, bodily structure; constitution 
(76:28) °{a'JJ U&5j JJkUsk J>j We it is who have fashioned them 
and strengthened their constitution. 

jj-J J aslr [n./quasi-pass. part.; pi. ^'jJ 3 asrd and JjA 3 usdra\ 
prisoner of war (8:70) ^^11^ 'J\ ^'jjj] J> J±'cy& i$ UjIU 
'f&u> ia.1 Ijji '^jj \"JiL °=^jjJ5 Prophet, tell the war captives in your 
hands, 'If God knows of any good in your hearts, He will give you 
better than what has been taken from you. ' 



28 



JjjIjLI ^isra'il [proper name of Hebrew origin occurring 43 times in 
' the Qur'an] 1 Prophet Jacob (cf. Gen. XXXII.28) (19:58) £ji I>j 
Lujjklj li'ji "(^.j Jjjl>«lj ^Al'Jjl and of the seed of Abraham and 
Israel— and of those We guided and chose 2 the Children of Israel 
*(10:90) Jjjljl«j the Children of Israel, the Jewish People; * ^ 
JjjljJ name of Sura 17, Meccan sura, also called 3 al- 3 isra 3 , so- 
named because of the reference in verses 4-8 to the 'Children of 
IsraeV (see ls/j/lh s-r-y). 

0»/o»/5 '-s-s beginning, root, foundation, to found. Of this root, J>£J 
"assasa occurs twice in the Qur' an. 

"assasa [v. II trans.] to found, to establish, to base 

(9)109) (jJt ^-tajj (jalul '(jx J>l Jji. tj'j^JJ US" <-Sj^ (jalul '(j^oal 

jU t_ijk lil z'j he who founds his building on consciousness of 
God and desire for His good pleasure better, or the one who 
founds his building on the brink of a crumbling precipice? 

i-i/o»/1 3 -s-f sadness, anger, sorrow, to offend. Of this root, three 
forms occur five times in the Qur'an: UlJ 3 asafa once; <-»J J asaf 
twice and <_»J 3 asif twice. 

duA 3 asafa [v. IV, trans.] to be offensive, to act in an offensive 
manner, to challenge, to be contentious (43:55) l&Sul U jiUi Ilia 
w/ien f/iey became contentious with Us, We punished them. 

ulU 'asaf [n./v. n. used adverbially] sorrow, grief; in sorrow, 
grieving (18:6) Ul»l £i&jsJI I j^Jj JJ °j] ^ ^Lij j^iL dllkla are 

you [Prophet] going to torment yourself to death grieving over 
them if they do not believe in this message?; *(12:84) jc. 
<— ah!, my terrible grief for Joseph! (with the open long vowel 
/a/ replacing the 1 st person sing, pronominal suffix I for emphasis 
... i jJ Gya °asafi ... ! > ... uJ Uya 3 asaf a ... !). 

i-ijui °asif [quasi-intens. act. part.] very angry, most indignant, 
aggrieved, grieving, very sad (7:150) 'jUl^c. ^j 5 <A <J*J*'£*j 
liJ a«(i w/zen Moses returned to his people, angry and aggrieved. 

f. 3 asmd° (see j/f»/o" s-m-w). 



29 



JjcIaJ ^isma c il [proper name of Hebrew origin occurring 12 times in 
the Qur'an] Prophet Ishmael (cf. Gen. XVI. 12), (19:54) J jkilj 
4h V jl-'j "o^j d- 2 ^ 1 M Jj?^"] and mention in the 

Book Ishmael, he was true to his promise, and was a messenger 
and a prophet. 

The Qur'an speaks of Ishmael' s role in helping his father 
construct the Ka c ba (2:125); and the famous sacrifice (see f/A/j/s 1 
b-r-h-m for 3 ibrahim); he, like his brother Isaac, is mentioned in 
conjunction with other distinguished prophets, confirming the 
sacred continuum which Islam sees as binding earlier prophetic 
figures to Muhammad. 

0/q*/\ 3 -s-n relic; (of water) to become putrid, to be overcome with 
fumes from such water; to take after one's father. Of this root, 
pj e 3 asin occurs once in the Qur' an. 

CyJ'f- "asin [quasi-act. part.] polluted, putrid, stinking (47:15) 
jl^il in it there are rivers of water unpolluted. 

j-j/o*f\ "-s-w/y cure, medicine; to console; sadness; to treat 
equally; model, exemplar; pillar. Of this root, two forms occur 
seven times in the Qur'an: 3 asa four times and s'^J °uswatun 
three times. 

"asa [v. IV, intrans.] to sorrow, to grieve (7:93) JJi 
'jjjal£ ?°js JSc so how can I grieve for a people of disbelievers? 

VjJ) 'uswatun [n.] model, exemplar (33:21) J jl« j J^J 'jk jft 
s'j^f Aill you have had in the Messenger of God a good model, 
for those who put their hope in God and the Last Day. 

j/o*/1 D -sh-r teeth of a saw, to cut; to trace; to be ungrateful. Of this 
root, "jd 3 ashir occurs twice in the Qur'an. 

j«l "ashir [quasi-intens. act. part.] ingrate; insolent, incorri- 
gible (54:25) "jd CJik ji Jj U£j '(> 'jkill ^ilj! /las f/ie Message 
been sent down upon him out of all of us? [No indeed], rather he 
is an incorrigible liar! 



30 



j/o^/S D -s-d (this root overlaps with root j/u^/j w-s-d because of the 
dialectal difference in pronouncing hamza as a pure vowel) 
sleeveless undergarment, to wear such a garment; animal pen; 
courtyard; to shut tightly. Of this root, s'i^> mu^sadatun occurs 
twice in the Qur' an. 

Si^ajii mu 'sadatun (also musadatun) [pass, part.] closed, 

shut, engulfing (104:8) s'.s^>> J^jlc. t^jj z'f z's closed on them. 

jlo*f\ "-s-r rope, tie, connection, relation; an undertaking; promise, 
vow; load, burden. Of this root, jlaj 'isr occurs three times in the 
Qur' an. 

>ual 3 isr [n.] 1 load, burden (7:157) ^1 J^Vlj J«A>-al ° f 4£. 

a«(i He relieves them of their burdens, and the shackles 
that were upon them 2 promise, vow, agreement, pledge, 
covenant (3:81) lsjH 'f^j '£'Jj$* do you affirm? [He 

said], and do you agree and take My pledge concerning this? 

J/oa/i 3 -s-l base, root, foundation; to be deep-rooted; to eradicate; 
time before sunset. Of this root, four forms occur 10 times in the 
Qur' an: JlJ "asl twice; J 'usul once; iS^J. J asll four times and 
Jt^J "asal three times. 

JuaS "asl [n.] 1 bottom, base (37:64) JlJ ^ J/jij s'jku l^ij 
z'f w a tree that emerges in the bottom of the blazing Fire 2 [pi. 
J j^l 3 usul] root, stem (59:5) 1*1 >-al ^ a^jII U jk&'ji jl JjJ '(> °>S*iaa U 

jiUa whatever palm trees you have cut down or left standing on 
their roots-fit was done] by God's leave. 

Jj—al "asil [n.; pi. Jlioi "asal] time before sunset, evening 

everything that is in the heavens and the Earth prostrates to God 
in the mornings and in the evenings, as do their shadows, 
willingly or unwillingly; *(33:42) ^-=>lj and glorify 

Him [morning and evening] constantly, at all times. 

ui/ui/S °-f-f dirt under the nails or in the ear; contamination; 
grumbling, complaint, to grumble. Of this root, Uil "uffin occurs 



31 



three times in the Qur'an. 

* i 

til 'uffin [interjection described by grammarians as a quasi- 
imperfect verb iM ^)] word uttered in exasperation 
expressing displeasure or impatience, 'ugh!', 'fie!' (21:67) '^S\ « — if 
aIII jji '(> 'jjiSu UJj /?e o« yow arcc? on f/ze fm'ngs yow worship 
instead of God. 

j/ui/S '^-g rolls of tanned leather; ways, direction, horizon; to roam 
about. Of this root, two forms occur three times in the Qur'an: &\ 
3 ufuq twice and jlii °afaq once. 

jal "ufuq [n.; pi. jllT 3 a/ao] 1 horizon (53:7) fjch\ J&Ij j*j 
wMe he stood on the highest horizon 2 the four corners of the 
earth, everywhere (41:53) ^ '6m J**- <J'j tj '^j^ 
j^JI ii We will show them Our signs everywhere and in 
themselves, until it becomes clear to them that it is the Truth. 

<i!/ui/S "-f-k falsehood, to lie, to deceive, to beguile; to turn upside 
down, to change the manner of things; to turn away, to dissuade. 
Of this root, six forms occur 27 times in the Qur'an: '^6 ta'fik 
three times; yu 3 fak 13 times; *<M °ifk nine times; tdlil 'affak 
twice; a££> mu'tafikatun once and CjI££> mu'tafikat twice. 

&tii ta 3 fik [imperf. of v. M °afaka (also '<M °afika) trans.; pass, 
v. ^lii 'ufika] 1 to turn away from, particularly with guile and 
deceit (46:22) IsSjlli °jc USiUl IibJ 1 jJla fney srac?, '//ave yow come to 
turn us away from our gods?' 2 to fabricate, to fake, to feign 
(7:117) oj£lt ^ iJ >& ^ Ijji au^c jjl 'j lii-jfj f/iew We 

inspired Moses, 'Throw your staff,' and-lo and heholdl-it 
devoured what they had fabricated. 

°ifk [n./v. n.] 1 falsehood, lie, a false slander (25:4) 'cJ& JlSj 
«lj5al £*lal V) Ija 'J I jjaS fwe unbelievers said, 'This is but a lie he has 
made up' 2 p&yi 3 al-°ifK\ the false accusation of unchastity 
brought against c a°isha, the Prophet's wife (24:11) 'jjill oj 
J^ia ijLac. u&yb those who brought the false slander were a group 
from among you. 

The narrative of the °ifk incident (24:11-40) stems from an 



32 



incident which occurred during a military expedition. The 
Prophet's wife c a 3 isha lost her necklace and returned to search for 
it; however, the convoy she was travelling with had departed 
without her. It was assumed that she was riding in the hawdaj of 
her camel. Subsequently, c a 3 isha was found by a companion who 
escorted her back to the encampment. It was insinuated that she 
could have been involved in adultery; the Qur'an fully exonerated 
her, describing the charge as an abject falsehood Cifk). 

^affak [intens. act. part.] an incorrigible liar (26:221-2) J» 
f£i dilai J£ jis. Jjjj ^Jallill Jj2 '(> JSs. J^iii shall I tell you who the 
devils come down to ?, they come down to every lying sinner. 

IsJU'^a mu 'tafikatun [act. part, fem.; pi. mu 'tafikat] that 

which is turned upside down, overthrown, subverted, the cities 
which were turned upside down, or subverted, such as the city of 
Lot (q.v.) (9:70) pUjiL £JS£y»l\j 'jjia iJklJj and the 

peoples of Midian and the overthrown cities, their messengers 
came to them with clear proofs. 

J/ui/S 3 -f-l (of a female's milk) to decrease; (of planets and stars) to 
set; to be absent or go away from. Of this root, two forms occur 
four times in the Qur'an: Jal °afala three times and o0 "afilin 
once. 

JaS "afala u [v. intrans.] to set (6:78) Ija JIS <c.jtj JaliJI J\'j Ilia 
'qjS j2Z Cm jj (^jj ^'jalj JIS cM Ilia l& f/iew when he saw the 
sun rising he cried, 'This is my Lord! This is greater', but when 
the sun set, he said, 'My people, I disown all that you associate 
[with Him]. ' 

^afilin [pi. of act. part. Jal °afil] that which sets (6:76) Ilia 
'jjlaVI LuJ V JIS Jil His ^jj li» JIS ^IJ JjjJll <Jc ^jk when the night 
grew dark over him he saw a star and said, 'This is my Lord, ' but 
when it set, he said, T do not like things that set. ' 

Ciiaf ^uqqitat (see ^/<j/j w-q-t). 

J/d/i 3 -k-l food; yield; morsel; to eat, to consume, to devour; to 



33 



erode; to become enraged. Of this root, six forms occur 110 times 
in the Qur'an: js! 3 akala 93 times; jkt °akl four times; jjkl 
^akilun three times; jj^ °akkalun once; JjSL ma"kul once and 
jsf ^ukul seven times. 

jki 'afe/fl u [v. trans., v. n. jkl °akl] 1 to eat (20:121) l^u S^ti 
U^jI'j^, U4J ^"4a so f/iey feof/i ate from it, and their private parts 
appeared to them 2 to feed, graze, pasture (7:73) aX* J^l -dll aIU 5 ii, 

(ji'J ^ Jflj U jjia w Go^'s she-camel-a sign for you-so let 
/ier graze in Gocf 's /awe? 3 to consume, devour (3:183) "cj I jlS 'jjill 
jllll <Hj jUjL liulj (jjk Jjl-'jl 't>3j S/1 14I) j^c f/iose w/io say, 'God 
has made covenant with us not to believe in any messenger until 
he brings to us a sacrifice to be consumed by fire' 4 to consume, 
appropriate (2:188) JJalilj I jKt Vj a«<i Jo «of consume 

each other's property wrongfully 5 to squander, waste away (4:6) 

Ij'jjii 'J Ijljjj lal'JJ UjKti an<i test orphans until they reach 
marriageable age; then, if you find they have sound judgement, 
hand over their property to them-do not squander it wastefully 
and in haste before they come of age 6 to charge, to exact wages 
or compensation for one's trouble (4:6) i>j 1 aakluula °(>j 
■_ij'J^Jlj JSUia I'jjSs whoever /of f/ie guardians ] is well-off let him 
abstain [from charging for managing the orphan's property], and 
whoever is poor let him charge in accordance with the norms; 
*(5:66) f-s-IVj i>j f*?j3 'qa \ they would have been blessed 
in this and the coming Life [lit. they would have eaten both from 
what is above them and from what is beneath them] 7 to accept 
for one's use, to annex (4:4) 'jc. '^Sl '^Ja «Jkj ^jjliila illall Ijjltj 
11,^ liui ojka llij A-L« g/ve women their dowries as a 

[ statutory ] gift [ upon marriage ], but if they are happy to give up 
some of it for you, you may accept it by all means [lit. you may 
eat it with health and pleasure- giving appetite]. 

3 akilun [pi. of act. part. <J£l °dkil] those who eat (37:66) 
'jjJajJI "jjjjJUi l^ia 'jjkv J44-3 ^<?y will surely be eating from it, 
and filling bellies from [some of[ it. 

^jiliS 3 akkdlun [pi. of intens. act. part. Jlkl J akkal] ones who 
devour, ones who are given to devouring; greedy (5:42) "jj^l^ 



34 



eagerly listening to falsehood and greedily 
consuming the unlawful. 

JjkL ma 'kul [pass, part.] that which is eaten, grazed, cropped, 
gnawed, devoured (105:5) JjSL <. //e macfe f/iem //fce 

dried foliage that had been grazed to stubble. 

JSI 'wfcwZ [n.] yield (2:265) d**^ l*Jsl JJj l«xJ s'jijj ^ 
/j&e a garden on a hill-heavy rainfalls and it produces double its 
[normal] yield. 

1\ ^al- the definite article (<-ijJ^I sli) occurring some 8865 times in 
the Qur' an. It is prefixed to a common indefinite noun (s j& ^J), 
and functions as: I cognisance (aIs^JI J), particularising the noun 
to which it is prefixed on the grounds that 1 it is already 
mentioned in the discourse, for example l>j*> J\ in (73:15-16) US 
JjLjll 'Jj^'ji ls ^xk V Jjc'ja UL.J as We sent a messenger to 
Pharaoh, but Pharaoh disobeyed the messenger 2 it is assumed to 
be common knowledge such as (_>«uill, JJ1I, and in 

(36:40) 'J^& 'J Ul t^^jj oU^I ^ if i-s not for the sun to overtake 
the moon 3 it is physically present at the time of speaking such as 
f jA\ in (5:3) J^jj '^1 cjLSI ^11 toJay / have perfected your religion 
for you. These three types have their counterparts in the use of the 
definite article 'the' in English II generic "al (& «n \\ 
generalising the common noun to which it is prefixed by 1 
embracing all and every one of its members i J\ £^ $ >jU) 
(o»3aJI, such as jluuVI (translatable not with 'the' but as 
'humankind') in (4:28) lijt'.ii tjkj /or humankind was 

created weak 2 embracing all and every one of its attributes 
((_>uiaJ ^U^k jl'jJulul), also designated as the 'a/ of perfection 
(JLaSlI Jl), such as (translatable as 'the Book', with great 

emphasis on 'the', or as 'the very Book') in (2:2) Luj ^ M^SS ^ 
"jjjiillJ (jii 4ja fft/j « f/ie perfect Book in which there is no doubt, 
containing guidance for those who are mindful of God, or 3 
pointing to the main quality or essence of the nature of the noun 
such as eUJI (translatable into English as 'water' with no definite 
article) in (21:30) ^ J£ ?U1! 't> j and We fashioned from 
water every living thing. Distinguishing between instances of the 



35 



cognisance 3 al and the generic 3 al in various instances may cause 
interpretational problems. A case in point is the following verse 
in which type 11:3 of the generic 3 al occurs but could easily be 
confused with type 1:2 of the cognisance "al (6:89) 'jjill '<M j 

'jjjjilSj I^j I jlul Igj UKj !& j-Vja I^j 'jli Sjlill j jȣaJj s-ta^' those 
[messengers who have been previously mentioned] are the ones 
to whom We gave scripture, wisdom and prophethood [all with 
generic :, al] but if these [people now] disbelieve in them, then 
indeed We [already] have entrusted them [referring to the three 
institutions, but not a specific book or creed] to a people who do 
not disbelieve in them. 

Vi °ala initiation and interjection particle (^lji£J sli), occurring 54 
times in the Qur'an. It lends particular emphasis to the context in 
general and functions in three ways: I attention drawing particle 
Uija.), 'indeed 'surely 'alas It may precede 
either a nominal sentence, as in (2:13) !>l» l^S I jiali '^1 Ijjj 
'jjllij V 'jSTj il^JI J4jj vi il^JI 't>li US Jja^jl I Jil when it is said 
to them, 'Believe, as the others believe, ' they say, 'Should we 
believe like the fools have done?' Indeed they are the fools, 
though they do not know it or a verbal sentence, as in (11:8) 'cfij 

// We fife/ay f/ie chastisement until a reckoned appointment they 
are sure to say, 'What is detaining it?', alas, on the Day it comes 
upon them, it will not be averted from them II gentle 
encouragement particle (o^j^ ^lf-), 'wouldn't you ...?', as in 
(37:91) 'oj&z VI <Jlis so he turned to their gods and 

said, 'Won 't you eat! ' III strong encouragement particle u> j*.) 
(u Ki ' ^s 'will [you] not ...?', as in (26:11) 'uj£j Sfl the 
people of Pharaoh, will they not take heed? 

3 al- 3 ana (see &/j-^f\ °-y/w-n). 

cj/J/S '-/-f oath; decrease, to decrease, to reduce; to prevent, to deny. 
Of this root, UjJ 3 alatna occurs once in the Qur'an. 

cA J alata i [v. trans.] to reduce, to suffer someone, to deny, to 
receive less than their dues (52:21) pUub J44ji 1 jh^* "oa^j 



36 



f.'^A °(> '^Lc '{ja '^Usl! Uj J44jj }h and those who believe and 
whose descendants follow them in the faith, We cause their 
descendants to join them, and We do not deny them any of [ the 
reward for] their deeds. 

jS 3 alif-lam-ra, a letter combination initiating each of Suras 10, 11, 
12, 14 and 15. It is one of twelve such combinations, each of 
which is formed from one or more, up to five, of fourteen letters 
of the alphabet (namely: i, ^, j, ^ oa, J=, j, <4 J, f , j, —a and cs) 
and initiating a total of 29 suras of the Qur'an. Each of the 
combinations, designated by Qur'anic scholars as cjULaJ (the 
separated letters), are recited as names of the letters in its/their 
pausal forms (i.e., with a sukuri), e.g. °alif, lam, ra. Because we 
have no hadith from the Prophet as to the significance of these 
letters, Qur'anic scholars have been offering various opinions as 
to what they stand for, although none of these opinions is 
regarded as authoritative. 3 al-Razi in his 3 al-tafsir 3 al-kabir and 
3 al-Suyuti in his 3 al- 3 itqan fi c ulum 3 al-Qur'an offer good 
accounts of these opinions. It is sufficient, however, to mention 
two such opinions here: 1 the letters are a reminder to the Arabs, 
who first heard the Qur'an, of their inability to match the 
eloquence of the language of the Qur'an, in spite of the fact that 
the raw material from which the Qur'an was formed, namely the 
individual letters, such as those making up these combinations, 
was a common property shared by everybody 2 these letters are 
exclamatory devices intended to arrest the listeners' attention, 
somewhat similar to the custom of starting poems with an 
emphatic 'No!' or 'Indeed!' for a similar purpose. Exegetes 
normally add after expounding such theories, 'God knows best.' 

i— ii/tJ/i D -l-f(l) thousand; to put together, bring together; to habituate; 
to get accustomed; to soften up; intimate; mate. Of this root, 
seven forms occur 22 times in the Qur'an: (—ill 3 allafa five times; 
<il> mu 3 allafatun once; u£U 3 Ilaf twice; « — ill 3 alf 10 times; 
3 alfayn once; <-«Sn 3 aldf twice and jit 3 uluf once. 

lM 'allafa [v. II, intrans. with adverb q±>] 1 to join together, to 
gather together, to compile (24:43) ^ ^jy P i^-'ji ^ *J y 



37 



i]*kj p do you not see that God drives the clouds, then 
gathers them together, then makes them into a heap? 2 to 
reconcile (3:103) Ul^jaJ 'fl^LAk ^jla uJli il'jc.1 J^iS ij when 
you were enemies, then He reconciled your hearts together and 
you, by His grace, became brothers. 

X&'Ja mu 3 allafatun [pass, part.] one who is softened up, 
reconciled *(9:60) J4^jJS 4il>J j new convert to the faith [lit. those 
whose hearts are being reconciled]. 

ufcy 3 llaf [v. n.] reconciling, habituating; composing; securing 
(106:1) J^J m^jV [He did this] in order to make Quraysh secure 
(or, to keep Quraysh together as a cohesive unit, or, to help them 
continue with their summer and winter journeys). 

till 3 <z// [card, no.; dual 'alfayn; pi. of paucity <_Wl pi. 
i-i jll 1 one thousand (29:14) <_il! J^ja LLJa 4^5 Jl Ikjj uL'J jSTj 

lllc 'jiu^a. V] fi* We sercf Noah out to his people, and he 
stayed among them for fifty years short of a thousand 2 a great 
amount (2:96) *±* Liil 'Juu 'J JJkikt 'ijj a«y o/ them would long to be 
granted longevity for a very long time [lit. a thousand years]. 

tiiS 3 alif (2) the letter 'a/// represents a long vowel, somewhat open 
front (or back depending on the phonetic context in which it 
appears). Unlike the hamza, it does not function as one of the 
three radicals of the Arabic root and it does not initiate words, 
hence the absence, in dictionaries, of a letter 3 alif section. In 
addition to the various roles the 3 alif generally plays as a basic 
morpheme of the Arabic language and as a grapheme in the 
standard system of the orthography, it functions in the Qur'anic 
text in particular as: la substitute for the light nun of 
augmentation (Ujiill jjill <_iS) (cf. n.), in the two verses (12:32) 
'jjjcllall 't> ('jjj jSj!) U jSolj "o^A he shall assuredly be imprisoned 
and shall be one of the degraded and (96:15) 4i^Ulb ('jkiuiil) Uwl 
We shall seize him by the forelock and 2 the 'alif of extension ( <_iS 
<Lail), added in some verses to the end of certain words 
terminated mfatha, as in (18:38) Jfj j* U£l but, for me, He is 
God, my Lord; (76:4) X^L. 'jjjalkll Ujjc.1 We have prepared for the 
disbelievers chains and (76:16) 'f^4 I> IjjJjS goblets of silver. 



38 



The final 3 alif in l&l, and IjjJj 5 is pronounced in Qur'anic 

recitation as a short vowel and the words are thus rendered as s j£l, 
and jj/jS respectively 3 non-functional (following an earlier 
system of orthography where the fatha was replaced by the °alif, 
this was retained later), as in (27:21) -u^ilS/ } IjalS U'Sc '<^'Sch I 
shall punish him severely, or slay him. 

J/J/S 3 -l-l lightening; sharpening; agitation; yearning; family ties; 
pledge, covenant. Of this root, J) 3 ill occurs twice in the Qur'an. 

a >>.>., 

Jl °ill [n.] pact, relationship, tie (9:8) ^ 1 V I jj^ ci'j 
A!a,j Vj V] if they get the better of you, they will not observe 
towards you any tie of kinship or treaty. 

VI °illa, particle occurring 657 times in the Qur'an and functioning 
as: I an exceptive particle (*tuiJ i-ijk), 'except 'save for 
(2:249) °4-^> ^ VI '<i* but they all drank [deeply] from it, 
except for a few II in the meaning of adjectival (q.v.) 
'different from', 'other than' (21:22) t&Jj A V] l^'jk'Ji if 
there had been in them [ the heavens and earth ] deities other than 
God, both the heavens and earth would be in ruins III in the 
meaning of 'but...' (J;), (q.v.) (20:2-3) VI J&l cfr'Ji urj U 
(jiij '(>ls'jSij ;Y was ?iof to distress you [Prophet] that We sent 
down the Qur'an to you, but [We sent it] as a reminder for those 
who stand in awe [of God]. 

3 alld°i (see ^ iSl 3 alladhi). 

cm 3 allot (see Ci/j/J /-w-0- 

^5UI 3 allatl (see ^ill 3 alladhi). 

<^l 3 allati (see ^ IB °alladhi). 

(jlilS "alladhani (see ^iil "alladhl). 

(i,jJI "alladhi, masc. sing, relative pronoun (jku j jLJl Jj^,^ ^1) 
occurring 304 times in the Qur'an, who/he who; which/that which 



39 



(43:13) Ija til ji-u ^1 'jtaji» g^ory fee to Him who subjugated all 
this to us; jliM {"alladhani), masc. dual (j£ull <Jiwl), (> (jjilil 
( : ' alladhayni) in the accusative and genitive cases) occurring 
twice in the Qur'an (41:29) o^Vlj JjaJI 'j^ t&LiJ Jlill U J t£j owr 
Lord, s/iow f/iose o/ f/ie jinn a«<i ffee humans who have led us 
astray; 'jjill ( :, alladhfna) masc. pi. (jSiJ £-s-U) occurring 1073 
times in the Qur'an (21:101) li» J41 bi^ b] £&ose /or 

whom [a promise of] the reward most fair has already been given 
by Us; JjH (°allati) fem. sing. (ASs^ll sijiJ) occurring 68 times in 
the Qur'an (58:1) aIh Jj ^^is'j kf-'jj ^ 4iii ^ jj ill ^ 'i God 
/ias heard the words of her who disputes with you [Prophet] 
concerning her husband and complains to God; jtilll ( 3 allatani) 
fem. dual (iiu>JI (no instance of which occurs in the 

Qur'an); J&l ("allatl), fem. pi. j-akl) occurring 10 times in 

the Qur'an (12:50) '6*^ ^ ^51) J) £f°J go 

back to your master and ask him about those women who slashed 
their hands; variant ^^Ul ("alia"!), fem. pi. (lIujIII occurring 
four times in the Qur'an (58:2) J4^j t*^' 'u\ none are 

their mothers except those who gave birth to them. Relative 
pronouns when used in combination with nouns or pronouns 
bring great emphasis to the discourse (35:9) ^Ujll J^'J ^ill <&lj z'f w 
Gog? w/io sends forth the winds; (40:13) ajUI* ^Sjjj ^1 ja //e if w 
w/io shows you His signs. Members of the "alladhl paradigm are 
considered as definite. However, in some contexts they may 
occur in the sense of 'anyone', 'anybody' or 'whoever', e.g. in 
(4:16) U«* jli '^kL tgjtut jfiMj j/flwy ftvo of you commit [a lewd act] 
punish them both. 

'jjjJI "alladhina (see <|iil "alladhT). 

f/J/l (1) J -/-m pain, ache, to feel pain; baseness. Of this root, two 
forms occur 75 times in the Qur'an: qJJg taHamun three times 
and jLJ ^alim 72 times. 

pfc ta^lam [imperf. of v. ji "alima, intrans.] to feel pain, to feel 
hardship (4:104) 'j_>»lb t«S 'jj-alu J44i 'jj^lb IjjjS y if you are 
suffering pain, they are also suffering pain as you are suffering. 



40 



jLdl 3 alim [quasi-intens. act. part.] very painful (41:43) jil 'J\ 
fj] t-ilic jjj Sjii^ your Lord is Lord of forgiveness, but also of 
painful chastisement. 

ffl (2) : ' alif-lam-rriim letter combination initiating Suras 2, 3, 29, 30, 
31 and 32 (see jfl 3 alif-ldm-ra). 

>»S ' alif-lam-mlm-ra letter combination initiating Sura 13 (see jJI 
°alif-ldm-rd). 

<jA»Ji 3 alif-lam-mim-sad letter combination initiating Sura 7 (see jfl 
3 alif-ldm-ra). 

— fc/J/S -'-/-/i old Semitic root denoting deity of which various forms 
occur in all Semitic languages. Of this root, five forms occur 
1139 times in the Qur'an: AJI 'j'/a/z 111 times; Jj*!] "ilahayn twice; 

v< > - 

a^JT "alihatun 34 times; Jil 'aZ/a/i 982 times and ^1 3 allahumma 
five times. 

ill "Z/a/i [n.; dual jj$J] "ilahayn; pi. "alihatun] 1 deity, god, 
worshipped object (19:81) Ijc. ^ 1 j 3 ^ uj j i> 1 j^l'j and 
they have taken for themselves [other] gods, beside God, that they 
might be for them a support 2 God (37:4) Vjl j^j b) fnt/y your 
God is one 3 guiding force (45:23) cjjri] consider 

the one who has taken his own desire as a guiding force. 

ill 3 allah [proper name, described by philologists as 'the most 
definite of all definites' (<_ijlk*il <-ijM)] God, the True and Only 
One (112:1) Ski aIii > He is God the One. 

kflil "allahumma [form of address to God used in contexts of 
absolute supplication; various theories have been advanced as 
regards its structure including it being a borrowing from Hebrew] 
O God! (10:10) ^1 '<M^L> Ikjs ^1'jc.j their prayer in it is 'Glory be 
to You, God!' 

(i~j/J/^ "-l-w/y shortcoming, to be remiss; oath, to swear; to shine; 
favour. Favour, however, could also, on the basis of meaning and 
structure, be connected with the root J/J/S (q.v.). Of this root, 



41 



four forms occur 37 times in the Qur'an: jjlu ya°lun once; o£y„ 
yu"lun once; Jst ya^tali once and "cVi "a/a" 34 times. 

tijLya^lun [imperf. of v. S/l "a/a, trans./intrans.; this verb 
usually takes a negative particle and together they function as a 
single unit] to be reticent towards someone, fall short of doing 
what should be done; to flag; to be remiss (3:118) I> 4jlk. I V 
VUi. V j>£jjj tfo nof take for your intimates such outsiders as 
are unflagging in their efforts to ruin you. 

yu"lun [imperf. of v. IV (^11 3 a 3 ld) orthographically > ^1 
3 ala intrans.] to swear, to vow *(2:226) '^Hy I> 'uj^jy rtey 
swear/vow rcever to have sexual relations with their wives. 

J&^ya^tall [imperf. of v. VIII <J3l ^i^tala, intrans.] to swear 

(24:22) <jjfl i nail j (^Jjil <jijl I JJJJ (J Ajtlallj a£la JuJajll JjU 

Jjj^ j a«(i Zef «o? f/iose o/ vom w/io possess bounty 

and plenty forswear giving to kinsmen, the poor, and those who 
emigrate in God's cause. 

°ald 3 [pi. of n. y 3 a/an, °ilan or yi "ilyun] favour, 
blessing (53:55) ls'J^z f^ 1 * 50 w/n'c/z 0/ yowr Lord's 
blessings do you doubt? 

I preposition ("_>?. <-«>».) occurring 737 times in the Qur'an. In 
context mainly denotes: 1 a point reached in physical location 

ajUJI dlgjjl) to, as far as (17:1) v>'.m"J J> »iuu i/jJ ^ill 
^^aS/l .■>>*■ n'J (.IjaJI g/ory fo //im w/io macfe T/z's servant travel 
by night from the Sacred Mosque to the Furthest Mosque 2 a 
point reached in time (AjjLjll ajUJI to, till, until (2:187) I 
tPI f UUl f/zerc complete the fast until nightfall. Grammarians 
differ as to whether a point reached (ajUJI means only the 
initial point or the entire extent of the location; consequently 
jurisprudents differ as to whether or not elbows should be 
included in the ablution as commanded in verse (5:6) 'jjill 
jal j^ll ^jlJ j jkj I jLifcli s!>lUl Jc£«a lij I yow w/io believe, 
when you are about to pray, wash your faces and your hands up 
to [also interpreted as: up to and including] the elbows 3 
accompaniment 'with' (aIJJ) (2:14) '^A^ Ji I'jk Ijjj wften f/zey 



42 



are alone with their evil companions 4 the meaning of preposition 
ft LS j^ J ^3 jJill) in; at; on; near, by . . . (4:87) juAjjiil {Ji ^.'AM 
He will gather you all together on the Day of Resurrection. It is 
also said to have the meaning of ^ in (79:18) j£y 'J <Ji ^ J* do 
you want to purify yourself? 5 direction towards (19:25) s&lj 
l!uk llkj J=aLi <!iall £• a«(i s/iafce f/ie frwwfc of the palm tree 
towards you, it will drop over you ripe dates 6 the meaning of 
preposition J ( J jaJ i_i ja. ^) 'to' (27:33) fiU. y;ji4i 'j&lj 
'oijy& the command belongs to you, so consider what orders to 
give us 7 the meaning of preposition c ala (Jk. ls ^) against; upon 
(in one interpretation of 17:4) ^ bV^l iJjSII ^ JjjI^J ^ Uliaj 
I'jjjS fjL JjitiTj o^j^ Scripture, We decreed upon the 

Children of Israel, 'Twice you will spread corruption in the land 
and become highly arrogant' 8 in addition to (38:24) Jl>u 
^.Uj i^Vi /ie wronged you by demanding your ewe [to 
add] to his ewes 9 so-called 'redundant' imparting 
emphasis to the entire context, as in the variant reading of ^J^j 
tahwi as <_sj^ tahwa in (14:37)j»$jlj (lSj* 2 ) lSj*^ o"^' i>&j» J»kU so 
mafce [some] hearts of humankind turn to them, (or, to yearn for 
them) 10 connecting an agent to an object (v-^ 1 ) (12:33) Lsj <J15 
Alij ^ jLi ll« Lskt JjkUl /ie sa/d 'My Lore?/ f/ie prison is more 
preferable to me than what they are asking me to do. ' 
Grammarians note, however, that a goal (ajUJI), of some kind or 
another, is always present as a semantic component in all contexts 
in which J] occurs. 

"ilyas [proper name of Hebrew origin occurring three times in 
the Qur'an] the prophet Elijah (I Kings XVII.ff. and II Kings I— II) 
(6:85) ' ojaJllai l j> o^j'j isP^J Zachariah, John, 

Jesus and Elijah-every one of them was righteous; the story is 
told of how he commanded his people to refrain from the worship 
of Baal (37:123-32). It is in the context of this narrative that a 
quaint etymological rendering of the term "ilyasin occurs 
*(37:130) °il yasin 'jj^U J] Jis. j£U peace be upon [the family of] 
°il yasin interpreted as either 3 ilyas himself or a plural of 
meaning him and his followers. It is possible, although there is no 
transmitted authority, that J] °il could mean Jl °al, 'the people of, 



43 



'the family of . 

"alyasa c a [proper name, borrowed from Hebrew, occurring 
twice in the Qur'an] the prophet Elisha (I Kings XVII ff. and II 
Kings I— II) (38:48) J^All |> jkj j&l lij t-ij J^l^-I jkilj an<i 
remember Ishmael, Elisha, and Dhu'l-Kifl, each of them truly 
good. 

j»i 'am conjunctive particle, occurring 137 times in the Qur'an, 
functioning as: I [connected with what precedes it (aL^)] a 
choice between two propositions-'this or that'; it is usually 
preceded with a hamza that denotes equality (q.v.) 

(7:193) (jj^all^ ^1 f\ ^Aj-ajjcjl ^Mr- c-Ijaj nj V cS-^' afcjfrJu (jjj 

and if you call them to the guidance, they do not follow you-it is 
the same to you whether you call them or you are silent II 
[disconnected from that which precedes it (meaning of Jj 

bal, q.v.)] dismissal, or disapproval of a preceding proposition 
and turning to a following one, ' . . . nay but . . . ' , 'however, even 
...', 'or ... as in' (32:3) iljjil 'aA& f»> yet they say, 'He 
[Muhammad] has made it up', which follows (32:2) V iJjSS Jjjjj 
'jj^UJI LTj 'qa aj| Lnj this scripture, free from all doubt, has been 
sent down from the Lord of the Worlds. It occurs also preceded by 
hamza, denoting disapproval and dismissing the proposition 
before it (7:195) cjjc.1 f»' u j ' '' : 'K'j jy' (4* f»' 4; J^'J (4* 
l^j jjl^y yili J4J '(J 'oJjt^ii have they feet to walk with!?, [or] 
have they hands to strike with!?, [or[ have they eyes to see with!?, 
or have they ears to hear with!? Similarly it occurs in 

combination with interrogative J* with the same implication 

i > n .... . . . 

(13:16) jjillj cL&& ijjLz Ja ja^uIIj ^^Vl lSj^ <J» are the blind 
and the seeing equal!?, or rather is darkness and light equal!? 

3 -m-t elevated places; hillocks, crookedness, weakness; 
measurement; to guess; doubt; to bend. Of this root, cil 3 amt 
occurs once in the Qur'an. 

clA 3 amt [n./v. n.] crookedness, unevenness (20:106-7) Ujia 
11.1 V j Ljc l^ja ls'jj V lilaLa Icli a«(f Zeave f/iem a /Zaf pZaZrc, yow 
see in Zf rao any crookedness or unevenness. 



44 



j/f/S 3 -m-d end, terminus; term, period, span, long time; to be angry. 
Of this root, SJ 3 amad occurs four times in the Qur'an. 

M 3 amad [n.] 1 distance (3:30) I^jj s j j 5 AjP ? i> 
I'auu 1'i.t anJ w/iaf if /ias done of evil; it will wish that there were a 
long distance between itself and that [evil] 2 time (57:16) Vj 
"44^15 c-lJ& iuaVl J^fcJc Jlka Jja LAjSII I y j ^jjiilS awe? f/iaf f/iey should 
not be like those who were given the Scripture before, and the 
time became long for them, so their hearts hardened 3 appointed 
time, point in time, particular time; end, terminus (72:25) °Ji J 

Jfj k\ l&Ij 'fl 'uj^ ^ i/j'J say, 7 do not know whether 
what you have been promised is near, or whether a particular 
time has been appointed for it by my Lord' 4 [adverbially] in 
duration (18:12) ijii <^iokl j£>JI ^ Jjkliuu p f/ie« We 
woke them so that We might know which of the two parties was 
better able to calculate how long a time they had remained [ in the 
cave]. 

j/f/S 3 -m-r boulder, marker, landmark, hillock; affliction; chief, to 
appoint as chief; command, to command; affair; to increase, to 
multiply, to guide. Of this root, eight forms occur 248 times in the 
Qur'an: 'jJ 3 amara 54 times; j^i 3 umira 23 times; oJjAi 
ya 3 tamirun twice; "jl amr 153 times; 3 umur 13 times; qjjA 
3 amirun once; s'JlJ 3 ammaratun once and jUI 3 imr once. 

>»i 3 amara u [v. trans.; pass. v. jJ 3 umira] 1 to order, to 
instruct, to command (7:12) il 3kU VI U <JU //e said, 
'What prevented you from [lit. from not (see V la, function 4)] 
bowing down as I commanded you?' 2 to enjoin, to ordain, to 
decree (12:40) JO VI I vl '>! aJI VI ^1 u) judgement belongs 
only to God, He ordained that you worship none but Him 3 to 
prescribe (2:222) <UI 'j&'jJi '(> s ji 'jj^ki lili iv/ie« f/zey are 
cleansed, you may approach them as God has prescribed for you 
4 to incite (4:37) J^L> o*^ oJJ^iJ uj^b those who are 
miserly and incite other people to be the same 5 to counsel, to 
advise, to suggest (26:35) 'oJj*& 1^ ?J=v^ i> >4 'J AuS 
/ie means to use his sorcery to drive you out of your land!, what 
do you suggest? 6 to justify (52:32) JL'jS jj 1% (4*^ f«*>»^ (J 



45 



'jjc.Ua does their reason really justify this to them, or are they 
simply insolent people? 7 to charge with, to assign (80:23) ^ 
I'jl U. yet man has not carried out what He charged him to do 
8 to let someone behave in accordance with their own inclinations, 
to leave someone to his/her own devices (according to one of 
several interpretations of verse 17:16) UjJ <jj 'J \SSj 
Jjill \£Se. jka l^ja I jluia tLjajw a?i(i Z/ We desire to destroy a town, 
We leave those of its inhabitants, who are living at ease, to their 
own inclinations, and they commit abominations in it, so the 
sentence is passed against it [the more popular interpretation, 
however, is We command those of its inhabitants who are living 
at ease, and they commit abominations in it] . 

>»i 3 ammara to invest with authority, to cause to be in 
command; to cause to multiply or increase in numbers, in a 
variant reading of verse (17:16) [v. II, trans.] \j'J»\ We put in 
command those of its inhabitants who live in luxury, or, We cause 
[such people] to increase in number. 

CjjjaL ya"tamirun [imperf. of v. 'J*S3l "i^tamara, intrans.] 1 to 
consult together, to counsel one another (65:6) 1 jjA 

and consult together in a good way 2 to plot together against 
[with prep, j] (28:20) 'Ajk^ 'oJj& ^ U the chieftains are 
plotting together [against you] to kill you. 

°J*\ ^amr [n.] I [pi. j^'j "awamir] 1 command (46:25) J£ 'J»'£ 
Ijjj jUL it [ the storm [ destroys everything by the command of 
its Lord 2 will (9:48) 'jj* jlS JJkj Ail) jUl jlVj awe? God's wz7/ 
triumphed, much to their disgust 3 teaching, ordinance, guidance, 
instruction (49:9) aIII jji J] ^jk ^jjui ^1 I jkia 50 /zgfe ffte 
oppressive party until it returns to God's ordinance 4 system, 
order (41:12) Ia>J fU«l« ^ ^jij uj-jj ^1 CjIjau. ^1* * t >^ a ^ 50 £fe 
ordained them seven heavens in two days, and assigned in each 
heaven its order 5 decision, decree (9:106) aUI J«V 'uj^LA ojIp-^j 
j^jL L,ji Hi j ^jYtj 111 awJ others are deferred to God's decree, 
whether He chastises them or accepts their repentance 6 domain, 
prerogative (17:85) 'a* &j j*l I> £ jjS £ jjll pe. ^ jfc-yj 
!>Lia V] and zTiey asfc you [Prophet] about the Spirit, say, 'The 
Spirit is [part[ of the domain of my Lord', you have only been 



46 



given a little knowledge [lit. you have not been given of 
knowledge but a little] 7 obligations, duties, tasks (18:88) !> lifj 
\"JJ} \jJJ '(> <1 J jSi^j ^i'.AII il jk <ia IklU^a j '^li /or /i/m who 
believed and did right, for him, as recompense, will be the 
ultimate reward, and we will assign to him of Our 
commands/tasks that which is easy [to fulfil] 8 decree, verdict 

(11:76) pJ-O* JJC. L-lli- Ja^yle J4-^)j J3 4jJ IjA °(j£ '(J^aJC.! J>ja!jj]Ij 

Abraham, desist from this: your Lord's verdict has come about; 
and there is chastisement coming to them that cannot be turned 
back; *(4:59) JJi\ those in authority/those in command 9 
opinion, judgement *(18:82) 'jc. Ajka Uj / did not do it out of 
my own accord [lit. / did not do it by my own command] II [ pi. 
jjll 'umur] 1 affair, matter (8:43) °^'J °Jj '<Ae\±* <J <1S '^iJi 4 
JaJ\ ^ J^c-jLuTj JoLlil I'jjjS remember when God made you see them 
in your sleep as few-had He shown them to you as many, you 
would certainly have lost heart and disputed over the affair; 
*(12:102) '?a'JJi I ji^-i they settled upon their plans; *(9:50) Ij-^S i$ 
Ujy we have taken our precautions beforehand; *(21:93) I jlkaj 
J4iu *fi"JJ they fell into disunity, caused a schism amongst 
themselves [lit. they fragmented their affairs between them]; 
*(3: 186) jjh\ fjc- matters of great importance, serious 
undertakings, a task requiring great capability; *(9:48) \ 
'jjh\ they stirred up trouble for you, they devised plots against 
you [lit. they turned the matters for you] 2 situation, condition 
(18:21) 'fi'jjal J4jjj jjc-'jliu 4 when they were discussing their 
situation among themslves 3 what exists (11:123) cJ'jjLA] Luc. 
aK J^}\ a!A\ j o^j^'j to God belongs all that is hidden in the 
heavens and earth, and to Him all that exists shall return. 

<1)X>^ °dmirun [pi. of act. part. "amir] those who enjoin or 
urge someone to do something *(9:112) jc. 'jjAbllj ±±jJ^Xi 'oJj*i\ 
jSilll those who enjoin the good and forbid the wrong, i.e., the 
righteous ones. 

i'jCJi "ammaratun [intens. act. part, fem.] given to tempting or 
urging (to do bad things), prone to inciting (the performance of 
evil acts), one who/that which insinuates or incites (to evil) 
(12:53) 9 jh-Aj s'jllS/ 'ijM jl <^uij \J3 I do not exonerate myself 



47 



for man 's very soul incites him to evil. 

"J»\ 3 imr [quasi-act. part] grievous, abominable, foul (18:71) 
I'Jd loul Cua. jil L$Ja! jjJul t^ja-l did you make a hole in it, so as to 
drown its passengers?, indeed, you have done afoul thing! 

qjU 3 ams [n.] 1 yesterday, the previous day (28:19) ^Jtiz 'J jjjjl Ju, J*L 
tjZ&h lluij LS Moses, do you want to kill me, as you killed a 
soul yesterday? 2 [also used adverbially] the near past, a short 
time ago, just recently (28:82) s j£jj 'oA« Ai£« I'j£«j '^lJj 
'(> iUi '(>! jjjll Jali aJII f/ie ?iexf Jay saw f/iose w/io /iad jwst 
recently wished to be in his place exclaiming, 'Well! It is God 
alone who increases the provision to whoever of His servants He 
will. ' 

tumsun (see iS~j/o»/? m-s-w/y). 

J/f/i 3 -m-l very long and broad distinct sand dune; to ascertain, to 
discriminate; to mull over; to hope, expectations. Of this root, jJ 
3 amal occurs twice in the Qur'an. 

J»l 3 amal [n.] hope, desire, expectation (15:3) \y&%j I jijj 
jjllij ej'j^j J^Vl J>^Jjj 50 feave f/zem to eaf arcd enjoy themselves 
and let [false] hope distract them-they will come to know. 

f/f/i 3 -m-m this root denotes two primary inter-related concepts of 
mother, race, roots and group on the one hand, and on the other, 
front, main road, leader, example and direction. Of this root, 10 
forms occur 119 times in the Qur'an: oi*\ 3 ammin once; f l 3 umm 
24 times; c^I 'ummahat 11 times; All 3 ummatun 51 times; JUI 
3 umam 13 times; jLUJ 3 amam once; jLLI 3 imam seven times; 
3 a 3 immatun five times; 3 ummiyy twice and jjSi 3 ummiyyun 
four times. 

4>«T 3 dmmin [pi. of act. part, jp 3 amm] heading for, setting out 
for (5:2) ^IjaJI £iull 'jpi Vj nor heading for the Sacred House. 

"J) 3 umm [n.] I [pi. cJ^J 3 ummahat] 1 mother (23:50) 'Jjl l^-j 
Ajli All j £1 a?id We fflffl/e the son of Mary and his mother an 



exemplar, *(20:94) \\ 'JjlU [an endearing form of address] son of 
my own mother, my own flesh and blood 2 foster mother, milk 
mother (4:23) '^iV . n j ^Sliiij ... cl^'J^ forbidden to 

you are your mothers ... your milk mothers 3 (in relation to 
Muslims) wives of the Prophet, mothers of the believers (33:6) 
J4jl^ai Akljjj f^ijl I> o^j^W i^j' ^1 f/ie Prophet is more caring 
towards the believers than they are themselves, and his wives are 
[as] their mothers II [no plural] 1 foundation, cornerstone; canon; 
essence (3:7) j»Jj t_>^ ^ 0* <^ s- 1 ^ ^IMr. J'jjl ^ill ji 

cjl^jUia ;Y is He who has sent this Book down to you, in which are 
verses definite in meaning-these are the essence of the Book-and 
others that are ambiguous/allegorical 2 source, origin (43:4) 
JLiSk 1 ( J*\ Uj'jI lJ&\ p ^ indeed it is [inscribed] in the original 
record [lit. source of the Book], kept with Us, exalted and full of 
wisdom 3 centre, metropolis, capital or main [city] (28:59) 
LuUli 'f^jlc. jlu V l^al ^ cj*^ ^ (/jail ai^o ^fij yowr Lore? would 
never destroy towns until He first raises a messenger in its main 
city reciting Our messages to them; *(6:92) <_sj^ " ? \ Mecca-mother 
of cities [lit. magnet of dwellings] 4 destination, final abode, 
permanent home (101:8-9) ^jU ^uli !> &lj owf as /or 

one whose scales [of good deeds] are light-His final abode 
will be the bottomless Pit. 

" , £ { 

3 ummatun [n., pi. j^l 3 umam] 1 a people, a nation, a 
community (35:24) jjij V) Jul I> 'u]j f/zere has not been a 

community, but came to it [lit. passed away in it] a warner 2 a 
party, a category of people (3:104) jjaJI "qj^ let 
there be a community from among you [also interpreted as: let 

you all turn out to be a community] that calls to goodness 3 a 

' s = , i 

crowd (28:23) uj^y t> ^ '-^j j?^ Ajj w/ien 
he arrived at the water of Midian, he found a crowd of people 
watering [their flocks] 4 a common belief, tradition (43:22) I jlli Jj 
jjjj^a 'fA JSli Ulj Jil (jic. U'cUlc likj Uj «o indeed!, they say, 'We 
saw our fathers following this common belief; we are guided by 
their footsteps' 5 a period of time (12:45) jul jkj jkilj U4i» ^ ls.-^ 
then the one who had gained freedom of the two, remembering 
[Joseph] after a while 6 a fixed, or determined time (11:8) 'c$j 
iijLCt <i Jl\ LJSJI ^'j^ if We delay the chastisement till a 



49 



determined point in time 7 organised society (6:38) J* AjIj I> Uij 
j>kilii *(d VI AjkUaj jjjaj jjLL Vj <ji»jYI /fwere are/ tio creatures on 
the earth, nor birds that fly with their two wings, but [ that they 
are] [organised] communities like yourselves 8 an epitome of 
Godliness, a man alone, one of a kind (16:120) All f^'jSJ a! 
Abraham was truly an example, an epitome of godliness. 

^Ul "amam [adverbial] front, forward direction; coming time 
(75:5) jkiol 'tjUjVI jjjj Jj yef maw wants to continue sinning in 
the future (or, Yet man wants to deny the truth about things yet to 
come [such as the Day of Resurrection]) [lit. yet man wants to sin 
ahead of him]. 

°imdm [n., pi. <A °a°immatun\ 1 a leader (2:124) JpQ ilj 
ULJ (jJill Lillclk (^jj Jli "^iila pUKj "4j f^*l'jjj wwen Abraham 's Lord 
tested him with certain commandments, which he fulfilled, He 
said, 7 vw/Z mafce yow a leader of men'; *(9:12) j&ll &i hardened 
disbelievers [lit. leaders of disbelief 2 a divine writ, a guide 
(11:17) -^ikjj toUl <^j^ LjIjS <Jji 'qaj and before it, the Book of 
Moses, a guide and mercy 3 master record (36:12) 1\ ju <n\ J£j 
jj^o ? UI ^ and We keep an account of everything in a clear 
Master Record 4 creed, conviction (in one interpretation of 17:71) 
^UL. (jAa JS I jc'jj o?i f/ie Day wwew We w/ZZ caZZ every people 
by their creed [also: by their leader, their book or their mothers] 
5 an example, a model (25:74) £>U '^j^U Ukklj and maZce us good 
examples for the pious 6 a highway (15:79) U4Cj ^ l£«Mi 
l»A and We tooZc retribution from them; both are still there on a 
clearly marked highway. 

3 ummiyy [nisba adj./n.] 1 unlettered, unable to read (7:158) I 
^IVI *1 aIL so believe in God and His Messenger, the 
unlettered prophet 2 a pagan, a person with no revealed scripture 
(3:20) ££»£J» 'j±£aVlj LA^' ' As' tltt^ c5j as^ f/iose iv/io were given 
f«e BooZc, as weZZ as fftose without one, 'Do you surrender 
yourselves entirely to Him too ? ' 

Ci\ "amma, occurs 55 times in the Qur'an and functions as: 1 a 
detailing (Jj^>£ or a partitive particle implying conditional 



50 



dependency, comparison or contrast between the two constituents 
of its sentence (the second of which will always be prefixed with 
i) and lending emphasis to it, 'as for ... it was/is (18:79) li! 
jkJ (jjL^j c±S& 3jj£oJ| as /or rte Z?oaf, belonged to poor 

people working on the sea 2 a conditional particle indicating 
comparison or contrast (J=> j& si J), in which case it is usually 
repeated in the discourse, i.e. 'as for and as for ... ', as in 

(2:26) j lito jj^ljiia IjjaS (jjiS Calj °»£Jj 'jA (jail <jl ijjUkjj (jjjil l^aLa 

y&i li^j Ail! as for those who believe they know it is the truth from 
their Lord, but as for those who do not believe they say, 'What 
[ ever] does God mean by such a comparison ? ' 

£*\ 'immd, occurs 30 times in the Qur'an and functions as: 1 option 
particle (jjj^j Uij^.) 'whether ... or (18:86) 'J l&jjSS 1^ VjJi 
l&A 'j 111 j Lu*j We sa/rf, 'Dhu'l-Qarnayn, you may choose 

whether to punish or show them kindness ' 2 detailing or partitive 
particle (J^^ii <-«_>=>■) (76:3) IjjiS Calj IjSLi dj JjjIuII oli'-i* We 
guided him to the [right] way; he is either thankful or ungrateful 
3 a particle denoting uncertainty of an outcome (9:106) 'oJj^Vj 
J^jL LjjSj Clj '^i^ 111 Ail! jUV 'jj^lA ««<^ others are deferred to 
God's decree, whether He chastises them or accepts their 
repentance. Differentiation is made between the above £>j and the 
one in (19:26) X2^= (>kjll Ojis ^1 ^ jsa ^ull "<> Cali awe? if 
you see any human being, you say: 'I have vowed to the Lord of 
Mercy a fast. ' The latter is a compound of conditional Ji + so- 
called 'redundant' or emphatic ma 

(j/f/i 3 -m-n to be safe, to be secure; guard, keeper; trust, to be 
trusted; belief, faith, to believe. Of this root, 19 forms occur 858 
times in the Qur'an: j>l J amina 20 times; J>1 'amana 537 times; 
(jAjll 3 i 3 tumina once; j^l 3 amin six times; 'aminatun once; oj^ 1 
3 aminun 10 times; <iU 3 amanatun twice; CiLta! 'amandt four 
times; J>1 3 <zmrt five times; axJ 3 amanatun twice; IjjJ 'amwi 14 
times; y-J 3 ?man 45 times; J>L ma'man once; y^ta ma 3 mun 
once; J>>« mu 3 min 22 times; yu«>i mu 3 minayn once; jji«>« 
mu'miniin 179 times; <!<>>> mu J minatun six times and Cjli<i>a 
mu 3 mindt 22 times. 



51 



4>S "amina a [v.] I [intrans.] to feel safe, to be in a time of 
safety (2:196) ^ 

Li gkll i'JAlj b«a Juia! I ila and if 
you are in time of peace/you feel safe, anyone wishing to break 
the restrictions of consecration between the minor pilgrimage and 
the major one must make whatever offering he can afford II 
[trans.] 1 to trust someone with or over something (2:283) j>l bp 
knui b^j' fS^N but if you decide to trust one another 

[with or over something], then let the one who is trusted deliver 
his trust 2 to guard against, to wish to be safe from (4:91) ujV^ 
J4^'j5 Ijiatj '(^jiJj 'J U-Alw bsU^'* vW// /me? others who wish to 
be safe from you, and from their own people. 

4>T "amana [v. IV] I [intrans.] 1 (as distinguished from jjill 
I jjiS those who deny, I > jjill those who assign partners and 
I jaaU jjill the hypocrites) those who believe in God (66:8) bp! Uju 
Ik jLaj aj'^ <M | | jiai; yow w/io believe, turn to God in sincere 
repentance 2 (contrasted with believing in previous religions such 
as Judaism and Christianity) Muslims (5:69) I jjIa bt^'j I bi^ bj 

^ Mr. <_s°ji. i\i W Hi J^c-j j^Vl fjj&j ^ilp O- '* b" 1 eg 1 **>'N J OJ-^^J 

'jjjj^j'^A those who believe, [the Muslims], those who embrace 
Judaism, the Sabians, and the Christians— those who believe in 
God and the Last Day and do good deeds-will have nothing to 
fear or to regret 3 (contrasted with jJlJ 3 aslamd) to attain true 
faith (49:14) bW)" I J i b^j 1 <J lit £J>^I 

J^jjla the Bedouins say, 'We have attained true faith. ' [Prophet] 
say, 'You have not [yet] attained true faith, but you should say, 
'We have submitted' - as faith has not yet entered your hearts 4 
[with prep. —1] to put faith in (44:21) jjljjtli tj ' jVjj 'pi bjj <z«d 
yow do not believe with me, let me be II [trans] 1 to make 
someone safe, to grant someone security (106:4) p b« pi-«l»' ^ 
tj'ja. b» J4^'*j # e w/io has fed their hunger, and made them 
secure from fear 2 [also possibly v. Ill] to trust someone (12:64) 
b° ls^- f^ ' ^ ^Siati Ja Jli /ie sa/J, 'Do / frwsf yow 

wjY/i him other than how I trusted you with his brother before 
[with the same disastrous result] !?' 

^i^tumina [pass, of v. VIII b*" 1 i°tamana] to be entrusted 
with (2:283) AjjLi b^j' ^ ll^kj ™ j b»' bp ^ i/yow decide 



to trust one another, then let the one who is trusted fulfil his trust. 

*<>T 'dmin [quasi-act. part.; fem. "dminatun; pi. jjial 
"dminun\ 1 safe, secure (16:112) aj'jS ^ Aill 

Gog? presents the parable of a city that was secure and at ease 2 
peaceful, at peace, tranquil (44:55) 'jjiJi J^j t$ja 'jj^'i 
peaceful [and contented], they will call for every kind of fruit. 

AJUS 'amanatun [fem. n., pi. CjUU ^amanat] trust, charge (4:58) 
IgJii pUUS/l I jijj 'jl J^SjUj y God commands you to return 
trusts to their owners; *(33:72) lPO^'j s^j-UI ^ Li^'jc. Uj 

offered the trust to the heavens, the Earth and the mountains, yet 
they refused to carry it and were afraid of it; but man carried it— 
indeed he is sinful, ignorant. Commentators greatly differ as to 
the meaning of with the definite article in this context. Being 
charged with responsibility with the definite article, is 

chosen by 3 al-RazI; this choice fits the larger context. Other 
interpretations include: obedience, the choice between obedience 
and disobedience as offered to Adam, reason or intellect, prayer 
and other duties and obligatory statutes which God has imposed 
upon His servants. 

*4>S p amn [v. n./n.] 1 safety, security (24:55) J^ija. & I> (4^$j 
liJ and He will give them in exchange, after their fear, security 2 
peace, tranquillity, sanctuary (2:125) ,_>Ajil ZJI* cllil\ UL^. ijj 
and when We made the House [at Mecca] a resort and a 
sanctuary for people. 

5-U "amanatun [n.] inner calm, tranquillity, relaxation, peace 
(3:154) SijLL ^^iu ILUo *S2 JjJI i> Jj* p then He caused 
peace, after sorrow, to descend upon you-a sleep which overtook 
a group of you. 

°amln [quasi-act. part.] 1 honest, trustworthy (26:193) Jjy 
tla^' r jjN ^ trustworthy spirit came down with it 2 sincere, 
honest (7:68) jjJ j^lj '^Sl u'j pVU« j J^iLl / cowvey ?o yon f/ze 
messages of my Lord, and I am a sincere adviser to you 3 safe, 
secure (95:3) jj-Vl jIjII Ijaj and [by[ this safe town. 



53 



"^UiJ 3 lman [v. n./n.] 1 faith (59:9) I> 1 'lH^j 

J^jlJ JklA '(> "(jjkj «wd f/iose w/zo are firmly established in their 
homes and in the faith before them, love whoever emigrated to 
them 2 believing, belief (16:106) jSu !> aISL jiS '<> /ie who 
denies God after having believed 3 (contrasted to ''islam) deeply 
entrenched true faith (49:14) j>£jjis j» ^U^yi cKii liTj l£*EJ I jljS 'jSTj 
forf you should say, 'We have submitted' -as true faith has not yet 
entered your hearts. 

madman [n. of place] place of safety, place of security 
(9:6) 4i*t<s AiLi p Aill ^!>LS ojali tSTjlkij jjjSjlilll 'j^ Ski ana" 

/f any one of ffte polytheists should seek your protection 
[Prophet], grant it to him so that he may hear the word of God, 
then take him to his place of safety. 

tiyLi ma"mun [pass, part.] something devoid of harm, 
something completely safe (70:28) oJ^ la=- f«3j M^- U [far] 
from the chastisement of their Lord none may feel completely safe. 

*C&& mu'min [quasi-act. part./n.; dual Jji*& mu'minayn; pi. 
mu 3 minun\ fern. Ai«>> mu 3 minatun\ pi. cjlio> mu''minat] 1 
adherent to the true faith (33:36) ilil (jl^S 13 4ia> Vj 
°*s, °qa uj^ °J <SjLjj if /.y «of fitting for any believing 

man or a believing woman, once God and His Messenger have 
decided on a matter, that they should have a choice of their own 
[in the matter] 2 one who believes (26:3) I y& Vi ^Lj ^1L«J 
perhaps you [Prophet [ are going to torment yourself to 
death [worrying] that they will not become believers!? 

'umniyatun (see ^j^j^m-n-y). 

A/f/1 3 -m-h to forget; to confess; to entrust to; mother; root. Of this 
root, only -Ci "amahin, a variant reading of 3 ummatin, occurs 
1 1 times in the Qur'an. 

<ul ''amah (a variant reading) [v. n.] forgetting [also interpreted 
as: confessing] (12:45) y\ '£j jSjIj having remembered [Joseph] 
after forgetting [him], 

j/j»/S 3 -m-w female slave, to take a female slave for oneself. Of this 



54 



root, two forms occur once each in the Qur'an: Xa 3 amatun and 

XX 3 amatun [n., pi. ^ima 3 ] female slave (24:32) ... \ 
'j&ICJfj JjSIjc. '<> OsiaJLall marry off ... the good among your slaves 
and your female slaves. 

b* particle occurring 617 times in the Qur'an and functioning in 
various ways including the following: I infinitive (ajjjI^), so 
designated because it combines with a following imperfect verb 
(rendering it subjunctive y-^) and designating it to the future 
tense to form an equivalent to an infinitive noun (cJjj-a j i ' <in j 
(18:79) l^l 'J cjjjli arc<f / sought to damage it. This infinitive 
noun performs versatile functions, including: 1 a subject of a 
nominal sentence (2:184) but fasting is better for 

you 2 a subject of a verbal sentence (57:16) *J 'j"'* ui-^ 'p* 
<13l jSil J44jE if ?iof fime /or believers that their hearts become 
humble to the remembrance of God? 3 a predicate in the 
accusative (10:37) aIII oj j i> °J l& Qur'an 

is not such as could have been contrived by anyone save God 4 
second part of a construct (AiHiaj), in the genitive (63:10) °J l&S J> 
cj^I ^Sjkl before death comes to one of you. °J may elide 
before an imperfect, in which case the verb may preferably be in 
the indicative (j- j£J*) or the subjunctive and the 'J is then 

inferred or implied (39:64) jjlfcLaJI W ^ aIII jjiit Jo yow 
onier me to worship someone other than God, you foolish 
people? j may also form a verbal noun with a verb in the perfect 
denoting past tense (28:82) Uj ■ <L&± liL aIII J> 'J VjJ were it not 
for God having been gracious to us, He would have caused it [ the 
earth] to swallow us too II °J contracted form of "J i> 
occurring after a verb denoting certainty ji, or one used in a 
manner similar to such a verb. The subject of j, in such cases, is 
an elliptical pronoun of the story (standing for *I) ( JJd\ 
<_i jikSi) 'the case is . . . ' , 'the situation is . . . ' , 'the fact of the matter 
is . . . ' . The predicate of this type of J may be an imperfect verb in 
the accusative case (73:20) J-^J* 'oJ^ °J fS"- He knows that 
[the case will be this:] there will be among you [some who will 
be] sick; it may also be a nominal phrase (11:14) (4w Jj^ U«3 I jili 



55 



ji V) aJ V 'jlj yow w?7/ all know that it [the Qur'an] is only 

sent down containing knowledge from God, and that there is no 
god but He III explicative (°'J^), always preceded by a sentence 
denoting the meaning, but not containing a derivative, of JjSJI, 'to 
say', and followed by another sentence, as in (38:6) ^ lS^j 
°=£jp' s \J J L^\'j J the leaders among them went on 

[saying], 'Walk away and be steadfast to your gods' IV so-called 
'redundant' (s^l j), so designated because, structurally, it may or 
may not be used in what seem to be parallel structures (14:12) U'j 
aIII ^Jc JSjjj VI Ul what [ reason ] do we have for not relying upon 
God? (in which it occurs), as compared with (5:84) 'o*'y V U'j 
<1L. why should we not believe in God? (in which it does not 
occur). Of all occurrences of so-called 'redundant' J the most 
frequent is that in which it follows the temporal lamma (■^^ &1) 
(12:96) jjjSjJI il?. 'J ^ ?Acn, when the bearer of good news came. 
Like all so-called 'redundant' particles, so-called 'redundant' J 
lends emphasis to the general context V meaning 'lest' 
(4:176) I jV^=j y ^ ciS GoJ makes this clear to you lest you 
should err, and (39:56) <S1I i-ua. <^a dj=ja U ^ tfpkG ^>-aj Jjii y 
/es? a soul should say, 'Woe is me for having neglected what is 
due to God. ' 

"in particle occurring 697 times in the Qur'an and functioning in 
various ways, including the following: I conditional, 'if (*Q>°j&) 
(8:38) <-iL» Jia U J4 1 'jJn^i 'ci cfes/sf, what went before will 

be forgiven them II negative (^jiU), preceding either a verbal 
sentence: (9:107) ^^jlAJI V) U'iJ y y$4Tj awe? f/iey swear 'We 
intended nothing but good', or a nominal sentence (58:2) '^t^i y 
j4&Tj (^Ul V) f/ie/r mothers are no other than those who gave birth 
to them III y °in contracted form of s y (aI^II "J 4isaJ») lending 
emphasis to the context and preceding either a nominal sentence: 
(43:35) Ij&I sU^JI 111 L^lli JS y'j awe? all of these are mere 
enjoyments of this life; or a verbal sentence (26:186) 'oA'iMai'^j 
yuil£ll indeed we think you are one of the liars IV so-called 
'redundant' (i^j), lending emphasis to the context, as in one 
interpretation of verse (46:26) *4 y ^ jfiJj ant/ We /lac? 
established them in that in which We have not established you. 



56 



li ; 'and 1 st person sing, pronoun, I, occurring 67 times in the Qur'an 
(12:69) I am your [very] brother, 't>j nahnu 1 st person pi. 

pronoun, we, occurring 673 times in the Qur'an, and frequently 
used by God in referring to Himself (76:28) '^AUSk y=u We 
fashioned them. These pronouns also function as emphatic units: 
'I myself (12:69) '^j^ Ul ^Jl / am your [very] brother, and 'We 
ourselves' (15:9) jkill Ufjj 't>j Ul it is We ourselves who have sent 
down the Remembrance. 

fUl J anam (see f/^/S J -n-rn). 

di 3 anta 2 nd person sing. masc. pronoun, you, occurring 81 times in 
the Qur'an; 'antuma 2 nd person dual. masc. & fem. pronoun, 
'both of you', occurring once; 'f& "antum 2 nd person pi. masc, 
'you', occurring 129 times. These pronouns also function as 
emphatic units, 'you yourself, as in (12:90) '^d could it 

be that you yourself are Joseph? and (21:54) ^ j '^1 °±H 
J%j=> you yourselves and your fathers have clearly gone 
astray. 

U^i ^antuma (see °anta). 

J antum (see ^Ji °anta). 

3 -n-th female; to be soft, to be lenient, to be accommodating. 
Of this root, three forms occur 30 times in the Qur'an: ^1 "untha 
18 times; "unthayayn six times and £jUI 'inath six times. 

(jjjjl °unthd [n.; dual 3 unthayayn; pi. l1>U 1 inath] female 

(4:124) A 'V 11 ^jj^ lj liljijla (j^ij-a jAj ^±i\ jl (j-a l" jj* 11 i all (j-a cj-**^ L>*J 

anyone, male or female, who does good deeds and is a believer, 
will enter Paradise. 

Jjajyi al-°infil [proper noun of Greek origin occurring 12 times in 
the Qur'an] the New Testament, the Gospel (57:27) Jjl l&aaj 
Jj^jVI JLiilij a«(f We caused Jesus, son of Mary to follow [the 
prophets] and We gave him the Gospel; *(5:47) J#?jVI <J*' the 
people of the Gospel, the Christians. 



57 



The Qur'an declares that the Gospel was taught and revealed 
to Jesus; in the same way that the Torah was revealed to Moses. 
The Christian tradition speaks of it being synonymous with the 
good news taught about Jesus, whereas the Islamic concept of D al- 
3 injil places emphasis on the notion of a divinely revealed text. 

0"/l)/! 3 -n-s humans, people; tamed animals, to tame; affable, 
friendly, intimate friend, to be sociable; to detect, to perceive, to 
come to know, to gather information, to seek gently. Of this root, 
eight forms occur 97 times in the Qur'an: ^ "anasa five times; 
ly&Lz tasta°nis once; "o4 °ins 18 times; yij "insan 65 times; l>»ul 
^unas five times; ^anasiyy once; ''insiyy once and Q i < «fc ' »« 
musta°nisin 1 1 times. 

o-jT 3 dnasa [v. IV, possibly III, trans.] 1 to perceive, to sight 
from a distance (28:29) IjU j^kll tjjlk 'q* he caught sight of a 
fire on the side of the Mount 2 to conceive, to detect, to sense, to 
discern (4:6) I ja&li ll^j J4-¥> J^lajli '^SA\ \ jkL lij ^tull I jlulj 
jiil>J J^ij and test the orphans until they reach marriageable age, 
then, if you perceive in them sound judgement, hand over their 
property to them. 

'qJlLz tasta p nis [imperf. of v. X '^jJcLJ ^ista^nasa, intrans.] to 
draw attention to one's presence, to alert people to one's presence, 
to seek permission to enter (24:27) jjc tijjj Ijkia V I j£Ji 'jjjll 
V^JaI (Jc. I jXuj I jlajljl^ (jjk j>£j jjj believers, do not enter houses 
other than your houses until you [first] have asked permission 
and greeted the folk inside them. 

o-jj °ins 1 [collect, n.] [n.; pi. J unas] humankind as 
opposed to other species, particularly jinn (q.v.) (27:17) j^-'j 
'uj=0_w °(4^ JA^Ij o^V'j *<y^ t> u 1 - ^ ««d marshalled before 
[lit. to] Solomon were his hosts of jinn, humankind and birds; and 
they were marshalled in ordered ranks 2 a human being (55:39) 
JjU. Vj l>»jj 'jc. jLy V ji«°jja o« f/iaf day not a human nor a jinn 
will be questioned about his sin. 

£}Uujyt "al-"insan [collect, n.] 1 humankind (4:28) 'j^V ls5^'j 
humankind was created weak 2 man, the human being, 



58 



people, men and women (50:16) iLa 4j [y, J^y U JJkjj 'jlluVI Uilk tiilj 
jjjjll '(> ^i] Li'jal 'jkij We created man, and We know what his 
soul whispers within him, and We are closer to him than the 
jugular vein 3 (possibly) Adam (15:26) I> JllaLa °<> 'jtuu)/l Lali jSTj 
Uk We created man [Adam] out of dried clay formed from 
dark, putrid mud; * jliaiVI name of Sura 67, so-named because of 
the reference in verses 1-3 to the creation of 'humankind', also 
named 3 al-dahr (j*-^) (see j/A/ida-ha-ra). 

o*U 3 unas [pi. of "ins] groups of people, tribes (2:60) JS JJc. i5 
i^uf eac/z growp of people knew their drinking place. 

^-yu) "inslyy [nisba adj.; pi. j^ul 'aTiasfyy] a member of the 
human race, a human being (25:49) IjjjS ^Jij HUi Uik. '<iL^j 
and We give it as a drink to many beasts and humans from that 
which We have created. 

&u3lLL musta^nisin [pi. of act. part, ^iiui musta^nis] ones 
seeking/desiring conversation, ones socialising (33:53) lila 
tluiJ 'j A, no V j I j'j^li w/ie?i you have eaten, disperse, and 
do not stay on seeking conversation [lit. seeking companionship 
through conversation] . 

'-ft-/ nose; tip; foremost; chief; to begin, to go first; to go by; 
to disdain, to be angry. Of this root, two forms occur three times 
in the Qur'an: <_ia 3 anf twice and Usl "anifan once. 

<-ii "aw/ [n.] nose (5:45) j u*^ l)> fe? 

... t-iiVb t-iiVl j We prescribed for them: a life for a life, an 
eye for an eye, a nose for a nose ... 

UjT "dnifan [adverbial] presently, just now (47:16) toil* J15 lid 
w/iaf was it that he has said, just now? 

3 -n-m (no verb) all God's creatures. 

^US 3 anam [collect, n. occurring once in the Qur'an] creatures 
(including humankind. Some philologists describe it as meaning 
every creature that goes to sleep, as if it were derived from ?/ jj j 
n-w-m) (55: 10) t$*Ii»j o^jSfl j a«<i the Earth He laid down for 



59 



the creatures. 

'Ji "anna a sister of o) °inna (Ji ^'j^ i>) (q.v.) a subordinating 
particle occurring some 360 times in the Qur'an. Like 'q\ it lends 
emphasis to the context but differs from it in the fact that 'J, 
together with the following sentence, undergoes a process of 
subordination and functions as a nominal clause serving as, e.g., a 
subject (72:1) 't> jij ^o£J y ^ J [it] has been revealed to 
me that a company of the jinn listened in [on a recitation of the 
Qur'an] or as an object (6:109) oj-^jy ^ ^ what 

will make you realise that if it [a sign from God] came [to them[ 
they still will not believe? 

b] 3 inna emphatic particle <-^>j*), occurring some 1679 

times in the Qur'an. It is the main member of a group of five 
particles designated by Arab grammarians as "inna and its 
sisters' j b)) Col "inna, "J "anna, ka'anna, la°alla and 

OA layta), which precede nominal sentences governing the subject 
in the accusative case and lend various semantic implications, 
particular to each particle, to the contexts in which they appear, 
(see particle alphabetically). Besides functioning as 'certainly', an 
emphatic particle carrying the force of 'indeed', 'surely' (36:16) 
'qjLJJA 'f£A\ li] indeed we have been sent to you; (49:12) "qM 'd^. ol 
p\ [even] some suspicion is a sin, "Jt may also function as a 
particle of causation (JJ*j <_i j^) (12:53) s'j&V 'o&& "o\ 'J3 t>j 
f jiX / do not exonerate myself for man 's very soul incites him to 
evil. 

Uii "innama (said by Arab grammarians to be a compound of the 
emphatic '"q\ + so-called 'redundant' U which prevents *J\ having 
any government) particle of limitation ( J J^. sli), occurring 
some 22 times in the Qur'an; so-called because it denotes 
restriction of that which it precedes to that which follows it, 'x is 
only y' (13:7) "Ju* cA you are but a warner. 

J$\ "anna I interrogative (fA*4J <~J) occurring 28 times in the Qur'an. 
In addition to the element of strong exclamation it lends to the 



60 



whole context, ^ denotes the senses of: 1 'however?!' (19:20) 

^j'.n',,'^ JJj pU. ^ 'jjSj however can I have a son when no 
mortal has touched me?! 2 'wherever from?!' (3:37) l& ^ ^j-U 
Mary, from wherever [on earth] do you get these [provisions]?! 
II adverbial (<-ijk) 'whenever' as in one interpretation of (2:223) 
°fu£ J^jk Ijpli liijk f^j^ yowr women are your fields, so go 
into your fields whenever you like. 

<i - j/c)/^ 3 -n-w/y divisions of the night; daytime; to become due, (of 
food) to become ready; proper time; utensils; to be deliberate, to 
be solemn; to await; to be very hot. Of this root, five forms occur 
eight times in the Qur'an: ya p nl once; ^ "anl once; "<d 
"aniyatun twice; *Ul "ana" three times and 3 ina once. 

ya D nl [imperf. of v. J 3 aniya, intrans.] to become due; to 
reach the appointed time (57:16) jSil J4bls ^iij 'J I jiali 'jjill 
aIII is it not time for believers that their hearts become humble to 
the remembrance of God? 

,jjT 3 anl [quasi-act. part.] having become due, having reached 
maximum point or degree (55:44) jli t$j£ oAA^ they will 

go round between it and boiling hot water. 

AjjT "aniyatun I [fem. of ^ D dni\ having reached maximum 
point or degree; (of heat) boiling hot (88:5) ~<4* Jjc. I> JL& and 
are forced to drink from a boiling hot spring II [collect, n./pl. of 
*Uj °ina 3 ~\ utensils, vessels, serving equipment (76:15) <-iUa£j 
~*L=k °qa JiL they will be served with vessels of silver. 

3 and" [pi. of n. p iny or ^jj 3 /na] hours, or watches [of 
the night] (20:130) iS ^'J' t_iljAJj j4^a JJjill ?Uli ',>j arcj in 

f/ze Ziowrs o/f/ie rcz'gfe glorify [His] praise, and at the ends of the 
day, so that you may find contentment. 

3 ina [v. n.] (act of) reaching appointed time, due coming, 
becoming due or ready (33:53) °J V] J^jsJI Cj jjj I jkSi V I j£Ji 'jjiil 

'jjjkb Jit. ? U<1> j>£l 'jijj believers, do not enter the Prophet's 
apartments, unless you are given permission for a meal, without 
waiting for its due coming. 



61 



'Cfi\ "al'ana (see rfjrjft D -w/y-n). 

J/_*/S °-h-l family, kin; to be populated; to be tamed; to be worthy, 
to be deserving; to take a wife. Of this root, JaI °ahl occurs 127 
times. 

JaS "ahl [collect, n.] 1 people (2:126) SjJ'j ^» ^ ^ J*y mj 
ja.VI (4^ t>'* i> pl>"JI i> my Loni, rnafe f/iis land 

secure and provide with produce those among its people who 
believe in God and the Last Day 2 family, household (28:12) Ja 
,'{£1 JaI <^ *(^3ii shall I guide you to a household who 

could rear him for you? 3 euphemism for wife (12:25) ilja. U i^ila 
lijl, ^IaL il'J '(> s/ie sa/<i, 'W/iaf punishment befits the one who 
intended harm to your wife?' 4 owners (4:58) I j'jjS 'J f^l>«t nil °J\ 
l^Jii pULVl GoJ commands you to return trusts to their owners 
5 dwellers, inhabitants, occupants (18:71) Cua. jSl I^JaI jjiill^SJii 
liu die? you make a hole in it, so as to drown its passengers 
[occupants]?, indeed, you have done afoul thing! 6 [as first part 
in construct (<aL^I), 'worthy of, 'deserving of (74:56) ls'j&JI JaI ja 
He is most deserving of being heeded; *(5:47) J^V' <J*' the 
people of the Gospel, Christians; *(33:33) JaI people of the 
House, the Prophet's household; also used in specific reference to 
members of Prophet Abraham's household in verse (11:73) cl^j 
tjp JaI "fSik. kKJi j ill the Mercy and Blessings of God [are] 
upon you people of the household [of Abraham]; *(16:43) jSiil JaI 
those who have the knowledge; or those who have had [previous] 
revelations, i.e. Jews and Christians; *(3:64) uW JaI people of 
the Book, Jews in particular, and Christians; *(38:64) jbll JaI 
inhabitants ofHellfre. 

Jf "al (see J/j/S °-w-l). 

ji 'fltv conjunction (<-ikc occurring some 280 times in the 

Qur'an and conveying various specific meanings including the 
following: 1 doubt (tiill) (18:19) fjj 'o^i °j £>jj we /iave 
remained a day or part of a day 2 vagueness (^Vl) (34:24) 'j Ujj 
jji J^= ^ 'J ^i* (jij j^O a«(i indeed either we or you are 
following the right guidance or are in clear error 3 giving 



62 



options (jgijll), 'either ... or' and, after prohibitory V forbidding 
all options and choices, 'neither ... nor' (76:24) 'j Uuli ^ y=a V 
1 jjik Jo not obey any sinner or disbeliever among them 4 allowing 
a thing or making it allowable (<=>1jV0 (24:61) '} °£jJii°Q*\ °J 
jl 'pSjUli f/iaf yow eaf /rom yowr houses, or the 
houses of your fathers, or the houses of your mothers 5 
unrestricted conjunction lS 5 ^"), as in the meaning of 'and' 
(jl jll ^) (11:87) U1I>1 ,ji 'J 'J ^ a l£ 'J '^'J& ^£UJ 

iUu U does your prayer [religion ] tell you to forsake what our 
forefathers worshipped and refrain from doing whatever we 
please with our properties? 6 division or separation (j^ssll) 
(2:135) I jj^j ij'J^ j lijA IjjjS I jlla'j f/iey say, 'Become Jews or 
Christians, and you will be rightly guided' 7 transition in the 
sense of adversative bal (Jj J j^ 1 )' na y ••• rat her ...' 
(2:74) s'jli Aul 'j s'JkalS ^11 j j*j '(> J^j jS cj^S p even after that, 
your hearts hardened so they were like rocks, or even harder 8 
the meaning of exceptive 'ilia (VI ^s-^), 'except', 'unless' 
according to the views of some eminent scholars in interpreting 
verse (2:236) <j$i I jl^jai jl Jji nVi JJ U« iUuill ^jalL y ffife- £^ V 
f/iere vw7/ be no financial liabilities on you [also interpreted as: no 
blame attached to you] if you divorce women, so long as you have 
not yet consummated the marriage, unless you have fixed a dower 
for them. 

J\ D aw as a rule J joins similarly structured units (phrases, 
clauses, nominal sentences, verbal sentence, etc.) as in the 
examples quoted above. Deviation from this norm imparts special 
meaning/importance to the unit which does not structurally agree 
with the rest in a succession of 3 aw-joined units. An example of 
this is the particularising of sending a messenger as a means of 
communication between mortals and God by the use of the verbal 
clause V Jut'j <_Ki in a sequence of non-verbal clauses all of which 
are joined by J in the following verse (42:51) Aill y j& Uj 
*LuSj U« ^j^-j (j^jj* Vj^j j "-r 1 ^-^ ?Uj j' V] it is not 
[possible] for a mortal that God speak to him except through 
revelation or from behind a veil, or if He sends a messenger to 
reveal, or sends a messenger so he reveals by His leave whatever 
He wills. 



63 



lj/j/S 3 -w-b ditch in which water collects, place to which people 
return; to return; to repeat; to be swift, to be agile; custom. Of this 
root, five forms occur 17 times in the Qur'an: °awwibl once; 
LAjI °iyab once; CJjl °awwdb five times; jjjljl 3 awwabin once and 
iJC« ma"ab nine times. 

<jjjS D awwibl [imper. of v. II Lsjl "awwctoa, intrans.] to repeat, 
to echo (34:10) ^jl cfelj li« JjIj liili jSTj We graced 
David with a favour from us, [We said], 'Mountains, echo God's 
praises with him. ' 

LiVj) "iyab [v. n.] returning, coming/going back (88:25) uyi b] 
J4^0 to J/5 wz'// &e their returning. 

Liljl 'awivaZ? [intens. act. part.; pi. Ltfjlj! °awwdbin] 1 one given 
to going back, one who sincerely repents and goes back to God 
(38:30) Lsljl <u) iu*il f*j jjIjJ «wtZ We gave to David 

Solomon, an excellent servant who always turned to God 2 
(possibly) one who strongly enumerates, echoes or repeats [praise 
of God] (in one interpretation of 38:19) CJji JS s 
f/ie fo'nis, gathered together; each enumerating His praise 3 
obedient, submitting (in another interpretation of 38:19) 'JJallj 
Lil jl <! JS s'jjj^» a«<i f/ie birds, gathered together; each submitting 
to him [ Solomon ]. 

Lit* ma°db [n. of place or time/v. n.] place of return, final 
abode/act of returning (78:39) ajj ii2l *U °(>a jkJI £p ^lli 
that is the True Day, so whoever wishes to, should take a path 
returning to his Lord. 

LjjjS 3 ayyub (see alphabetically). 

J /j/' : '-w-d weight; effort, hardship; to weigh down; crookedness; to 
wriggle; to be kind. Of this root, i jjj ya°ud occurs once in the 
Qur' an. 

ij&ytfud [imperf. of v. 'J "ada, trans.] to weigh down, to 
trouble, to wear down (2:255) Vj LtJajVlj pI'j-Ul 
r^hi-s ff/j throne extends over the heavens and the Earth; 
preserving them both does not weigh Him down. 



64 



J/j/S 3 -w-l returning, resorting to, reverting to; a place of return; to 
be reduced to; to hail from; to precede, to go first; to process, to 
deduce, to infer. Of this root, five forms occur 125 times in the 
Qur'an: "dip ta°wil 17 times; Jt p al 26 times; jj ^awwal 24 times; 
ojljl "awwalun 38 times and J J 3 ula 20 times. 

Jjjti ta 3 wil [v. n./n.] 1 interpretation (of a dream) (12:44) IjSU 
'jjJUu f^kVl Jjjtb cpj f^-l djUlJ f/iey sa/(f, '[These are] 
nonsensical dreams and we are not knowledgeable in dream- 
interpretation' 2 inference, deducing the significance of an 
ambiguous text; interpretation (3:7) U> 'oPQ «j j^jjS ^ ji^l ^ 
aIII V] ALjtj ( Jkj Uj Aijjtj iUujlj elj^! as /or the ones in 

whose hearts is swerving, they pursue the ambiguous in it 
desiring [to cause] dissension and desiring its [definite] 
interpretation, when only God knows its [true] interpretation 3 
consequence, outcome, end result (4:59) 1 jjja '^c'jSi 
Xjti j ^>i. illi ujVjj °fjj£ b] J J^j^'j ^ & n d if you 

should dispute over something, refer it to God and the 
Messenger-if you truly believe in God and the Last Day that is 
better and fairer in the end; (7:53) ^P J&i 'fj* ^p V) 'djj=^i J* 
L yJlj Ijjj Jluj Cm.\^. ja Jjl °qa I jloj "jjjjll Jji do they await but its 
fulfilment?, on the Day its fulfilment is realised, those who had 
previously ignored it will say, 'Our Lord's messenger did bring 
the truth' 4 realisation, coming true, fulfilment (12:100) ajjjI 'gijj 

laa W^*^ l£^2J~) dlP J^j I ^ 1 " ^ 'j^^J (J^)*^ ^ 1c- 

and he led his parents to the couch, and they fell down prostrate 
before him and he said, 'Father, this is the fulfilment of my dream 
of long ago; My Lord has made it come true ' 5 effect (in one 
interpretation of 12:37) y aLj^l U£jUj V] ^jUjjj jLUda I^jIj V Jli 
/ie sa/cf, Wo /oofi? wj'Z/ come to yow for your sustenance 
without me telling you of its effects [ and what it could do to you ] 
before it arrives. ' 

JT 3 al [coll. n. occurring 26 times in the Qur'an; also it may 
have originally been Ja! °ahl (q.v.) and is always in construct with 
a following n.] 1 family, household (3:33) t=-jj j f'ii ^iKA aIII y 
jjjJUJI 'jljUc. Jli j J^aIj^J Jli j indeed God has chosen Adam, the 
family of Abraham and the family of c imran above all others; 



65 



* u'j^ J* name of Sura 3, a Medinan sura, so-named for the 
mention of c imran in verse 33 2 people (3:11) 'cxkj 'a'j^J J* ^J'& 
luGL I j^iS J^Jja *(> f f/i<? case of] Pharaoh 's people and their 
predecessors [who] denied Our revelations. 

JjS 3 awwal [quasi-act. part.; fem. J J "w/a; pi. ojj 'awwalun] 
1 first (3:96) aSjj ls,^ t^j h^h Jj> *u! ./zrsf House [of 
worship] to be established for people was the one at Mecca; 
*(57:3) JjSfl [an attribute of God] f/i<? First, f/i<? Beginning; 
*(53:25) (jJj^lj f/ie next and this life 2 previous, former, 
earlier (20:21) ^'ja* IaWL. Utkj S/j Uii Jli //e said, Tafce if 
cfo «of £>e afraid— We will restore it to its former state' 3 
previous generations [jjSjVl "al-'awwalun] people of old times 
(17:59) 'ojjy\ t« 'J VI pUVU J^jj 'J UTj nothing prevents 
Us from sending signs, except that previous generations denied 
them. 

j 3 ula D i (see !i dha). 

£H$ :, ulat classified by grammarians as quasi-sound fem. pi. Jjala) 
(l1u>JI on the basis of similarity in the way in which both are 
declined; CjV J occurs twice in the Qur'an and is always in a 
construct with a following noun, 'those with 'those endowed 
with 'possessors of *(65:4) JLkVl ^ J'j those with child, 
pregnant women. j has no phonetically related singular; the 
role, however, is fulfilled by oli dhat (q.v.) (see jlj °ulu). 

jJji °ulu (in the accusative (<.i.^i\l) and genitive (jaJI > J J) classified 
by grammarians as a quasi-sound masc. pi. (<JU jkiJ jala) 
on the basis of similarity in the way in which they are declined; 
jljl occurs 43 times in the Qur'an and is always in a construct 
with a following noun, 'those with 'those endowed with 
'possessors of (39:21) L-sUft/l ^jjj i/jki aii ^ y there is truly 
a reminder in this for those possessed of minds. _>1 J 3 ulu has no 
phonetically related singular; the role, however, is fulfilled by ji 
dhu (q.v.) (see cH J D ulai). 



a/j/S °-w-h measles; pain, sadness; to moan, to sigh. Of this root, Sljl 



66 



"awwah occurs twice in the Qur'an. 

IfJ 'awwah [intens. act. part.] given to expressing sorrows, 
tender hearted, compassionate (9:114) jLk. SI jV Ijj Abraham 
was tender hearted and forbearing. 

t?/j/' J — w— y shelter, refuge, abode, to repair to a place of refuge, to 
accommodate, to shelter, to show kindness. Of this root, three 
forms occur 36 times in the Qur'an: J awa five times; tj'J °awa 
nine times and jL ma"wa 22 times. 

j'J 3 awa I [v. intrans. (also trans.)] to take refuge, to repair, to 
shelter (18:10) m^ 11 lA <0 cs'j ^ wften f/ze young men took 
refuge in the cave. 

jj\ "awa [v. IV, trans.] 1 to shelter someone, to protect (8:26) 
sjl^ij ^iSljta //e gave yow refuge and strengthened you 
with His help 2 [with ^]] to take to oneself (33:51) iL£ I> 
iUu '(> LsUI csjJjj yew may put off whomsoever you wish of 
them and take to yourself whomsoever you wish. 

jjt» ma"wa [n. of place/v. n.] abode, home, place of retreat, 
dwelling/abiding, staying, destination (32:19) IjLc-j 'jjill Cat 
tSjtjl cjUk pliJlLall as /or f/iose w/io believe and do good 
deeds, to them are the gardens of retreat. 

ts\ °l positive-response particle (tJ <_i j^), carrying with it great 
emphasis, occurring once in the Qur'an, 'yes', 'indeed' (10:53) ls) 
i£A 4jJ Jfjjyes indeed!, by my Lordl-it is true. 

J /<#/' °-y-d fortification, stronghold, refuge; to bolster, to fortify; 
power, toughness. Of this root, two forms occur 11 times in the 
Qur'an: 4 °ayyada nine times and 4 °ayd twice. 

iS J ayyada [v. II, trans.] to support, to bolster up, to strengthen 
(2:87) o»'^ c J-* '^4j ?iS* !$ ij*>& We gave Jesus, son 
of Mary, clear signs and supported him with the Holy Spirit. 

4 °ayd [n.] might, power, strength (51:47) Ulj sjju UL&£ iUUlj 
tjji^jU and the Heaven We built with power and made [it] vast. 



67 



4SjS 3 aykatun [n., with no verbal root, occurring four times in the 
Qur'an] thicket, clump of trees, forest *( 15:78) '*£§i\ LAalJ the 
dwellers of woods (an epithet for the people of Midian to whom 
the Prophet Shu c ayb was sent). 

f/<#/i 3 -y-m defect, shortcoming; to be without spouse, to lose one's 
spouse, widow, widower. Of this root, ^rf 3 ayama occurs once in 
the Qur'an. 

^IjS 3 ayama [pi. of n./quasi-act. part. $ 3 ayyim] a spouseless 
person, an unmarried person (24:32) I> 'jjaJllollj J^L I JsSij 
marry off the single amongst you and those of your male 
and female slaves who are suitable [also: who are righteous]. 

3 aynama (see o/j-jfi 3 -w/y-n). 

0/tf~j/\ "-w/y-n time, to fall due, fatigue; philologists classify under 
this vague root some function words more on the basis of 
phonetic, rather than semantic, affinity. Of this root, four forms 
occur 25 times in the Qur'an: 'jVI 'al-^ana eight times; 'jUl 
°ayydna six times; j$ 3 ayna seven times and "aynama four 
times. 

OVI 1 alcana [adverbially used n. considered by a group of 
grammarians to consist of the article —II + jl (time)] 1 now (2:71) 
jklL Cua. 'jVI I _jH3 f/iey sa/J, Wow yow Ziave brought the truth' 2 
nowadays, at the present time (72:9) I>a aUUI '^l£> l^ia &£j US lij 
liLaj UU-S <J 'jVI ^/)'.nj a«(i f/iaf we Msec? to sjY oti places therein 
to listen, but the one who listens nowadays, finds for himself a 
meteor lying in wait. 

(M "ayyana interrogative pronoun of the future respecting 
time yet to come (Jjaiu^il jUj ^1) and used for great events in 
contrast with Ji* (mata) (q.v.) 'whenever?' (51:12) 'jjltuy 
jjjll they ask, 'Whenever is this Judgement Day coming?!' In 
connected discourse 'jy may lose its interrogative function and 
become governed by a preceding agent, e.g. a verb; denoting a 
sense of 'difficult time ahead' (16:21) (jlil qjjx^, Uj « 
'oy^i they are dead, not living, and have no awareness of when 



<i/cs/i 

they will ever be raised up. 

6$ "ayna interrogative pronoun of (cP^ fV 5 -^ f^) 'where?', 
occurring seven times in the Qur'an and regularly used 
rhetorically to mean 'nowhere!', 'is there ever a place?!', 
'wherever?' (75:10) 'S Jj^ on that Day man will 

say, 'Wherever is the escape ?! ' 

UjjS J aynama conditional (<^=j^) (considered by many 
grammarians to be a compound of conditional J$ + ma of 
ambiguity (U 5-^11), denoting emphasis 'wherever!' (4:78) U±J 
cly& I jj jSj wherever you may be, death will overtake you. 

\ts(\ : '-y-y (1) marker, sign, token, indicator, to mark; to pause, to 
tarry; to ponder, to assure oneself; a person's body; glory; light of 
the sun; beauty of flowers. Of this root, three forms occur 380 
times in the Qur'an: X} °dyatun 86 times; $Q "ayatayn once and 
CjUI °aydt 295 times. 

AjT °dyatun [n.; dual °dyatayn\ pi. CjUI "ayat] 1 sign, 
indicator, indication (12:105) 'cx»J*i lPO^'j j^'j^-J ^ j$* i> c*fc 
l^i j l^llc. a«<f /low ma«y a w f/iere in f/ze heavens 
and the Earth which they pass by, turning away from it! 2 
evidence, proof (12:35) J** AviV.^ CjUVI Ijtj U« >j |> '4 

f/ie?i if occurred to them, [ even ] after seeing the evidence [for 
his innocence], that they should imprison him for a while 3 
miracle, portent (13:7) Xij |> 4jSc Jjji Vjl I jjiS 'jjill Jjij and 
those who disbelieve say, 'If only some portent were sent down 
upon him from his Lord?' 4 symbol, exemplar (23:50) j$ 
Ajli 41t j jo'j- and We made f/ze soti o/ Mary and his mother an 
exemplar 5 message, revelation (20:134) V jlfj lull cjL>°J Vjl Ujj 
ts'jijj Jij 'J Jj5 '(> '^Oi 2^ iorJ, only You had sent us a 
messenger, so that we might have followed Your revelations, 
before we suffered humiliation and disgrace! 6 teachings, 
instructions (24:1) cJdu cLY* l^ja UTjij liULajfj liUTjii s'jjl. ffe's a 
swra We Ziave sen? down arccf made obligatory-We have sent down 
clear instruction in it, so that you may take heed 7 verses, parts of 
the Qur'an (16:101) c2 U^l I JlS Jy$ Uu JJc.1 illlj b; lilj 

jii w/ien We substitute one verse for another-and God knows 



69 



best what He reveals-they say, 'You are just making it up' 8 
lesson (3:13) M J* ty* J^l 'JS. ja you have already seen a 
lesson in the two armies that met [in battle] 9 glory, wonder 

(17:1) tj'lH aa^l ^'...'.W Jajj^jl ^ !>Ij3 oi»J lSJ*"' lS^' 0^4^" 

UjUIc '(> i^jA iijk US'jG g/ory &e to Him who made His servant 
travel by night from the Sacred Mosque to the Furthest Mosque, 
whose surroundings We have blessed, to show him some of Our 
wonders 10 spell, in an interpretation of verse (7:132) Isb I jMj 
'jji<i>u t*M Igj Ujkloul Jjli '(> 4j they said 'Whatever spell 

[also interpreted as: sign] you produce in order to enchant us 
with, we will never believe with you. ' 

"J\ 'ayy (2) occurring some 215 times in the Qur'an and functioning 
as: I declinable interrogative pronoun always in a construct (fJ 
lJjxU At&J) 'who?', 'which?', 'what?' and used for both rational 
beings (9:124) UUJ ajjIj °?£J Jj^j *t> s'jj^ 1 ^j*' ^ 'Tj vv/iew a 
sura is revealed, some of them say, 'Which of you has this 
increased in faith'; and for non-rational beings (77:50) ^Ua 
'jjiajj »jSu so in what discourse, after it, will they believe? In 
connected discourse this "J\ may lose its interrogative function but 
remains as a determiner. This may occur when "J\ itself becomes 
governed by, e.g., a verb (26:227) 'o^&h If 1 j^=> ui^ 
f/ie evildoers will come to know what place of returning they will 
return to; or when the entire "J\ phrase is governed by (or 
subordinated to) a preceding verb (4:11) °4l V '^SjUjIj 

tjy Li'jat yowr parents and your children-you do not know 
which is more likely [lit. nearer] to you in usefulness. This ~J\ 
occurs inflected for feminine gender, jd ^ayyati, only in the 
variant non-popular reading of Tbn Mas c ud of (31:34) "o^j ^ju Uj 
(ajL) "Ju and no soul knows in what land it will die II a 
declinable conditional always in construct with a 

following nominal 'whichever', 'whoever', occurring in the 
Qur'an with a following ma of ambiguity i^iA U) which lends 
emphasis to the entire sentence (28:28) 'JCs. 'jlj.sc. bu ciLaS jjkVl Uj? 
whichever of the two terms I fulfil, let there be no sanction 
against me III a declinable relative pronoun J <~J) 

'who', 'which', 'whom' (17:57) aW^I ^jj 'jjilu 'oj^ us!^ 



70 



4 



Li'jSl those upon whom they [the disbelievers] call- 

[themselves] seek a way to their Lord, even those of them who are 
closest [to Him] IV a prefixal connector to a noun bearing the 
article 3 al as a means of calling it (Jl U d^y J& <L^j) as part of 
the vocative (... Jl (including relative pronouns with °al such 
as ^ill 3 alladhi). This y is always suffixed with attention-drawing 
U /m (q.v.) and is inflected for gender (1^1 'ayyuha and 1*2$ 
°ayyatuha) (2:21) Ijijel ^Ull people, worship your Lord; 
(12:70) uj^j^ f^i W y° M camel riders!, you are thieves. It is 
often used interjectionally (15:6) ^lij jSiJI $e. Jjj ^sill l^Su I jJlSj 
"jji^J f/iey say, Tow, to w/iom f/ze Reminder has been revealed!, 
you are certainly mad'. In three places in the Qur'anic text t«J 
"ayyuhd occurs orthographically as '*$ 'ayyuha with a final short 
vowel /a/, reflecting the actual shortening of the final long vowel 
in connected speech (55:31) '*$ j£l We w?7/ attend to 
you both [We shall take you to task], you two groups [of jinn and 
mankind] laden [with responsibilities] V [prefixed with A with 
the compensation nunation (^jkill aij^) (<J-v.) noted as j] 

exclamatory 'how much!', 'how many!' (j^sill) (22:48) I> °c$£j 

, . , . . . 

ZAk ^a'j l^J cjjLI £jjS /iow many a town steeped in wrongdoing I 
gave more time to. 

4jS 3 ayyati (a variant reading of "J\ "ayy; see: "J\ "ayy). 

l^yl ^ayyatuha (see 2s S 3 ayy). 

UjI 'ayyuma (see 2sS 3 ayy). 

4j! °ayyuha (see Is! 3 ayy). 

I^jS 3 ayyuha (see 2sS ''ayy). 

Ljjj! 3 ayyub [a borrowed proper name occurring four times in the 
Qur'an] Prophet Job (Job III) (38:41) J \ LjJ tifc 'j&j 

■ , C all JjUaj^l a«(i remember Our servant Job when he 
called to his Lord, 'Satan has afflicted me with weariness and 
suffering. ' 



71 



Job is named in the distinguished company of prophets whom 
God had inspired (4:163), and in one extended narrative, (38:41- 
4) his suffering and patience serve as a powerful symbolic 
parallel with the Prophet Muhammad's own struggle. In answer 
to his prayers, God provides him with 'cool water' with which he 
washes himself and drinks. He is cured as a token of God's mercy 
and has his family restored to him. 

Cj\ ^iyya detached pronoun in the accusative case specified for gender, 
number and person in accordance with the suffix to which it is 
always attached (J<-aii« t_u^j (16:51) jjjAjli '^ty* I alone am 
the One that you should hold in awe. The use of this detached 
pronoun, as contrasted with its attached counterpart lends great 
emphasis to the context (e.g. 'S3 "iyyaka 'you alone!'), as in (1:5) 
'jjjjLLoj diU] j iSu 'Aty it is You we worship; it is You we ask for help. 



'd$ ^ayyana (see °-w/y-ri). 



Lj/ba J 



ftjli :, al-ba" the second letter of the alphabet; it represents a voiced 
bi-labial plosive sound. 

—j bi preposition (ja. ^j^-) occurring in 2538 places in the Qur'an. In 
context it conveys various meanings among which are the 
following: 1 accompaniment, or concomitance pj^llaill), 'with' 
(11 :48) fl&'Jfj ^ Ja^l ^ jj^ Noah, descend with peace from Us 
and blessings 2 instrument or means by which the action is 
performed (ifliSjiVI), 'by means of, 'by the help of (1:1) <U f^i 
fjaSJi o^j 51 [I begin/act] with the help of the name of God, the 
Lord of mercy, the Giver of mercy 3 indicating the reason for the 
action p5£U), 'because of, 'for', 'as consequence of (29:40) ^ia 
liiaJ and We punished each one of them for their sins 4 
indicating ... 'in return for', 'in exchange for' (<LlSiJI) (16:32) 
'jjLii £j£ I jlk'i enter the Garden in return for what you 

have done 5 indicating location (Aja'jkJI) on a) a surface 'on' 
(2:265) s'jj'jj like a garden on a hill b) in an area 'at' 

(3:123) Jiif <M f^j^=j '^j and God indeed helped you at Badr; or 
c) at a point in time 'at the time of (54:34) fiUSkj L jl Ji VI 
except the family of Lot whom We rescued at the last hour of the 
night 6 indicating the target or recipient of the action (ajUJI), 
'towards', 'to' (12:100) J> ij ^ J>aJ jSj an<f /ia<f 

gracious to me-when He released me from prison 7 indicating 
elevation (*!>UuL«VI) a) physical 'above', 'on top of (4:42) Jy^ 'jl 
£>ajVl J^j f/iaf the earth is levelled over them or b) abstract, in the 
meaning of prep. JSe. 'over'; 'on' (3:75) V jUjjj kiAj 'J> '<> °4Vj 
^1 o/ f/zem w /ie who, if you trust him with [lit. over] a 
[single] dinar, will not return it to you or c) indicating the mere 



73 



surface, also one of the senses of prep. <J^, 'over' (4:43) I J^L\i 
'^d'j jk'jj and wipe over your faces and hands [with it] 8 the 
sense of prep, min (cy <j£"), 'from' (76:6) aJII I^j L/>uu Lie. a 
spring from which the servants of God drink 9 adhesiveness, 
indicating firm or close contact (jlUVI), 'by' (7:150) Ajii ^i'jj iitj 
All] s'jkj a«a* he took hold of his brother, dragging him to himself 
by the head 10 the sense of prep. c an ('jc. Ja^, 'about', 
'concerning' (25:59) 4j JlAa J>a.jll f/ie Lore? of Mercy; ask 
any informed person about Him 11 'passing by' (83:30) I Jj* lijj 
'jjj^Ui and w/ien f/iey pass &y f/zem f/zey win& af one another 12 
'notwithstanding', 'for all', 'in spite of (9:118) cjSLa 
Cukj U, when the earth, for all its spaciousness, closed in around 
them 13 over and above, in addition to (in one interpretation of 
10:71) Jaj lie. 'fSjlla so He repaid you with grief over grief 14 oath 
(plill) (38:82) jj^i j44jc^ ^!>j3 lU he said, 'By your might I will 
tempt them all' 15 transitivity (aIujII), rendering a verb transitive 
(77:50) ujVjj Ai--^ 50 in w/iaf discourse, after it, will they 
believe?; also in (2:17) '^x j>j Aiil Lsaj God toofc away die/r dgfe 16 
emphasis (jjSuJI) (the so-called 'redundant' ba° (sjSIjII the 
(13:43) ^ aISLj ^ JS say, '[Indeed], God suffices as a 
witness between me and you'. Emphatic _ i occurs often in the 
compliment of negative particles as in (81:25) K! * '" 1X5*4 j* 

this is in no way the speech of any accursed devil 17 the ba° of 
wonder, of interjection (<.iV^I *W) (18:26) 4j 'j^l tow wed 
//e sees and hears! 

JjVj 5aM [proper name, early borrowing from Akkadian, occurring 
once in the Qur'an. Philologists derive it from dl/v/v b-b-l 
although they recognize the word as the name of a city /region in 
Iraq famous for wine and magic] Babylon, the word occurs in 
reference to two angels, Harut and Marat, who were sent to try 
the faith of the inhabitants of the city of Babylon. They taught the 
inhabitants magic while at the same time warning them that, 'We 
are only a test, so do not abandon your beliefs', but they learnt 
from them harmful acts of magic such as how to sow discord 
between a man and his wife (2:102) Cjj'Ja Jil lwSLJI JSe. Jjii Uj 
CjjjUj and what was revealed to the two angels, Harut and 



74 



Marut, in Babylon. 

j/S/lj b-°-r a well, to dig a well; to treasure, to hide, to do good. Of 
this root, bi°r occurs once in the Qur'an. 

>j bi°r [n. fem.] a well (22:45) J^j J4j [how many] 
a deserted well; and [how many] a lofty palace. 

o*/\/<-> b- D -s might, power; torture, hardship, fear; poverty, sorrow; 
to be sad; calamity, punishment. Of this root, seven forms occur 
73 times in the Qur'an: 'o^p tabta"is twice; [yt ba"s 25 times; 
oUJj ba"sa 3 four times; <j&} ba'is once; ba°is once; 'o^i bi 3 sa 
37 times and Uu4f bFsama three times. 

o-jjjj tabta'is [imperf. of v. VIII |>£ul 'ibta'asa, intrans. with 
prep. _j] to grieve [over], to feel sorrow, to be sad [about] (12:69) 
'jjLkj I ji£ U»j '^ja.t ul ^1 / am yowr [very] brother; so do 

not grieve over what they have done. 

1yL ba 's [n.] 1 might, power (17:5) jjAu oJj j>kjic. USi: 

We se«ci, against you, servants of Ours of great might 2 strength, 
solidity (57:25) ^<S i^akll bljslj a«J We sen? iron, 

possessing [lit. in if is] great strength 3 hardship, stress, danger 
(2:177) oh\ f U«tSl (ji 'jjjjllall j those who are steadfast 

in misfortune, adversity and times of danger 4 punishment 
(40:29) lilk J) <S1I '(> U'jL^i '<>a Z?m? w/io w/ZZ ZieZ/? against 
God's mighty punishment if it comes upon us? 5 vengeance, 
severity, violence (6:65) o*t f£ ™ j l3^4j <z«d /na/ce some taste 
f/ie severity of others 6 battle, war, strife (33:18) VI ^ 'cJfc Vj 
iUS a«<f f/iey do not come to battle but little. 

fUjj ba^sa" [n./v. n.] adversity, suffering (7:94) f lJjkj I^Ja! Uiai 
f fjUlj We afflicted its people with suffering and hardships. 

o-jIj ba°is [act. part./n.] unfortunate, wretched (22:28) I jVLIj 
jjiill |>i5UJI and feed the wretched poor. 

oa^is [quasi-act. part./n.] inflicting misery, calamitous 
(7:165) o*jjj i-jliu IjUti 'jjill Uiklj flwJ inflicted severe punishment 
on the wrongdoers. 



75 



ouj bi°sa [inconjugable verb of abuse jLi Jka), as it is 
labelled by Arab grammarians (see ni°ma) used 

interjectionally] 'what a terrible thing!', 'what an evil thing!', 
'how calamitous!' (5:79) 'dJ**i I & few v/Ze w w/iaf f/iey 
Msec? fo <fo/ 

Iju-jj brsama [a compound of |>5j Wsa and relative U> ma 
carrying with it more exclamation] 'how absolutely terrible!', 
'how absolutely devilish!', 'how absolutely calamitous!' (7:150) 
^pkj 'qa jkiaii. Uuii w/iaf a foul thing you have put in my place 
after my departure! 

j/Ci/lj b-t-r to cut off the tail, to have no descendants, to be 
destitute; to be sharp, to be sharp-witted. Of this root, j5u! J abtar, 
occurs once in the Qur'an. 

jjjS °abtar [quasi-act. part.] destitute, one [whose bloodline is] 
cut off, one with no male descendants, (108:3) 'juVl j* *c& the 
one who hates you is [the] destitute [one] (or, without 
descendants) [not you]. 

S/Cj/lj b-t-k to uproot, to cut off at the base; to dedicate an animal to 
a certain idol, as was the custom in pre-Islamic Arabia, by cutting 
off, or slitting its ear; to be sharp. Of this root, s jS£j yubattikunna, 
occurs once in the Qur'an. 

yubattik [imperf. of v. II '<£u battaka, trans.] to cut off or to 
slit [the ear of an animal] (4:119) 'Jili bSuila '{&J*ij (4^0 pV'l'^Vj 
<M jjk. ti'Jjiu& '{Zjj'JJlj >UuS/l [Indeed] I will [certainly] mislead them 
and incite vain desires in them; I will command them to slit the 
ears of cattle and will command them and they will alter God's 
creation. 

d/d/i-i b-t-l to cut off, to separate, to stay away from others; to give 
up pleasures; to be celibate. Of this root, two forms occur once 
each in the Qur'an: l£p tabattal and Jj^ tabtll. 

tP±i tabattal [imperat. of v. V <_J£u tabattala, intrans. with prep. 
<^j, v. n. tabtll] to devote oneself entirely [to God's service] 



76 



(73:8) ^Lujj ^jIJ Jj?j jSilj so celebrate the name of your 

Lord and devote yourself wholeheartedly to Him. 

ij/ij/v b-th-th to spread, to disseminate; to cause to multiply; to 
disclose; sorrow, worry, illness. Of this root, five forms occur 
nine times in the Qur'an: iiu baththa five times; <-u bathth once; 
lLi mabthuth once; mabthuthatun once and munbathth 
once. 

iiu baththa u [v. trans.] 1 to disperse, to spread about, to scatter 
(31:10) ajIj JS '(> l^i djjj J>Sj jj-j 'jl ^ulj'j o^j^ ls^'j flW <^ ^ ca^f 
in f/ie earth firm mountains-lest it should sway with you-and 
spread in it all kinds of living creatures 2 to generate (4:1) <-uj 
iUj j TjjjS Vtk j U4-*> and from the pair of them He generated great 
numbers of men and women. 

iiu bathth [n./v. n.] distress, concern, anguish (12:86) _£d\ uij 
<]fl ^jkj / only complain of my anguish and grief to God. 

mabthuth [pass, part.; fern. mabthuthatun] 1 

scattered, dispersed (101:4) ^JuaII ^jilll ^Ull ^ f&e Day 

when people will be like scattered moths 2 spread out (88:16) 

° ■ ' s 

Jua ^'jjj and luxurious carpets outspread. 

s . 

munbathth [pass, part.] scattered about, dispersed (56:6) 
ljuio iUi, and turns to scattered dust. 

(jj/^/lj b-j-s to cause water to gush out; to come upon, to be full of, 
to boil over. Of this root, 'o^xi "inbajasa occurs once in the 
Qur' an. 

<_K>jjl "inbajasa [v. VII. intrans.] to gush out (7 : 1 60) s-i 

Luc U£| <i« rr.nVuli j^JI aU-aau 'strike with your staff the rock', 
and so there gushed out from it twelve springs. 

b-h-th to rummage in the dust looking for something, to claw 
the dust, to search, to seek information. Of this root, yabhath, 
occurs once in the Qur'an. 

lii^jj yabhath [imperf. of v. intrans. with prep. ^] to dig up, to 
scratch up (5:31) o^j^ ij 'Q'jf- ^ <-*^ so God sent a raven 



11 



scratching up the earth. 

j/^/lj b-h-r ocean, sea, great river, great expanse of water, lake; 
generous person; great knowledge; to slit an animal's ear in ritual. 
Of this root, five forms occur 42 times in the Qur'an: "J=h bahr 33 
times; "cfj=^ bahran five times; jU>j bihar twice; "J=d 'abhur once 
and s'jjaj bahlratun once. 

jju bahr [n.; pi. jU»j W/iar and (pi. of paucity) "J^S J abhur] 1 
sea, ocean (6:97) jjII pUlk ^ I jiSJjjJ f jkjll ^Sl Jkk ^ill j*j 
aw<f //e if w w/io /ias maJe f/ze sfars for you to use as a guide 
through the darkness of land and sea 2 salt and sweet waters, seas 
and rivers (5:96) ^Sl '<A^a'j ila J?.! permitted to you is 
catching seafood and eating it, a provision for you; *(30:41) jJjJi 
JsuJIj jjII ,ji 'ilill corruption has appeared [lit. on Zan<i a«<i sea] 
everyw/iere. 

(•jljikjil "al-bahran [dual, n.] salt and sweet waters (25:53) ja'j 
.• • « 

^Ikl JlL Ija'j CjI'js tjjc. Ii» (T_>° ^ill w //e who released the 

two bodies of flowing water, one sweet and fresh and the other 

salty and bitter. 

Sjjaj bahlratun [quasi-pass. part, used nominally] the one with 
the slit ear, camel whose ear is slit and who is left to feed freely in 
accordance with certain pre-Islamic rites (5:103) § j#>j !> Aill Jik U 

Vj Vj JjjU Vj GoJ has not ordained [dedicating to idols 
animals such as the] bahlratun, sa^ibatun, wasllatun or ham 
(q.v.). 

e>Vc/" b-kh-s to diminish, to reduce; to deny full dues. Of this root, 
three forms occur seven times in the Qur'an: [y^lu yabkhas four 
times; yubkhas once and bakhs twice. 

yabkhas [imperf. of v. bakhasa] I [trans.] to decrease, 
to reduce, to diminish (2:282) Vj ajj aIII ^1 5^ ^ d3^j 
a«<i /ef f/ie debtor dictate, and let him fear God, his 
Lord, and not diminish any of it [the debt] II [doubly trans., 
pass.] to deny someone fair return, to pay someone less than they 
deserve, to undervalue, to underestimate (11:85) oJjll \Ju^ Yj 



78 



jJkillil do not undervalue for people their property. 

o**& yubkhas [pass, v.] to be denied a fair return, to be given 
less than is deserved (11:15) "uj-^ ^ fe? f*j fe? (4^1 '^J We 
s/iaZZ repay them for their deeds [in this world] and they [their 
actions] will not be undervalued. 

"o*L* bakhs [v. n.] 1 [used nominally] loss, injustice (72:13) !>a 
12k j V j Hcu ljUj '^jj whoever believes in his Lord need not 

fear diminution [of the reward of his action] nor wrong 2 [used 
adjectivally] defective, much less than what is fair (12:20) I'JjZj 
§j J&U JaI'j'j t>4> ana* f/iey 5o/<i him for a paltry price. 

b-kh- c tendon that runs close to the neck, to cut such tendon, 
to cut the throat; to show humility; to be docile. Of this root, yjj 
bakhi c occurs twice in the Qur'an. 

jilj bakhi [act. part.] tormenting, killing (oneself with sorrow 
or worry) (26:3) 'oi&'y* I y£i v! ^Lij ^-U ^ikla it may be that you 
[Prophet] are going to kill yourself [with worry] because they 
will not become believers! 

J/c/s* b-kh-l to be stingy, to be covetous; to be grudging, meanness. 
Of this root, two forms occur 12 times in the Qur'an: J?j bakhila 
10 times and bukhl twice. 

J?j bakhila a [v. intrans.] 1 to be or act in a niggardly or 
miserly way (47:38) !> ^ lW" ^ I jSiul 'jjc-Jj f.*iy> Jusli 
Ziere yow are, called upon to spend in the cause of God, but some 
of you will be niggardly 2 [with prep. _ j] to deny something 
meanly, to begrudge (9:76) aj Ijkj <L^a J> jjktili Ilia yef w/iera //e 
J/a* g/ve f/iem some of His bounty, they begrudged it [to others] 3 
[with prep, jc] to be niggardly towards (47:38) J^y ^ J^y I>j 
'jc. w/ioever is niggardly is niggardly against himself. 

jiij om/c/i/ [n./v. n.] miserliness, niggardliness, meanness, 
stinginess (57:24) o*^ oJJ^iJ ujfey '03$ those who are 

miserly and urge miserliness on others. 

Sjij^b-d- 3 to begin, to initiate, the beginning, the lead; chief, 



79 



exceptional person. Of this root, three forms occur 16 times in the 
Qur'an: li bada J a 12 times; isSh yubdi J three times and \s$i 
badi'once. 

% bada J a a I [v. intrans. with prep. _j] to start with or by, to 
begin with (12:76) -Sja.1 f Ms. j Jja '^^.'jli !"4a so, /ie began with their 
packs, before the pack of his brother II [trans.] 1 to initiate, to 
innovate, to do for the first time (10:34) £ jkJI I 
Jiuu can any of your partner -gods originate creation?, then bring 
it back to life again? 2 [with prep. — j] to be first in doing 
something to someone (9:13) ?J* JJ J^jp'jj °£>j and they were the 
ones to [attack] you first. 

yubdf [imperf. of v. IV lit 'abda^a, trans.] to initiate, to 
start something (29:19) »lsy p ti^ 1 ^ ls£i <-«i£ Ijls '^'J do they not 
see how God initiates creation and then reproduces it; *(34:49) 
Igu UTj JLU1I j^ju5 Uj J^JI ilk ffe frwf/i has come and falsehood is 
dumbfounded (or, vanquished) [lit. neither begins nor repeats [ an 
utterance]]. 

'is& badi" (in one reading ^jU &a<if) [act. part.] one that begins, 
comes first *(11:27) ^1 jll without thinking, on the spur of the 
moment, without reflection [lit. the first opinion that occurs to 
one]. 

j/j/lj b-d-r full moon, sign, herald, harbinger; to give surprise, to 
take the initiative. Of this root, two forms occur once each in the 
Qur'an: jjj badr and jta bidar. 

jJj 5a<fr [proper name] a well and an area near Medina, a 
three-day camel ride from Mecca, where the first battle between 
Muslims and Quraysh took place in 2 A.H/624 A.D. (3:123) jSTj 
aLI 'fji! j j'iu Aill J^">^j a«<i indeed God helped you at Badr when 
you were utterly weak. 

jt'jj Z?/(iar [v. n.] the act of hurrying, rushing up to do (4:6) 
I j'jjSj °j IjIjjj liljlJ Ia jkti V j I jiajli /ia«<i over their 

property to them, do not consume it wastefully and in haste lest 
they come of age [and get it back]. 



80 



b-d- c novelty, to produce something new, to originate, to 
contrive; new fashion, heresy. Of this root, three forms occur four 
times in the Qur'an: £j2jl "ibtada c a once; g^j bid once and ^jj 
badi c twice. 

£Su\ ^ibtada € a [v. VIII, trans.] to contrive, to invent, to dream 
up (57:27) J^jSc. UliiS U U jc-jlil -Sytjk'jj and [as for] monasticism 
they have invented it— We did not ordain it for them. 

£Jj bid c [quasi-act./pass. part.] innovation, first-time 
phenomenon, novelty (46:9) [> li'-ij ^ U / am not a novelty 
among the Messengers. 

jjJj badi c [act. part.] the originator, the initiator, also attribute 
of God (6:101) o^jVlj cIJZJ, ^jj f/ie Creator of the heavens and 
earth. 

J/j/i_j Z?-<f-/ substitute, alternative, replacement; to replace, to 
exchange, to alter; to trade, to barter. Of this root, nine forms 
occur 44 times in the Qur'an: Jjj baddala 21 times; Jin tubaddal 
twice; Jjju yubdil three times; tatabaddal three times; d-sSi 
tabtadil three times; Ji Z?a<faZ once; Ji^ faMfZ seven times; JjjI 
mubaddil three times and JTjjuU 'istibdal once. 

Jjj baddala [v. II] I [trans.] 1 to alter, to change (2:181) a£l !>a 
ij 'jjjll ^ Aiuj Uula Ak^, U'j^ // anyone alters it after hearing it, 
the guilt will fall on those who alter it 2 to replace something, to 
substitute something (76:28) UEl Uli lilj should We wish 

it, We could completely change their make-up [lit. f/ie/r likeness, 
or, f/ie/r constitutions] (or, change them for other creatures) II 
[doubly trans.] 1 to transform one thing into another (25:70) '<Mji 
cjUiak ^'{tin aAII Jii swc/i people, God will change their evil deeds 
into good ones 2 to substitute one thing for another (24:55) j4^$j 
1ij 'f^ija. j«j I> awe? He will give them in exchange, after their fear, 
security 3 to exchange one thing for another (14:28) 'jjill J$ 'y jJ 
Tjjk 5UII ^«kj I jEl Ziave yow g/vera thought to those who exchange 
God's favour for ingratitude? 

Jjjj yubaddal [imperf. pass.] 1 to be altered, changed (50:29) ^ 
"t^'d JjSil Jji the pronouncement is not changed with Me 2 to be 



81 



changed into another (14:48) cXJZA'j i>»jVl Jji. J>ajVl Jin 
when [lit. the day when] the earth is turned into another earth, the 
heavens into another heaven. 

Jjjj yubdil [imperf. of v. IV Jil abdala, doubly trans.] to give 
someone something in place of another, to replace one thing with 
another (18:81) 'la*- *-4^j 1-4^ °u> so we 

wished that their Lord should change him for them, [for one ] 
better in purity and nearer to kindness. 

Jjjjj tatabaddal [imperf. of v. V trans.] to exchange (4:2) 
t_4Mj diuaJI I V j '^ jli (j^l^l g/ve orphans their property and 
do not exchange good things for bad. 

Jiiuu yastabdil [imperf. of v. X J££J "istabdala, trans.] 1 to 
seek to exchange (2:61) jjji ji ls.-^W ^ ls.-^ oj^.^^ would you 
exchange that which is better for that which is worse? 2 to put 
something in place of another (9:39) ^j 5 d4^?j a«<i 

others in your place. 

Jjj oa<faZ [n.] substitute, exchange (18:50) !> itfj ^ j^Sal 
'jj^Uill ^ jic. J^l j ^ ji <io vow fa/c<? /i/m aw<f /m's descendants 

as your allies, instead of Me, even though they are your enemies? 

What a bad exchange for the evil-doers. 

5Ljuj tabdll [v. n./n.] 1 the act of altering, alteration, change 
(48:23) iLfcij aJII juU V> oTj ara<i yow will find no change in God's 
practices 2 the act of exchanging (76:28) ^ lijj 

should We wish it, We would completely change their make-up 
[lit. f/ie/r likeness, or their constitutions] (or, change them for 
other creatures). 

'jiL> mubaddil [act. part.] one who changes, alters (6:115) cL^'j 
^jUKI Jiii V Vjc-j 15V 3 f/ze wore? of your Lord has come to 

pass in truth and justice, no one can change His words. 

"ji'Snui "istibdal [v. n.] seeking to exchange one thing for 
another (4:20) grjj £jj JTj1£J J&J y j a«<i ?/ yow wish to 
replace one wife with another. 

b-d-n torso, body; to be fat; to be fleshy; to be old; a camel or 



82 



cow fattened for sacrifice in pre-Islamic ritual. Of this root, two 
forms occur once each in the Qur'an: Jyu badan and "cj4 budn. 

*C& badan [n.] body (also said to mean a short shield) (10:92) 
AX* ^lik '(>! jjjSjJ 44-" ^li 50, tot/ay We save you [only] in 
body, that you may be a sign, for those after you. 

budn [pi. of n. <ii badanatun] [jur.] fleshy camels or cows, 
with certain specifications, that are fit to be sacrificed as part of 
the pilgrimage rituals (22:36) <M !> J^l UUk^ "Jj^j and the 
fleshy camels and cows, We have appointed them for you as part 
of God's sacred rites. 

j/j/lj b-d-w to appear, to manifest; to disclose, to show; to come to 
one's mind; the open desert; to go to the desert; desert dwellers, 
bedouins. Of this root, seven forms occur 31 times in the Qur'an: 
bada 24 times; tubdl nine times; cs'ii tubda twice; 74 badw 
once; bad! twice; oJ^G badun once and mubdi once. 

I'jj bada u [v. intrans. with prep. J] 1 to appear, to become 
manifest (7:22) U^j^ U4J s'j^ill lali Ilia but when they tasted 
the tree, their shameful parts became manifest to them 2 to come 
to one's mind, to occur (12:35) J**. VnV . njl pUVI Ijtj U ju '(> ^ 
jj?. to? it occurred to them, [even] after seeing the evidence [for 
his innocence], that they should imprison him for a while. 

^ju yubdi [imperf. of v. IV i/jjl "abda trans.] 1 to reveal, to 
bring into the open (3:29) Aill i °j\ '^jjiLa ^ U I jikj 'J\ 
whether you conceal or reveal what is in your hearts, God knows 
it 2 to cause to manifest, to cause to appear, to expose (7:20) 
X^\°jj^ 'ijA L4-io l£ jjj d>^i£ jUalill L41 ^jluji £>wf Satan 

insinuated [ evil thoughts [ to them, so as to expose the nakedness 
that had been hidden from them; *(28:10) <j ^iul y she 
almost gave him away (or, she would have involuntarily disclosed 
his identity). 

^jjj tubda [imperf. pass.] to be revealed, to be disclosed 
(5:101) j>i£>2 b] »^ i> 1 j^ ^ <5?o raof asfc a&owf matters 

which, if made known to you, would adversely affect you. 

jjj badw [n./v. n.] desert nomads; living or dwelling in the 



83 



desert (12:100) j'jjII J> J^j ilkj anc? /fe brought you here from the 
desert (or, from among the nomads, or, from being in the desert). 

&a<fr [act. part., pi. jjiU badun] 1 one who is away from 
the town, someone living in the desert, desert-dweller (33:20) 'Jfj 
iJ'jc-Vl ,ji 'jjij (4^ j3 1 jJjj t-ilj^Vl pt but if the joint forces were to 
come, they would wish they were away in the desert, among the 
Bedouins 2 outsider, one who lives outside (22:25) JjaJI y>'m'J j 
ijllj 4js U^UJI 'fS'Ju (jabll ^iJI flwJ [from] the Sacred Mosque 
which We made for all people, residents and outsiders alike 
*(11:27) isVJh 'is&i translated as clearly, obviously [lit. the first 
opinion that occurs to one] (a variant reading badi\ see: S/j/cj 
£-d- 9 ). 

^ ja« mubdl [act. part.] one who reveals or causes something to 
become manifest, someone who brings something to light, who 
exposes something (33:37) aUI U. ^Lij and you hide in 

your heart what God would [later] reveal. 

li/i-ib-dh-r seed, seedling, to sow; to disseminate; to divulge; to 
squander, to waste. Of this root, three forms occur once each in 
the Qur'an: jii tubadhdhir; tabdhir and oij^* mubadhdhirln. 

jjjj tubadhdhir [imperf. of v. II jij badhdhara, trans.; v. n. jg& 
tabdhir] to squander, to waste away (17:26) ^jiil |j pli'j 
jaju Vj lU^I 'lh'j 'jJ^l^lj g/ve relatives their due, and the 
needy, and travellers-do not squander your wealth wastefully. 

mubadhdhirln [pi. of act. part. ji£ mubadhdhir] 
spendthrifts, squanderers (17:27) jjjallill 'jlja-j I >IS 'uu^ 1 b] 
squanderers were ever the brothers of the devils. 

b-r-° God's creation, to create (said only of God); to cure; to 
prove someone's innocence; to disown someone; to be without 
blemish. Of this root, 12 forms occur 31 times in the Qur'an: fjjj 
nabra 3 once; ^jjI "ubri" twice; barra J a twice; \'Ju tabarra J a 
five times; "clsjj ban' 10 times; ujjjjj barVun once; l\'J> bard" 
once; bura'a' once; siljj bara^atun twice; bariyyatun 
twice; j$ jlj fcari 3 three times and oj» jf» mubarra'un once. 



84 



Sjiinabra 3 [imperf. of v. YJi bara'a, trans.] 'We create', 'We 
bring into being' (said by God) (57:22) <ji*'Ji\ ,J i> ^> 
lit'jjj °j Jji '(> i_AjS (ji V] ^Sjooajt ^ V j no calamity befalls, either in 
the earth or in yourselves, but it is in a Book before We bring it 
into being. 

YJi barra°a [v. II, trans.] to absolve, to pronounce or to show 
as innocent, to exonerate (33:69) Ijlli U* aIII £fjjs but God cleared 
him of what they said [their allegations]. 

Isji ubri D u [imperf. of v. IV f'Jjl D abra D a, trans.] to heal, to 
cure (3:49) aJM jib i jJ' J o^j^j Lsji'j I will heal the 
blind and the leper, and bring the dead back to life with God's 
leave. 

Ijjj tabarra^a [v. V, intrans.] 1 [with prep. i>] to dissociate 
oneself, to disown someone, to wash one's hands of someone or 
something (9:114) Ai» YJ& <11 jit *1 a1 J^a Ilia when it became 
clear to him that he was an enemy of God, he disowned him 2 
[with prep. Jj] to declare one's innocence, to deny responsibility, 
to disown (28:63) I jjlS U tdjlj lijij l&^c. US lijc.1 'jjill f^jA Ujj 

'jji£u owr Lord, these are the ones we caused to deviate, we 
caused them to deviate as we ourselves deviated, but now we 
disown them before You, they did not really serve us. 

PtgJi barV I [act. part., pi. j ji Jj bari^un and ili jj bura D a°] one 
who disowns someone, one who dissociates him/herself from 
someone/something (26:216) ^ *ls_h lA 'jSJ^ if they 
disobey you, say, 'I am not responsible for your actions' II 
[quasi-act. part.] innocent, free from guilt (4:112) 'j 4jjM Uu-Sj IU'j 
Uji UjIj Ut^J & ^jjj <j fly fj UjJ whosoever commits an 

offence or a sin, and then casts it upon the innocent, has laid 
upon himself deceit and flagrant sin. 

ftjj bard 3 [v. n. used as quasi-act. part, and equally applies to 
masc. and fem. sing., dual and plural] one who is free from, one 
who disowns, renounces someone or something (43:26) Jli 
'jj^kj U* "(.\'Ji ajjV Abraham said to his father and his 

people, 'I am innocent of what you worship. ' 

WJi bara^atun [v. n./n.] freedom or release from an obligation, 



85 



exemption, revocation, rescinding, abrogation (9:1) 

'jjS jj&ll j> jj&li, 'jjjll <1 jlujj release from obligation [ is 

proclaimed] from God and His Messenger to those of the 

polytheists with whom you made a treaty; * s'^jj name of Sura 9, 

Medinan sura, so-named because of the reference in verse 1 to 

'the Release from Obligation', also called :, al-Tawba (see ^/j/^ 

t-w-b). 

Ajjj bariyyatun [n./pass. part.] the entire creation (98:7) 'jjill °Ji 
Ajjj 'jja. 'pi dlji J plkllLall I jLc. j I jiali those who believe and do 
good deeds are the best of creation. 

isjj barf [act. part.] Maker, Creator (2:54) Jj I jjjjs to 
repent to your Maker *(59:24) ^JjII [attribute of God] 
Creator, the Initiator, the Maker. 

tijf. jia mubarra^un [pi. of pass. part. mubarra"] 
exonerated, absolved, declared innocent (24:26) ll« 'uj» jf° ^ j' 
'jjlji f/iose are innocent of what they [the slanderers] say. 

j/j/lj height; prominence; beauty of the eyes; tower; signs of 
the zodiac; fortification; (of women) to display their charm. Of 
this root, three forms occur seven times in the Qur'an: 'c&Jp 
tabarrajna twice; Cjlkjiw mutabarrijat once and jrjjj buruj four 
times. 

tabarrajna [imperf. of v. V 'cj^jp tabarrajna with the 

imperfect prefix j elided, intrans.] (said only of women) to adorn 

themselves in an enticing way, in a lust-causing way; to expose 

themselves in an alluring way (33:33) £ji t>j? <J ujSj 

Jj^I ti»t=j stay in yowr houses, and do not display your finery in 

the way of the pagans of old. 

* * '> _ * ' 

mutabarrijat [pi. of act. part. fem. ^'ji^ 

mutabarrijatun] (said only of women) those who flaunt their 

bodies in an alluring way, display their adornment enticingly 

(24:60) o*-^ uj?-ly ^ fU«sll ic'j^'j 

Aijjj plkjjia Jjc "j^jUj smc/i women as are past childbearing who 

have no hope of marriage, there is no blame on them if they take 

off their [outer] garments, without however, flaunting their 



86 



charms. 

Z.SJi buruj [pi. of jr jj burj] 1 tower, castle (4:78) '^J4 \ji_&^*4 
SjL£« jtjjj ,ji jjj CjjaII wherever you may be, death will 
overtake you, even if you are inside lofty towers 2 positions of the 
sun, moon and planets, constellations; signs of the zodiac (15:16) 
'jjjjabll IaLujj U> jjj f UoUl ^ Uka. 'jSTj We /iave sef constellations up 
in the sky and made it beautiful for the beholders; * jtjjjII name of 
Sura 85, Meccan sura, so-named because of the reference in verse 
1 to 'the Constellations'. 

C/j/v fe-r-A wide empty expanse of land; to be clear, to come out in 
the open; to depart; to cause hardship. Of this root, ^jjl "abrah 
occurs three times in the Qur'an. 

£jjS 'abrah [imperf. of v. ^ jj bariha, trans.] 1 to depart, to go 
away from (12:80) ^ ^Saj 'J ^ 'jit cs^ o^jfr' c'J w ^ver 
w/ZZ I leave this land until my father gives me permission or God 
decides for me 2 [always negated] (not to) cease, stop, quit, desist 
(18:60) cjjjp>-^ £-4-° jjjl ,jja. ^jjl V 7 wi7/ nof t/emf /Jrom 
journeying] until I reach the place where the two seas meet. 

b-r-d coldness, to cool, to abate; to alleviate, to die. Of this 
root, three forms occur five times in the Qur'an: j'jj bard twice; 
jjj barad once and j Jj Z?ar/<f twice. 

Jjj bard [v. n./n.] 1 coolness [also interpreted as: sleep] in 
verse (78:24) Oju Vj I jjj I^jJ 'jjSjjj V there they will feel no 
coolness nor will they have any drink 2 [used adjectivally] cool 
(21:69) 'tftXJl je. U^Lij Ijjj <^jj£ 'jUU US We sa/<f, 'Fire, be cool 
and safe for Abraham. ' 

Jjj barad [coll. n.] hail (24:43) /jj I> l^jj I> j> Jjij 
and He sends down from the sky, mountainous clouds [lit. 
mountains] in which is hail. 

jjlj barid [quasi-act. part.] cool, cold, refreshing (56:44) Jjlj V 
pjjk V j neither cool nor hospitable. 

j/j/i_j Z?-r-r open country, desert, wilderness, land (as opposed to 



87 



sea); to be free of impurity, to be free of guilt, to be pious, to be 
devoted; to fulfil one's promise, wheat, goodness. Of this root, six 
forms occur 32 times in the Qur'an: jjj tabarr twice; jj barr (1) 
three times; jIjjI 'abrar six times; jj birr eight times; s'j'jj 
bararatun once and jj barr (2) 12 times. 

jjj tabarr [imperf. of v. jj barra] I [intrans.] to be charitable, 
to act charitably, to do good (2:224) °j ^UyV '<^J^ I Vj 

I jjjj [believers] do not allow your God-backed oaths to hinder 
you from performing a charitable act/from doing good II [trans.] 
to show kindness to (60:8) I jl^Jn'j °?a Jju 'J and that you 
should show them kindness and deal justly with them. 

jj barr (1) I [act. part.] 1 one who carries out acts of kindness, 
one who is devoted, one acting dutifully towards kinsfolk (19:32) 
^1 jj and [ made me ] cherish my mother 2 one who is true to 
his promise (in one interpretation of 52:28) 'y> AjJ J jz'x jj5 '<> US Uj 
jjII we used to invoke Him; He is the one true to His promise 

II [n.; pi. jIjjI 3 abrar] a pious person, righteous (76:5) "JjjVi jj 
IjjalS l$kr_> ,_>i£ j* 'jjjj«u f/ie p/ows s/iaZZ <fr/«Zc o/ cw/« whose 
mixture is camphor, *(52:28) jjII [attribute of God] the Good, the 
Benign; the one true to His Promise. 

"jj birr I [n./v. n.] righteousness, piety, righteous act, act of 
charity (2:44) 'jjlajjj jJU '^Ull "jjj- ^ do you bid people 

towards piety and forget [to do it] yourselves? II [n.] the state of 
being righteous (3:92) 'oJ^ I J**- jJI I j^jj jl yow w/ZZ not/ 
never attain righteousness until you give of what you truly cherish. 

""jji bararatun [pi. of act. part. jU barr] pious, dutiful, sincere, 
virtuous (80:16) jjjj ^ Noble and virtuous [scribes]. 

jj barr (2) [n.] land (as opposed to sea-shore) *(6:59) ^ U, JJkJj 
He knows all [lit. what is in land and sea]. 

j/j/lj b-r-z open land; to go out in the open, to be prominent; to 
outdo others; to duel; to evacuate the bowels. Of this root, four 
forms occur nine times in the Qur'an: "jjj baraza five times; "jjj 
burriza twice; s'jjj barizatun once and jj'jjlj barizun once. 

jjj baraza u [v. intrans.] 1 to go forth, to come out (3:154) °jl 



88 



^jtaAI^a Jjill ^jlc LuS "jjjjJI jjj! J3S even ?y yow were at 

home, those who were destined to be killed would still have gone 
out to the place of their deaths 2 to become manifest, to appear 
(14:21) Hj^. a11 I jjjjj and they will appear before God, all 
together. 

jjj burriza [pass of v. II] to be made manifest, to be shown 
(26:91) 'oij^ PjjiJ a "<^ ffte ^ire placed in full view of the 
misguided. 

barizatun [act. part, fem.] bare, levelled plain with 
nothing to cover its surface (18:47) s'jjlj i>»jVl ls'j5j cfeJI 'fjjj 
and on fne Jay We sef f&e mountains in motion, and you [will] see 
the earth as an open plain. 

bariziln [pi. of act. part. "jjU bariz] one who is 
completely in view, one who stands out (40:16) V 'ojjji ft 'fji 
I'^A J4i« f/ie Day vv/ien f/iey are owf in the open, and 

nothing about them is concealed from God. 

barzakh (no verbal root) [n., probably from Persian farsakh, a 
measure of distance occurring three times in the Qur'an] 1 a 
barrier (55:20) V cXw between them is a barrier, so 
they do not go over one another 2 an area, state, barrier, place 
between this life and the next (23:100) oJ^i fJi '^jj I>j 

ana" a barrier stands behind them until the very Day they are 
resurrected. 

(ja/j/v b-r-s vitiligo, loss of pigmentation; leprosy; gecko; to graze 
pasture to extinction. Of this root, 'o~$ °abras occurs twice in the 
Qur' an. 

'u^Jfi "abras [quasi-act. part.] one who is afflicted with vitiligo 
(disorder causing loss of skin pigmentation), the word is also 
taken, against good evidence to the contrary, to mean leper (3:49) 
oajjVl j Is J? j and I will heal the blind and the one suffering 
from vitiligo/the leper. 



j/j/i_j b-r-q thunderbolt, lightning; to shine; to be dazzled; to 



89 



become belligerent. Of this root, two forms occur six times in the 
Qur'an: Jjj bariqa once and SJi barq five times. 

Jjj bariqa u (also SJi baraqa) [v. intrans.] to become dazzled, 
stupefied (75:7) jlaill Jjj lli w/iew s/g/if is dazzled. 

Jjj oarg [n.] lightning (13:12) U^a. jjil J^jjj ^jJI ja //<? 
w w/io shows you lightning, [inspiring] fear and hope. 

(jjjjj 3 /fen^ (see alphabetically). 

jjjluil 'istabraq (see alphabetically). 

t*!/ b-r-k chest of a camel, thorax; (of a camel) to lie down on the 
chest; a group of camels; bounty, a blessing, to be blessed, to be 
great; the blessed, to be praised; a pond. Of this root, six forms 
occur 32 times in the Qur'an: ^TjU baraka seven times; 
burika once; '£J+> tabaraka nine times; barakat three times; 
^TjCo mubarak eight times and aSjUI mubarakatun four times. 

i^TjLj baraka [v. Ill, trans, without accus., with preps or <^k] 
to bless (21:81) USjU (J^lP Mows w/f/i His/his 

command to the land which We have blessed. 

Ajjti burika [pass.] to be blessed (27:8) !> ^Jjjj 'J csPjj ^ 
l^Jjk '(>j jUll w/zera /i<? reached the fire, a voice called: 'Blessed 
are those who are next to the fire and those in its vicinity. ' 

'£JjZ tabaraka [v. VI, intrans.] (of God only) to be hallowed, to 
be exalted (25: 1) jfe. Jjj ^1 '&J£ exalted is He who has 
sent down the Differentiator [between right and wrong] to His 
servant. 

cjlijj barakat [pi. of n. fem. barakatun] blessings (11:73) 
JaI J»Sj3& A^kj f/ie mercy of God and His blessings be 

upon you, people of the house [Abraham's household]! 

Sljlx* mubarak [pass. part. ; fem. ASjli mubarakatun] blessed 
(44:3) A£jVji» aJj! ^ »UTja Uj [certainly,} We have sent it down on a 
blessed night! 



90 



j»/j/Lj b-r-m a stone pot; a twisted rope; to twist, to tighten; to 
confirm, to plan. Of this root, two forms occur once each in the 
Qur'an: 'fji J abrama and dJ* J^mubrimiin. 

fjjS ^abrama [v. IV, trans.] to decide firmly, to contrive, to 
determine (43:79) oJ" JU 4» 1 y*J? f»> ^ave fftey determined 
something? We, too, have been determining. 

oJa J±* mubrimun [pi. of act. part. "?JL mubrim] ones who 
scheme or determine (43:79) IjUl I £J& }J /iav<? f/i<?y 

determined something? We, too, have been determining. 

0/— fc/j/s 1 b-r-h-n (the quadruple structure of this root together with 
the limited derivatives it has in Arabic give support to its being a 
very early borrowing, possibly from Persian. Some philologists, 
however, consider it a derivation from root *>/j/±> b-r-h 'to cut' or 
'whiteness'). Of this root, two forms occur eight times in the 
Qur'an: yijS burhan seven times and jUli'jj burhanan once. 

&Ujj burhan [n., dual cP^'y. burhanan] proof, evidence (27:64) 
'jjiiifl '(jj 'j^SjUk jj I jSIa produce your evidence, if you are truthful. 

AjjjJI 'al-bariyyatu (see ^jl^b-r- 3 ). 

^/j/^b-z-gh crack, laceration, to slash; to show through, to break 
forth, to come out. Of this root, two words occur once each in the 
Qur'an: j- jU bazigh and ic. jU bazighatun. 

PJ-i bazigh [act. part.; fem tejG bazighatun] rising, breaking 
forth (6:78) 4£. jtj |>^5ll cjlj Ilia f/ien w/i<?« /ie saw f/ie swti rising. 

j/o*/<-> b-s-r unripe green date; to do something prematurely; to 
scowl, to frown, to be gloomy. Of this root, two forms occur once 
each in the Qur'an: 'y^ basara and s>Aj basiratun. 

'yi basara u [v. intrans. /trans.] to scowl, to look sour (74:22) 
p then he frowned and looked sour. 

Sj*Jj basiratun [act. part, fem.] scowling, frowning, 
despondent, sour (75:24) and some faces on that 

day will look sour. 



91 



qm/qm/ i-i b-s-s to scatter; to travel throughout the land; to crumble; to 
drive gently; to stroke with the hand, to mix together. Of this root, 
two forms occur once each in the Qur'an: bussa and bass. 

o4 bussa [pass, v.; v. n. *o»i bass] to be crumbled, to be 
crushed, to be ground (56:5) tlu JU=J cLZj and the mountains are 
ground to powder. 

Js/^/lj b-s-t open outstretched land, the face of the earth; carpet; to 
stretch out, to spread out, to reach out, to unfold; abundance, 
vastness, increase. Of this root, six forms occur 25 times in the 
Qur'an: ^ basata 16 times; -Mj basit four times; J=>1^ bast once; 
bisat once; aLIuj bastatun twice and jlil> jLu* mabsutatan once. 

ia^i basata u [v. trans.] 1 to increase, to expand (42:27) Jaluj 'jTj 
(>ajV ,ji IjAjI JjjII <M were Goc? to increase the provisions for 
His servants, they would transgress all bounds in the land 2 to 
spread out (30:48) ^ iilia 'jjjua ^Ujll Jl^jj c?^ ^ 

iL£ GoJ /f « who sends the winds; and they stir up the clouds; 
then He spreads them over the skies as He pleases 3 [with prep. 
J§\ to extend, to reach out, to stretch out, to raise (one's hand) 
(5:28) '<M ^ $ ^ lJ&& IA yow ra/s<? 

your hand to kill me, I will not raise mine to kill you. 

3a*Jj basit [act. part.] 1 one who spreads out, stretches (18:18) 
pa^jllj Ajc-ljj JoJj J4^j vWfft f/ie/r dog stretching out its forelegs at 
the entrance 2 [with prep. Jl] one who stretches, reaches out 
to/for (13:14) ja Uj £li jJCul i^US someone 

stretching forth his two hands towards water that it may reach his 
mouth-but he does not reach it [water]. 

ia^j bast [v. n.] the act of spreading out (17:29) J«j Sfj 

JaLJI Ijjl-iMiYi Vj ^Jai (jll SJjii^ anc? tfo nof let your hand be 

chained to your neck, nor outspread it [lit. in complete 
spreading]. 

JaCwj Wsaf [n./quasi-pass. part.] carpet; wide expanse; 

carpet-like, that which is outspread (71:19) U=>Uj J*?- <Mj 
a«<i Go<f /ias ma<fe f/ie £art/i a w/<fe expanse for you. 

Akuj bastatun [v. n./n.] expanse, magnification; enlarging 



92 



(2:247) ,ji ; Ual u j »UK. al <UI y GoJ /ias chosen 

him over you, and has increased him broadly in knowledge and 
stature. 

mabsutatan [dual of pass. part. fem. AijLo* 
mabsutatun] opened, outstretched *(5:64) Ji^J^ sli He gives 
freely of His wealth [lit. His hands are open wide]. 

j/^/lj b-s-q tall, lofty, towering, to surpass. Of this root, cMJG 
basiqat occurs once in the Qur'an. 

« it , 

tiling basiqat [pi. of act. part. fem. <LJj basiqatun] tall, high, 
lofty (50:10) V pliJj Jfcijllj and palm trees-lofty and 

laden high with fruit. 

J/^/lj b-s-l hardship; ugly countenance; to be reckless, to dare 
death, to fight fiercely; to be made responsible for one's bad 
deeds; imprisoning; courage. Of this root, "ubsila occurs 
twice in the Qur' an. 

Jjyuf 'ubsila [pass. v. IV] to be given over to the consequences 
of the bad deeds committed, to be held responsible for one's bad 
deeds, to be damned (6:70) clLA J^p 'J <i j^Aj but continue 

to remind with it [the Qur'an], lest any soul be damned for what 
it has done. 

^/(Jj/lj b-s-m to smile; to bloom; (of clouds) to display a faint flash 
of lightning; white teeth. Of this root, tabassama, occurs once 
in the Qur' an. 

^jj tabassama [v. V, intrans.] to smile, to affect a smile 
(27:19) VjS '(> l£aAia so he smiled, laughing at its words. 

j/^/lj b-sh-r skin; to skin; to be in skin-to-skin contact, to be 
intimate with one's wife; first signs, to give good tidings, good 
tidings, a human being. Of this root, 13 forms occur 122 times in 
the Qur'an: 'j^ bashshara 35 times; bushshira three times; 
'_^iUj tubashir twice; j^l J abshir once; qj'j&Lz tastabshirun seven 
times; igj^i bushra 18 times; bashir nine times; 



93 



mubashshir five times; mubashshirin four times; CjI 

mubashshirdt once; i'jX;n,U mustabshiratun once; >ij bashar 36 
times and bashrayn once. 

bashshara [v. II, trans.] 1 to bring good tidings, to convey 
good news (10:2) J^jj js?. f"- 15 'fi 1 b* 1 j^'* j-^j ««<5? g/ve 
g/a<f news' to f/iose who believe, that they are on a sure footing 
with their Lord 2 (ironically) to bring bad tidings (9:34) 'jjillj 
lJ'^u Aill Jjj^ i^i Vj Aliallj LaUI f/iose w/io 

treasure up gold and silver and do not spend them in the way of 
God, give them the bad [lit. good] tidings of a painful 
chastisement. 

j& bushshira [pass, of v. II] to be given good news (and 
ironically bad news) (16:58) jij \*SJuU a4Vj J^t? '^'^ j£> lij'j 

when one of them is given the good news of [ the birth of] a 
baby girl, his face darkens and he is filled with gloom. 

'juLl tubashir [imperf. of v. Ill "_>iU bashara, trans.] 
euphemism for being intimate with one's wife (to be in 
skin-to-skin contact) (2:187) j» 'jjkli. ^dj JjA^p Vj but 

do not lie with them [your wives] during the nights of your 
devotional retreat in the mosques. 

"abshir [imper. of v. IV "abshara, intrans.] to feel joy 
at receiving good news (41:30) 'dJ^-y Ijjwj and 

rejoice at the good news of [your entering] Paradise, that you 
have been promised. 

Cxsj ! "J yastabshirun [imperf. of v. X jJ££J ^istabshara, 
intrans.] 1 to be happy, content, or joyful at receiving good news 
(9:111) <j '£**u \jj&LAi so rejoice in the bargain you 

have made [with God] 2 to be happy at the thought of expected 
good happening, (3:171) JLaij <M J> XJ*± Qjj&Lq they rejoice at 
the thought of receiving God's blessing and favour 3 to seek good 
tidings (15:67) 'qJj&Lm <Jai ilkj the people of the town came 
along seeking the good tidings [of possible pleasure]. 

tj'juLbushra [n.] glad tidings, good news (39:17) Ijiikl 'oi^'j 
is'j£A\ Aill I jjU! j U jijkj 'J cj jcLkll f/iere w good news for those 
who shun the worship of false gods and turn to God; *(12: 19) 



94 



ls'jXL how fortunate!, what good news! [also: ^IjJsj U 
fortunate I am!, what good news for me!]; *(57:12) ^I>5j goo<f 

bashir [n.] a bearer of good tidings (12:96) j^l ilk 'J 
I'jj^ Jjj^ <«Vj ^ Ml f/ie bearer of good news came 

and placed it onto his face, thereupon he became able to see 
again. 

mubashshir [act. part.; pi. ojj£+* mubashshirin; pi. fern. 
isA'jf** mubashshirat] one who brings good news (30:46) ajIX* 'j^j 
££j£*a '^J\ Li^Ji 'J His wonders include sending out the winds 
bearing good news. 

S j n i 'n' «\ mustabshiratun [act. part, fern.] one who rejoices at 
receiving or expecting good news (80:39) i' j& LL IZaXja laughing 
and expectantly rejoicing [at what is coming]. 

bashar I [collect, n. equally applied to masc. and fern.; 
sing, and pi.] humankind (30:20) lil p lJ'jj I> '^L. 'J 'j^j 
'tj/jt&jj jJi o/ //z's wonders is His creating you from dust, and Lo 
and behold, you became human beings, multiplying/spreading II 
[n.; dual jjj^ basharayn] human (23:47) 'o*$A I f/iey 

sa/<f, 'Are we to believe in two human beings like us?' Ill [pi. of 
s jAi bashar atunlcoW. n.] skin (in an interpretation of verse 74:29) 
jm^II Akfjl blackening the skins (or, scorching the flesh of humans). 

j/^/lj Z?-s-r eyesight, to see; to comprehend, to realize; proof, sign, 
eye opener; to warn, to guide; to reflect, to ponder. Of this root, 
14 forms occur 148 times in the Qur'an: jLu basura three times; 
'JLuj yubassar once; jIoj! J absara 27 times; jn-ail •'a&s/r twice; 
ji^>j Z?a«r 51 times; Sja^u baslratun twice; jjII^j basa'ir five 
times, s'jj-aia tabsiratun once; "_>^ mubsir three times; qJj^L 
mubsirun once; s'_>^ mubsiratun three times; Qi jx^iLL 
mustabsirin once; "_>^j Z?asar 10 times and jU-ait °absdr 38 times. 

jlaj basura u [v. intrans. with prep. _j] 1 to see, comprehend, 
to gain knowledge of something, (20:96) aj I jjlajj ^ ^J^i 
/ze sa/cf, 7 saw w/iaf f/iey <f/<i wof see' [in another interpretation: 7 
Ziave gained insight into something which they were unable to 



95 



see'] 2 to keep an eye on, to watch over (28:11) <^ 

o - A e 

'oj'J-^i V 'jJk'j ^4 'jc. <j ojLaii an<f s/ie sazJ to Aw sister, 'Track 
him,' so she watched him from a distance, while they were 
unaware. 

yubassar [imperf. of pass. v. II JLoj bussira] to be made to 
see/comprehend something, to be given an insight into (70:11) 
'^jJJ^u they are enabled to see them (or, they are given an 
insight into them). 

ji^jl °absara [v. IV trans.] 1 to see (7:179) V*j 'oJj^i V ijjc-t J^j 
f/iey /iave eyes f/iey Jo wof see w/f/i 2 to comprehend, to 
understand (28:72) 'qJj^u ^i! 4js 'jjjSU JjL J^ut <S1I jjc. aJ] j>. w/iaf 
go<i other than He could give you night in which to rest?, do you 
not comprehend? 3 to find guidance (6:104) I> jjII^j J^lk ja 
^i^a 'JLail *(>a cZear proofs have come to you from your Lord-so 
whoever finds guidance, it is for himself. 

_j 'j*al) J absir bi [exclamation] how strong the eyesight is! 
(18:26) <j lPO^'j s-y^ ^ ' ^ f^ 1 ' ^ say, 

'Gog? knows best how long they remained, ' His is all that is 
hidden in the heavens and the earth-how well He sees!, how well 
He hears! 

baslr [intens. act. part./quasi-act. part.] 1 one who can see, 
one endowed with sight (12:96) Juji <«kj Jk- »uil j^ull ilk 'J Ilia 
I'jj^ f/ie«, wften f/ie bearer of good news came and placed it onto 
his face— thereupon he became able to see again 2 one discerning, 
endowed with insight *(42: 1 1) ji^ull [attribute of God] the 
All-Seeing, the All-Discerning. 

Vji*ai baslratun I [v. n./n., pi. jjI^j basa'ir] clear evidence, 
sure knowledge (12:108) fja-^ <^S=- <SSI Jl\ jt'J / ca/Z Zo God with 
sure knowledge II [n.] witness, overseer (75:14) <uij ^ 'jlluVI Jj 
Sji!-au frw/y, man is a [clear] witness against himself [in another 
interpretation: there is an observer observing him]. 

Vj^aij tabsiratun [v. n.] providing insight, showing the way, 
eyesight (50:8) & JS3 i/jSij i'j^n as an eye-opener and a 
reminder for every servant who turns to God. 



96 



"j^aiAmubsir [act. part.; pi. (jJj^L mubsirun; fem. »>-=u- 
mubsiratun] 1 one who sees; one who has insight, one who 
discerns (7:201) ^ lili IjjSii J-Ll^ t> ^'4 'j^ ui^' *u! 

'qJj^L those who are mindful of God, if a visitation [ of thoughts ] 
from Satan touched them, they remember [Him] and, lo and 
behold, they have insight 2 light/sight-giving (10:67) ill Jik ls'^ j* 
r^^l l&Jllj ^ I jjSld JA1I He it is who made the night for you to 
rest in [it] and the day giving light/ sight 3 clear, evident, plain to 
see (27:13) Isstjl* &ia when Our clear signs came to 
them. 

mustabsirln [pi. of act. part. "j^iLL mustabsir] one 
who seeks insights, capable of having insight into matters (29:38) 
oiji Ijj^j o° JJbi^ia '^Ucl 'jlL^ill 'cjjjj Satan made 

their foul deeds seem alluring to them and barred them from the 
right way, [even] though they were capable of seeing. 

>-aj basar [n., pi. "J^S "absdr\ eyesight, eyes, sight, vision, 
sense of sight (6:103) 'JiajS/l ^ J4 j^S/l a£ j-S V vision cannot 
encompass Him, but He encompasses all visions. 

J/o^/lj b-s-l onion, multi-layered. Of this root, basal occurs 
once in the Qur'an. 

J-aj basal [coll. n.] onion (2:61) l^lj I> Lp=j^ 
l^Lajj l^u'i^'j j some of what the earth produces, its herbs and 
its cucumbers, its garlic, its lentils and its onions. 

^jjaji^ b-d-° flesh, lump of flesh, to slice; to be intimate with a 
woman; to marry; a piece of merchandise, a small number of 
items (from three to ten); a small flock of sheep. Of this root, two 
forms occur seven times in the Qur'an: bid twice and a^U^j 
bida°atun five times. 

j^aj bid [n.] a few (between three and ten) (12:42) JalJI cj ^ 
and so he remained in prison for a few years. 

AiLflj bida°atun [coll. n.] merchandise, goods (12:65) I &Tj 
J^jlj dYj °4^^ 1 jVj f-^t" w/iew f/iey opened their packs, they 
found their goods returned to them. 



97 



S/Ja/i_j b-t-f this root denotes the single concept of slowness, of which 
only ij^i yubatti" occurs 11 times in the Qur'an. 

yubatti" [imperf. of v. II G=u batta^a, intrans./trans.] to 
hold back, to lag behind, also to cause someone to lag behind or 
hold back (4:72) *c&Q I>J *f£i« 'Jfj and among you are the ones 
who lag behind [also interpreted as: who urge others to lag 
behind]. 

j/L/lj b-t-r to slash; to fail to appreciate others; to be conceited, to 
fail to show gratitude. Of this root, two forms occur once each in 
the Qur'an: jlu batira and jLj batar. 

Joj batira a [v. intrans. with prep. ^ v. n. ji=u batar] (with ^ 
elided in the following verse) to exult by reason of wealth and 
behave with pride and conceit and lack of gratitude for God's 
favours (28:58) l^ . W" &jS*) <s'J !> 1^*1 how many a 
community, that once revelled in its wanton wealth and easy 
living, have We destroyed! 

yi/L/tj b-t-sh force, attack, to seize with violence, to assault, to 
batter. Of this root, three forms occur 10 times in the Qur'an: 
batasha five times; batsh three times and <^J=u batshatun 
twice. 

o^sj batasha i/u [v. intrans. with prep, j; v. n. batsh] to 
strike down, to assault (28:19) ^ j* if-&4 J*^h J ^ J °J ^ as 
he was about to assault the one who was an enemy to both of 
them. 

A-iiaj batshatun [n. of unit] onslaught, a fierce attack (44:16) '{J* 
qJ4±ls Uj cs'Jjkll 5oiJ=ull J&Zp and [We will exact retribution] on the 
Day We inflict the mightiest onslaught. 

J/L/lj b-t-l falsehood, vanity; void, futile, untrue, to be false, to 
nullify; to be idle, idleness. Of this root, four forms occur 34 
times in the Qur'an: J1=j batala once; JK" tubtil four times; JJalj 
batil 26 times and mubtilun five times. 

jiaj batala u [v. intrans.] to become void, to become undone, to 



98 



appear as false; to come to nothing (7:118) I jjlS U« J^'j jsJI jSjs 
jjl^j 50 f/ie frwf/i was confirmed and what they were doing came 
to nothing. 

Jim yubtil [imperf. of v. IV °abtala, trans.] 1 to render as 
null, to negate, to cause to be ineffectual (2:264) V I _>£»li 'jjill I^jIU 
csiVlj cpJb '^ISjIa I jljai yow w/io believe, do not negate your 
charitable deeds with reminders and hurtful words 2 to prove or 
show as false (8:8) JjJaUll JKyj 6=^ lS?4^ to prove Truth to be 
true, and the false to be false. 

Jialj batil I [n.] (with the definite article JJaUll "al-batil) 
falsehood (as opposed to "al-haqq the Truth) (17:81) ilk JSj 
U ji'j 'jl£ JJaOl y JJaGll jj (jkJI a«<i say, T/ie truth has come, and 
falsehood has passed away-falsehood is bound to pass away. ' II 
[quasi-act. part.] that which is null, void, vain, useless, ineffectual 
(7:139) oJ^i 1 >l£ k J^'j <j? ^ U "jai f V> o] w/iaf f/zese people 
are engaged in is doomed to destruction, and what they have been 
doing is void III [adverbially] in vain, for no purpose (3:191) l£j 
iUaU l& cjkk U owr Lord!, You have not created this without 
purpose. 

' >> * 
^jiial* mubtilun [pi. of act. part./quasi-act. part. mubtil] 

one who endeavours to render something null, ineffectual or void; 

one who shows something as false; one who is an adherent to 

falsehood (45:27) 'ujIK'^ J> j£ fJi'j when the Hour 

comes, those who follow falsehood will lose all on that Day. 

ei/Ja/ij b-t-n stomach, belly, the inside of anything; hidden, secret, to 
conceal; entourage; inner side, lining; low land. Of this root, six 
forms occur 25 times in the Qur'an: 'oLj batana twice; y=>U batin 
four times; A-lk. bitanatun once; 'jjLLj bata'in once; "j^i batn four 
times and "oj^butun 13 times. 

(jeu batana u [v. intrans.] to be hidden, to be concealed, to be 
manifest (7:33) 'oJ=u Uj lli* "j$Ji U tJaXj& 'Jij ^ jk Ikij my Lonf o«Zy 
forbids atrocities-whether they be open or hidden. 

oa/m I [n.] 1 hidden part, secret part (6:120) £j\ j*Ui I jji'j 
AiJaUj forsake sin, the open and the hidden 2 inner part, interior 



99 



(57; 13) I— it Jwll ALa '(j* sjAUij -Cikjll Aji AjJaU LjU Al JJ^ °f>j ijl 1— J_)j^a2 SO 

f/iere w/// fre erected, between them, a wall with a door; inside it 
[in it] lies mercy, outside it lies chastisement 3 [with the definite 
article (jJaUll 'al-Batin and usually in combination with j*Uill 
°al-Zdhir\ [an attribute of God] the Hidden, the Inner (57:3) j» 
'jJaUllj jjkUallj ji-Vlj JjVl He is the First and the Last; the Outer 
[also: the Manifest] and the Inner II [quasi-act. part.] that which 
is inside, the inward, the inner, concealed, hidden (31:20) j?Jj 
AiLljj SjaUo J^Sjlc. a«<i /ias lavished upon you his bounties, 
outward and inward (or, manifest and unmanifest). 

ajILj bitanatun I [coll. n.] intimate friend/s, entourage, 
confidant/s (3:118) VUa. '^jit V 'ffLSji i> ajUoj I V I ji«l'c 'jjill l^llj 
yow w/io believe, do not take for your intimates from outside your 
[own] such as those who spare no effort to ruin you II [n., pi. 
'jjjLLj bata'in] inner linings of garments; upholstery (55:54) 'oi&L 
'cy> IgnlK'i ^'ja (^Ic f&ey are reclining on couches lined with 
brocade. 

"<j*i batn [n., pi. csj^> butun] 1 stomach, belly (37:66) 'jjkv (44* 
jji^ 44* 'jjjlUi l^ia f/zey surely will be eating from it, and filling 
from it the bellies 2 womb (3:35) ^J^i u* ^ ^ ^jjj / Ziave 
voweJ in dedication what is in my womb entirely to You. 

iLj^ji^b- c -th messenger, delegation, to send; to awake, to provoke, 
to incite; to cause to rise; to spread out; to walk briskly. Of this 
root, six forms occur 66 times in the Qur'an: £«j ba c atha 38 times; 
<La^yub c ath 13 times; liauil 3 inba € atha once; liiu ba c th four times; 
dikjjl 3 inbi c dth once and ojh mab c uthun nine times. 

&u ba c atha a [v. trans.] 1 [with prep. ^ to send an apostle or 
a prophet to (3:164) '^uii '(> V jlfj J^J iisu //<? sent to them a 
Messenger from among themselves 2 to raise from the dead 
(2:259) p £c ajU aJII AjUAi so GoJ macfe /i/m die for a hundred 
years, and then raised him up 3 to wake or arouse from sleep 
(6:60) ffiVij 12 jljjSlj ^Skja. U« fS^ji (j.-^l j* j ^ w He who 

recalls you by night, and knows what you have earned by day, 
then raises you up again in it [the daytime] 4 to appoint, select, 
choose for a task (4:35) I> £>£».j *S»i !> I jlLS ^ bj j 



100 



l^Ekl and if you fear a breach between the two, appoint one arbiter 
from his family and one from hers 5 [with <Jc] to appoint over, to 
place over; to raise against (7:167) {Ji Jo* 'JuQ '^j jjj 
e jl, °4^jly °Cy> and remember when your Lord declared 
that He would raise against (or, place over) them until the Day of 
Resurrection, those who would inflict on them terrible suffering. 

liajj yub c ath [imperf. of pass. v. bu c itha] to be raised from 
the dead, to be resurrected (64:7) IJmjj y °j1 I jji£ 'jjill Ji'j f/ie 
disbelievers claim they will not be resurrected. 

"inba c atha [v. VII intrans.; v. n. ilUuSl "inbi c ath] to rise up, 
to rush and act forcibly (91:12) lilLa diujl il w/ie« f/ze mosf wicked 
man among them rose up [against him]. 

iiau ^a^/i I [v. n.] resurrecting, raising from the dead (31:28) 
o*±& VI V j creating and resurrecting all of you is 
but like [creating and resurrecting] a single soul II [n. with 
definite article £ij *al-ba c th] *(30:56) £ij ^ tf?e Day o/ 
i?eswrrecf/(m. 

O&yu* mab c uthun [pi. of pass. part. lLij^ mab € uth] ones who 
are raised from the dead, resurrected (83:4) 'oy> J*+° ^1 ^5 j 'cfck VI 
Jo f/iese people not realise that they will be raised up? 

j/di/£/<_j b- c -th-r to scatter, to strew about; to squander; to 
disarrange, to turn inside out. Of this root, Jmj bu c thira occurs 
twice in the Qur' an. 

bu c thira [pass. quad, v.] to be strewn about, to be scattered 
all over; to be turned inside out (82:4) ^'JZu jjiill lilj when graves 
are turned inside out. 

j/^/lj b- c -d to be far, to go far; to come next; to remove, to separate. 
Of this root, seven forms occur 235 times in the Qur' an: i!u 
ba c uda once; j«j ba c ida once; 'icXi ba c id once; "S^i bu c d seven times; 
ba c id 25 times; mub c adun once and ikj ba c d 199 times. 

j«j ba c uda u [v. intrans.] to be or become distant, remote, far 
off; to be far away, to go very far (9:42) IV=>15 \'JL,'j llja \lsa'Js. °jl 
Aiill cj'-ij 'jSTj a jiiW were ?7 a gam near at hand and an easy 



101 



journey, they would have followed you, but the distance had 
proved far for them. 

i3uba c ida a [v. intrans.] to perish, to come to destruction 
(11:95) ij^ cjVj L£ 'jji<J I'ii vl yes!, away with the people of 
Midian, even as Thamud was done away with. 

')aLbu € d I [n.] remoteness, distance (43:38) jii ^i±uj ^ 
jjajiJI if only there were between me and you the distance 
between east and west! II [v. n., interjectionally] 'away with...!', 
'destruction to...!' (11:60) ? j5 jUJ liii Vi so away w/f/z c ac?, f/ze 
people of Hud! 

"iguba c ld [quasi-act. part.] 1 distant, far away (50:31) pitfjfj 
jjh Jjc 'jjjiiall «w<5? Paradise is brought closer for the 

righteous-not very far 2 long, distant in time (27:22) jjg djS^a 

/ie die? «of stay away long 3 deep, far-reaching (2:176) 'j^l 'cj'j 
jjju jtiLi ^ uKll ^ IjiEkl f/iose w/io <i//f<??" a&owf f/ie Scripture are 
deeply divided 4 considerable (42:18) ^ AelUl 'jjjUu 'ji^' *u! 
jjju J!>Q= f/iose w/io argue about the Hour are truly in 
considerable misguidedness. 

mub' adun [pi. of pass. part. "i>u* mub c ad] kept away, 
removed, debarred (21:101) l+ie. ^Jjlj (jiAJI li« J4 1 ui- 13 ' ci 
'jj'iui but those for whom [a promise of] the reward most fair has 
been already given by Us, they will be kept away from it [Hell]. 

j*j ba c d [adverb of time and place, always in construct (AiU^aj), 
sometimes elliptically] 1 after, afterwards (2:253) JSSI U aIII iU 'jij 
uUiill f4^^ ^ i> f£j£) i> ui^ if Got/ /ia<i so willed, their 
successors would not have fought each other after they had been 
brought clear signs 2 in addition to (21:105) $v 'q& jjjjII J* 1£jS isTj 
"ijjkJlUl ^pUc. I^jjj "J We wrote in the Psalms, in 

addition to the Remembrance that the earth shall be the 
inheritance of My righteous servants (or, We wrote in the Psalms, 
after the [earlier] Scripture that the earth shall be the inheritance 
of My righteous servants) 3 apart from, beyond (10:32) J^j iill J^lia 
jkLill V] jkll Iskj I iUoi tjaJI so that is God, your Lord, the True One 
(or, the Truth), what is there, beyond the Truth, except falsehood? 
4 over and above (3 1 :27) 



102 



iIjUK cl^j U jkjl aju^ even all the trees on earth were 
pens and the sea with seven seas over and above to replenish it, 
[were ink], the words of God would not run out 5 because of, in 
consequence of (66:4) JjJ^-j ZYja ja iill s jli ^Jc IjAlk; y'j 

"jj^i aii a££0 j if yow collaborate against him, [be 

warned that] God will aid him, as will Gabriel and all the 
righteous believers, and the angels, because of that, will stand 
behind him 6 in spite of, notwithstanding, even after (5:32) jSTj 
'jjajl.il ^jSn ^ ^Mi j*j J4^° ci ^ P 1 -^^ 'fi^t?- indeed 
Our messengers came to them with clear signs, but many of them, 
in spite of this, commit excesses in the land 7 after, apart from 
(45:23) ^jEj AjLu^t LS Ic j ^Jc. ^jJc. iill kL^J\j '<$A\ iijl Liuija! 

ajj^ (>s SjLic. sjI^j ^ consider the one who takes his 
own desire as a [controlling] deity, and God leads him astray, 
inspite of [his/God's] knowledge, and sets a seal upon his 
hearing and his heart, and places a covering on his eyes-who can 
guide him after (or, apart from) God? 8 before (in a disputed 
interpretation of 21:105) o^jVl *3 

'jjkJUall L^pUc. We wrote in the Psalms, before the [earlier] 
Scripture/Remembrance: 'The earth shall be the inheritance of 
My righteous servants'; (79:30) lilki ^ili 'iWj o^jS/lj an<i f/ie £art/i, 
before (or, a/ter) f/zaf, //e spread it out. 

j/^/lj Z?- c -r a camel of either sex; a donkey; (of a camel) to grow to 
maturity; a camel's droppings; to become angry. ba c ir is 
described by 3 al-Suyut! as a borrowing from Hebrew. Of this root, 
"jjju ba c ir occurs twice in the Qur'an. 

ba c ir [n.] a grown camel (also said to mean donkey or a 
beast of burden) (12:72) jLjc-'j <i Ulj J«. <j ilk t^SLlI ^l'j^> ^ 
we are missing the king 's cup and for the one who returns it there 
will be a camel-load and I guarantee that. 

u^l^/i-i b- c -d part, some, portion, to divide; mosquitoes, gnats, to be 
bitten by a mosquito. Of this root, two forms occur 130 times in 
the Qur'an: ly=^ ba c d 129 times and ba c udatun once. 

£jiiu ba c d [n.] 1 some, a few, a number of, one of (11:54) J j£ bj 



103 



f jlu Lu^ji; VJ we say nothing but that some (or, one) 0/ 

owr go<fs /iave touched you with some evil; *(2:76) J4^4 
o^<j [when they] become alone with each other, *(4:21) 

^] ' ^ SLflju /lave become intimate with one another [lit. Ziave 
opened up to one another] [together as husband and wife]; 
*(22:40) ch*4j ?<h ™o ^ jfo ^«<5? Go<i not driven back 

people, some by the means of others; *(2:253) ° ?v ™ J 

We favoured some of them above others; *(18:99) 

(jl some of them surge, on that day, against the others; 
*(2:36) jic a^ 3 ^ ^ ^°»: eac/i other's enemy [lit. some 0/ you 
enemies one to the other]; *(4:25) i> ™! belonging to one 
family [lit. some of you [derived] from others] 2 part, portion 
(2:85) 0-=*^ ujj^j s- 1 ^ 'uj*3$ so t/o yow believe in some 
parts of the Scripture and deny others? 3 a little of, some of 
(49:12) p\ 'oiill 'o^u y [even] some suspicion is a sin 4 one of 
(66:3) lijja. ^ j*"> j)j fl«<i f/ie Prophet told 

something in confidence to one of his wives 5 all of (in a rare 
interpretation of 40:28) '^'^ ^ L^j ffi,- lijlLa £*L 'Jfj but if he is 
truthful then what he has threatened you with will afflict you. 

A^ajij ba c udatun [n.] mosquito, gnat (2:26) 'J L J=^i V <M 0] 
l^'js Li U ^ Go<f Joes raof s/iy /rom drawing any 

comparison [with something as small as[ a gnat or above it 
[larger/smaller] . 

J/£/<_j b- c -l unirrigated palm trees, a male palm tree; a husband, a 
wife; to marry; courtship; master, deity. Of this root, two forms 
occur seven times in the Qur'an: ba c l three times and Qya 
bu c ulatun four times. 

&ba c l I [n.] husband (11:72) J~ 
U^i s/ie sa/<i, 'Woe is me!, do I bear [a child] when I am an old 
woman, and this, my husband, is an old man?' II [proper name, 
maybe a very early borrowing] a generic term for idol 
worshipping; Baal, sun god, an idol of gold belonging to the 
people of 'ilyas or any deity that is not God (37:125) 'jjc-'il 
'jjjilUJI 'tyjJ 'jjjjjj how can you invoke Baal and forsake the Most 
Gracious Creator? 



104 



XljLi bu c ulatun [pi. of ba c l (also v. n. of v. ba € alat)] 
husbands; being married to a husband; the entire family (2:228) 
llX-al I jil'J y ^lli (ji ls^i l)«j1j«4j husbands are [more] 
entitled to take them back during this period provided they wish 
to put things right. 

b-gh-t surprise is the single concept denoted by the root. Of 
this root, Aiiu baghtatan occurs 13 times in the Qur'an. 

baghtatun [n. used adverbially] by surprise, suddenly 
(6:31) aUu XcZA ^fli lij ^ wrcf// f/ie Hour comes upon them 
suddenly. 

u^/g./s 1 b-gh-d hate. Of this root, il^u baghda" occurs five times in 
the Qur'an. 

baghda 3 [n.] intense hatred, loathing (3:118) iL«jS p£ ja 
'(> vehement hatred has already willed itself out of their 
mouths. 

J/£y<_j b-gh-l mule; to be stupid, to affect stupidity. Of this root, JUu 
bighal, which is a borrowing from Ethiopic, occurs once in the 
Qur' an. 

JUL bighal [pi. of n. "Jio baghl] mules (16:8) 'jaaJ'j tWIj Jj^lj 
Ia a«<f horses, mules and donkeys for you to ride [ them]. 

ig/fcj^ b-gh-y a shoot; an unripe fruit; to seek, to go after, to wish 
for, to covet; to go over the limits, to transgress; to facilitate; to 
earn one's living, to strive; a maid, a slave girl; to commit 
adultery; to practise prostitution. Of this root, nine forms occur 86 
times in the Qur'an: ^ bagha 24 times; bughiya once; 
"ibtagha 34 times; yanbaghl six times; baghy once; 
baghl three times; ^ju baghiyy twice; "c-Uj bigha" once and *Uyjl 
"ibtigha" 14 times. 

bagha i I [v. intrans.] 1 to transgress, to violate the limits 
(55:20) ch^i ^ £Xh between them is a barrier they do not 
transgress 2 [with prep. ^ to act outrageously (42:27) <M i=^j 'Jj 



105 



iJ 'j*^ Sj'jfl were Go<f to expand the provision to His 
servants, they would transgress all bounds in the land 3 [with 
prep. pass, 'j^ bughiya] to infringe, to encroach upon, to 
wrong someone (49:9) bp ^-44h 1 J=4^ I lh^j^I i> °u!'j 

(Jj ^jjk ^juj ^1 I Jjlii and if two parties 

of the believers fall to fighting, put things right between them, but 
if one of them wrongs the other, fight the wrongdoer until he/she 
returns to God's commandment II [v. trans, with ^ or 1 to 
want, to seek, to desire, to be after (18:64) jij US L> ^li Jli he said: 
'That [place] was what we were seeking' 2 to endeavour (28:77) 

<J J ^ £H V j Jo «of endeavour to spread corruption in the 
land III [v. doubly trans.] to desire; cause someone/something to 
be (9:47) ^ill '^j^a Jȣbu. I jiliajVj f/iey would have scurried 
around in your midst, seeking to sow discord among you. 

Lf &\ ^ibtagha [v. VIII, trans.] to desire, to seek in earnest (4:94) 
liftll sUaJI "^jc 'jj*^ desiring the chance gains of this life. 

(Jliu yanbaghi [imperf. of v. VII LS ±p\ inbagha, intrans.] 1 to be 
worthy of, to be fitting and proper (19:92) liTj iii "J b^-j^ 
if does not befit the Lord of Mercy to take [unto Himself] 
offspring 2 to be possible, to be attainable (36:40) 1*1 iS »^ V 
jUjll ^Uu. Jjlll Yj 'J it is not for the sun to overtake the 

moon, nor can the night outrun the day 3 admitting of either 
sense 1 or sense 2 above (36:69) <1 ^Jl^ UTj 'Jklill sliJc UTj We have 
not taught him [the Prophet] poetry, nor is it fitting for him (or, it 
does not fall within his ability) to be a poet. 

"(Ju baghy [n./v. n.] 1 tyranny, outrageous behaviour (10:23) 

°-<...qM ^Jc. LUj ^Ull l*jlU Jj^JI J^H O^S^^ LS^ UJ*JJ ^ V£f 

//e /ia<f delivered them, they behaved outrageously on the 
earth against all that is right!, Humankind!, your outrage ousness 
is [bound to be[ only against yourselves 2 infringement of the 
rights of others, going beyond the acceptable, transgressing 
(2:213) °(=^h <-iJ lull f^s-t?- ^ J*j Lk° " jjj' oi'A' 1 ^P <-itiil Uij ow/y 
f/iose to whom it was given disagreed after clear signs had come 
to them-[thus their disagreement was a[ transgression amongst 
themselves. 



106 



<jflj baghi [act. part.] one who goes beyond the limits, violates 
the accepted norms (2:173) <$c $ fc Vj jjt jkjal (>a i/ 
anyone is forced [to eat such things because of hunger], rather 
than by desiring/wanting to transgress or violate the norms, he 
commits no sin. 

"(jiu baghiyy [n./quasi-act. part.] (of a woman) prostitute, 
unchaste (19:20) 1#j Jffl JJj ^j' n' . ^ JJj J 'jj^ ^ s/ie 
sazJ, 'However can I have a son when no mortal has touched 
me ?!, and I am no unchaste [ woman ]! ' 

fUu bigha [n./v. n.] prostitution (24:33) fUull JSs. I jAjSj V j 
and do not force your slave girls into prostitution. 

f IAjjI °ibtigha° [v. n.] 1 desiring, wishing for (2:207) I> oiUJI J>j 
<M sU^'j^ c-UjjI Z?wf f/iere w a/so a kind of man who gives 

his life away seeking the pleasure of God 2 seeking out, pursuing 
(4:104) 'cu& 

be faint-hearted in pursuing the enemy, if you are suffering pain, 
they are also suffering pain as you are suffering. 

j/j/lj b-q-r cow; to split up, to gash, to plough, to enlarge; to travel 
around; corruption. Of this root, three forms occur nine times in 
the Qur'an: jSj baqar three times; s'Ju baqaratun four times and 
cJt'Jii baqarat twice. 

jSj baqar [coll. n., sing. fem. SjSj baqaratun, pi. CjIjSj baqarat] 
cows (2:67) SjSj l^kjjj 'jl fSj^u °jj J15 ilj remember 

when Moses said to his people, 'God commands you to sacrifice a 
cow'; * s'jill name of Sura 2, Medinan sura, so named because of 
a reference in verses 2:67-71 to 'the cow' which the Israelites 
were ordered to slaughter. 

£/j/<_j b-q- c stain, irregular patches of colour; piebald, raven; a spot, 
an enclosed area with trees; to sprinkle. Of this root, a^Sj buq c atun 
occurs once in the Qur'an. 

buq°atun [n.] area, place, region (28:30) I> lsPjP Uia 
Sjajill J> aSjUJ (>j^' w/ten /ie came to /f, /ie was 

called from the right side of the valley, from the tree in the 



107 



blessed area. 

J/<jj/<-j b-q-l to sprout, to appear, to shoot; herbage, pot-herbs, 
legumes, beans of all kinds. Of this root, Jij baql occurs once in 
the Qur'an. 

JSj baql [coll. n.] herbage; beans, legumes (2:61) J**y&4 ^ jjj 

l^Iuaij I^jjiJc. j jjj remember when you said, 'Moses, we cannot 
endure eating only one kind of food, so pray to your Lord to bring 
out for us some of what the earth produces-its herbs, its 
cucumbers, its garlic, its lentils and its onions. ' 

<g/(3/^b-q-y to stay behind, to wait, to remain, to survive, to 
continue; remainder, residue, that which outlasts, that which 
endures. Of this root, eight forms occur 21 times in the Qur'an: 
^ baqiya twice; Ju\ "abqa (1) twice; ^ "abqa (2) seven times; 
(JiLj baql once; jAj baqln twice; ajSU baqiyatun twice; cAJSCi baqiyat 
twice and 2j£ baqiyyatun three times. 

<j2j baqiya a [v. intrans.] 1 to remain (2:278) UjS J> ^£ U« I jjYj 
a«<f forgo what dues remain from usury 2 to endure, to last 
(55:27) (J'jSyij jj '^j «Vj arad yef remains the Face of 
your Lord, full of majesty, honour-giving. 

JlS "a^a (1) [v. IV trans.] to spare (74:28) 'jk Yj J$ V it 
[Hell-fire] does not spare [a thing] and does not leave [a thing]. 

"abqa (2) [elat.] more/most lasting, more/most enduring 
(42:36) I jioli 'jjill ^ji Ail! is& U»j w/iaf Go<f /las to give /s/ar 
defter a«<f more lasting for those who believe. 

J&i Z?agf [quasi-act. part., pi. baqln] 1 lasting, enduring 
(16:96) jjlj aISI '^jc. iai ^Sise. U f/iaf which is with you runs out, 
but what is with God endures 2 the remaining ones, the rest 
(26: 120) 'jjjO ikj lia'jci ^ a«<i f/iera We drowned the rest. 

AjSIj baqiyatun I [quasi-act. part, fem.] lasting, enduring 
(43:28) ajSc a^5U l^JSikj a«<f /ie ma<fe ;Y a wonf enduring 
among his descendants II [pi. n. ^USU baqiyat] lasting deeds 
(19:76) jjij IjIjj jje ^ja. cAklC all cjGOj ^ii !'_/:&! 'jjill aIII Iijjj 



108 



\*SJa God increases the guided in guidance, but the lasting-good- 
deeds are best for reward with your Lord and best in the return 
[the yield] III [v. n./n.] endurance, continuance; trace, residue, 
remnant (69:7-8) ls'j 2 J^j ^'y-^ ^ f j^' csj^ 

ajIIj 't> swc/i f/iaf you could have seen its people lying dead like 
hollow palm-trunks, can you see any remnant of them? (or, do 
you see them remaining?). 

AjSj baqiyyatun [n.] 1 relic, memento; remnant (2:248) iSit °J 

« , , « > ^ ^ „ ^ ^ ,i, > a 

f/iaf f/ie Arfc /o/ f/ie Covenant] will come to you, carried by the 
angels, containing [ the gift of] tranquillity from your Lord and 
relics of the followers of Moses and Aaron 2 whatever lasts, what 
endures; good pious work *(11:86) 'oi^i* °o) ^ "J^- ^ w/iaf 
GoJ keeps for you [after you have given of your wealth] is best 
for you, if you are believers; *( 11:11 6) fj£ jljl people having the 
quality of preserving themselves, or, holding on to the true 
religion, people possessed of excellence [lit. people with a 
remnant]. 

j/S/i-i b-k-r morrow; beginning of the day, early time, to do 
something early in the day; first fruits; virgin, firstborn, 
outstanding deed. Of this root, four forms occur 12 times in the 
Qur'an: jL bikr once; *JS$ 'abkar twice; bukratun seven times 
and "ibkar twice. 

j£j bikr [quasi-act. part., pi. "JSj, "abkar] 1 virgin (56:35-6) UJ 
IjISji s jAliI*ki iUijj y^ULiii We Ziave created them as a new creation, 
and made them virgins 2 (of animals) young, having given birth 
only once (2:68) "cj'Jc- j£j Vj Ipajli V s'jSj t$jj Jji Aj] //<? says 

/f w a cow which should be neither too old nor too young, but 
inbetween. 

SjSj bukratan [n., used adverbially] in the early morning, at 
daybreak (54:38) Lslic. s'jS^ ^ jSTj and a remaining 

chastisement came to them early in the morning; *(25:5) 
^fltj morning and evening; *(19:11) llicj s'jkj Jay ana* m'g/if, 
consfanf/y. 



109 



jISjJ 'ibkar [v. n./n.] act of beginning one's day *(3:41) 
J&y\'j in the evening and at dawn, at dusk and dawn (i.e., 
constantly). 

t*!/d/(_j b-k-k crowding, pressure, breakage, stifling. Of this root, aSj 
bakkata, occurs once in the Qur'an. 

5j5j Bakkata [proper name] another name for either Mecca or 
the area upon which the Ka c ba is built; some philologists attribute 
the name to the crowding of pilgrims in the city, although it could 
be a result of sound change between ImJ and /b/. (3:96) ciii Jj *J\ 
"jjjJUJl ^iij aSjj o*Lil the first House [of worship] to 
be established for people was the one at Becca; a blessed [place] 
and a source of guidance for all [the worlds]. 

f/t*!/<_j b-k-m dumbness, muteness; inability to express oneself; to be 
silent; to be born or to become dumb or mute; to be ignorant. Of 
this root, two forms occur six times in the Qur'an: '^1 °abkam 
once and bukm five times. 

^SjS 'abkam [quasi-act. part.; pi. bukm] dumb, mute, 
ignorant, incapable of self-expression (16:76) Lfc&j ^ Vj^j 
c'^J; j.ssj V UAiaJ and God coins a similitude of two men- 
one of them dumb, having no power over anything. 

isj^j^ b-k-y to wail, to cry, to bemoan, to lament; to cause to cry; to 
pretend to cry. Of this root, three forms occur seven times in the 
Qur'an: ^ baka five times; ^ :, abka once and ^ bukiyy once. 

baka i [v. intrans. with prep. to weep, to wail (9:82) 
I'jjjS IjS^lj !>LK I jSklaola so let them laugh a little; they will weep a 
lot; *(44:29) Lp»jVlj J^Jc Li they were lamented by no 
one [lit. neither the heavens nor earth shed a tear for them]. 

J abka [v. IV, trans.] to cause to weep, to bring/cause 
unhappiness (53:43) ^klJ ji aI'j and He it is who makes one 
laugh, and makes one weep. 

bukiyy [pi. of quasi-act. part. bakl] weeping (19:58) 
IjSjj likL Ijji. they fell down prostrate and weeping. 



110 



Jj bal particle denoting turning away from or dismissing what 
precedes it and retrieving or confirming what follows; it occurs 
127 times in the Qur'an. Because Jj is used in argumentative 
contexts in which ideas are subtly compared and set in contrast 
the exact meaning of particular occurrences of Jj are often 
difficult to pinpoint. Broadly speaking, however, Jj functions in 
the Qur'an in three ways: I [negating or rejecting what precedes 
and confirming what follows] 'not that but this', 'on the contrary' 
(21:62—3) li* fijjjS Jj Jli »i*rjjjG L2$lL Ija cJai cd*. \ jlli they said, 
'Was it you, Abraham, who did this to our gods?', he said, 'No, [I 
did not do it] but this, their chief, did it' II [setting into contrast 
or comparing between what precedes and what follows] ' . . . but' , 
' . . . indeed' , ' . . . alas' , (87: 14-16) Jj jLai <ij 'fJ 'jkij jZ'ji '(> '^M ia 
Uj'J sU^JI ujJjj the ones who triumph are the ones who purify 
themselves, [who] remember the name of their Lord and pray, but 
[there you are![, you [people] prefer the life of this world III 
[affirming what precedes and adding to it further] ' . . . not only 
that but also . . . ' (21:5) ££j ^yUa j=-U5 j* Jj Jj djUld I jJla Jj 
uj 1 "^' J^'J ^ indeed they say, '[These are but] muddled dreams; 
rather he has invented it; rather he is a poet, let him bring us a 
sign like that previous messengers were sent. ' 

j/J/lj b-l-d a marked plot of land; an animal dwelling, an abode, to 
abide in a place, to stay put; a tower; city, village; density; to be 
lacking in intelligence. Of this root, three forms occur 19 times in 
the Qur'an: "jL balad nine times; "jX bilad five times and s'jL 
baldatun five times. 

jL balad [n., pi. °S±i bilad] 1 city, town, village (90:2) Ja. 
M\ I i^j while you [Prophet] are residing in this city 2 tract of land, 
region (7:58) ajj jib ajUj Ljj^ '^P'j as for the good land, its 
vegetation comes by the will of its Lord; *(7:57) CiL> £A barren 
land with no herbage or pasture [lit. dead land] ; * jjjII ^al-balad 
name of Sura 90, Meccan sura, so-named because of the reference 
to 'the City' [of Mecca] in verse 1. 

S'jjj baldatun [n.] 1 town, village, city (27:91) so °d m 
t^'jk iM\ ? i» / /iave been commanded only to serve the Lord 



Ill 



of this town, which He has made inviolable 2 tract of land, region 
*(25:49) 12£ S-Jj barren land with no herbage or pasture [lit. dead 
land]. 

,jj/<J/lj b-l-s a state of shock, to be overwhelmed with grief, to fall 
into utter despair; to be cut off; to be confused and bewildered. Of 
this root, two forms occur five times in the Qur'an: 'o4i> yublis 
once and jjiJxa mublisun four times 3 iblls is derived by 

some philologists from this root). 

'o4k yublis [imperf. of v. IV 'oM J ablasa, intrans.] to fall into 
utter despair, to be struck dumb with fear (30:12) ZcCJi ^jj 
'qJ* jkUl J^Jji on the Day the Hour arrives, the guilty will 
despair/be dumbfounded. 

CiJuXi* mublisun [pi. of act. part. 1>4U mublis] struck dumb with 
horror or despair, seized with fear (23:77) li Oj '^tfe. Uk5a lil jS*. 
jjlil <A lij t-ilic. wnf/Z when We open a gate of severe 
punishment for them-then they will be plunged into utter despair. 

°iblls (see alphabetically). 

£/J/<_j b-l-° to swallow, to swallow up; a glutton; a drain. Of this 
root, 3 7 occurs once in the Qur'an. 

jit /Ma c [imper. of v. bala c a] to swallow up (11:44) JjSj 
yjJai il^, Uj j4iU> <^*ijl LpCfe #»en wfli sa/<i, 'Earth, swallow up 
your water, and Sky, cease [raining]. ' 

£/J/<_j b-l-gh to reach, to arrive; to mature, to come of age, to reach 
puberty; to exhaust; to attain a high degree; to be eloquent; to 
exaggerate; to do one's utmost; to notify, to announce, to convey, 
message. Of this root, nine forms occur 77 times in the Qur'an: jJj 
balagha 40 times; aJj ballagha six times; aJj! "ablagha five times; 
AJU baligh three times; balighun three times; aaJG balighatun 
three times; balagh 15 times and aJxo mablagh once. 

*Jj balagha u [v. trans.] 1 to arrive at, to reach a place, to come 
to (18:93) jjiUl "jjj AJj lij until [when] he reached a place 
between two mountain barriers 2 to reach a point in time (2:235) 



112 



AJai iJj$l\ jJuu ,jja. ^ISill s'jac. I jljkj V j and do not confirm the 
marriage tie until the prescribed period [of waiting] reaches its 
end 3 to approach, to be about to reach (2:231) 'ydis VIj 
t_i jjj^j y> j^l>" ji h b* jS^ti yJa.1 ara<i ?/ you divorce women 
and they are about to reach their set time, then either keep or 
release them in a fair manner 4 to attain or reach a state (24:59) 
I jjitLJa jikJI jiL JUJaVl jJj lilj and when the children among you 
reach puberty, they should ask leave [to enter]; *(4:6) ^ISslI I >Jj 
reach the state when they would be eligible for marriage, reach 
the marriageable age [lit. they reach marriage]; *(37:102) jJj 
'<J£J reached the stage of working for a living [lit. he reached the 
stage of going around with him]; *( 18:76) Ijie ^ y. diL js y<?M 
wave /iaa* all the excuses you can put up with from me [lit. you 
have reached an excuse from me] 5 to overtake, to catch up with 
(3:40) j&ll ^jii jSj pic. J 'jjSj ^1 /rowever can / nave a son wnen 
old age has overtaken me 6 to measure up to, to come up to the 
level of, to match (17:37) V jJ= cfeJI jjjj 'y, yajSlI y ^ yow 
will never rend the earth open, nor attain the mountains in height 
7 to achieve (40:80) °£ j yLa J* Aklk t$jlc. I jiMj ^Li« t$ja J^Tj ana" in 
f/iem [ cattle [ you have benefits; and that you may attain, on them, 
a need [ that is] in your breasts. 

ji ballagha [v. II, doubly trans.] 1 to give or deliver a 

„■>>'- 1 

message or news to someone (7:68) '^XJi / convey to 

you the messages of my Lord 2 [with elliptical second object] to 
announce, declare, broadcast (5:67) |> ^ Jjii U jJj J l^jtlj 
Messenger, proclaim what has been sent down to you from your 
Lord. 

ji! 'ablagha [v. IV, doubly trans.] 1 to inform someone or 
deliver to someone a message (7:93) cialaj j Jij '(^iLi 
I have delivered to you the messages of my Lord and have given 
you advice 2 to help someone reach a place or a goal (9:6) i*u p 
<iot« then help him reach his place of safety. 

i« it , t 

jJLj baligh [act. part. ; fem 4ilU balighatun, pi. uj*^ balighun] 1 
reaching (13:14) AilUj ji U»j »U jlul ?U <jaS .LJjS V) Z//ce 
someone stretching forth his two hands towards water that it may 
reach his mouth-but he does not reach it 2 to satisfy; achieve, 



113 



attain (40:56) j>i U "J£ V) J>a jjiLi ^ 'j] f/iere is nothing in 
their hearts but a self-conceit they will never satisfy [it] 3 to fulfil, 
to meet (7:135) Ji Jkl J\ ULiS Ilia w/ien We 

relieved them of the plague and gave them a fixed period in which 
to fulfil their promise 4 [adjectivally] far-reaching (54:5) ajJU 
far-reaching wisdom; *(6:149) 4±0 <kkJI the conclusive, 
overwhelming, ultimate argument; *(68:39) lik JjUul solemn 
oaths binding on us. 

£jL baligh [quasi-act. part.] far-reaching, penetrating, 
insightful (4:63) Uj£ V'js ' f ^-ij! ^ '<4J <Jsj and speak to them about 
themselves using penetrating words. 

baldgh [v. n./n.] 1 announcement, declaration, conveyance 
of a message (5:99) VI J cs^ ^ nothing is required of the 
Messenger but to deliver the message 2 warning, a message 
delivered (46:35) g^Tj ;> icL. V] iji 'jjic. J U. 'jj'jj '{Ji '^Ik 
on the day they will see what they had been warned about, it will 
seem to them as if they had not tarried but a single hour of a 
single day; [this is] a warning! 

Wx» mablagh [v. n.] extent, attainable degree, ultimate level 
(53:30) <J?JI j> ^ is the extent of their knowledge. 

j/J/lj b-l-w test, trial, to test; bounty; to strive, to have care for; to 
afflict, calamity; to give an oath. Of this root, eight forms occur 
37 times in the Qur'an: Jl bald 18 times; tubla twice; ^ 
yubli once; (J&l 'ibtald seven times; '^1 °ibtuliyd once; i^j fca/a" 
six times; mubtali once and jji^ mubtalin once. 

^ £>a/a u [v. trans.] 1 to try, to put to the test (21:35) 
Alii JiiJI j jJslL a«<i We try you with the bad and with the good, as a 
test 2 to experience, to taste, to come to realise (10:30) l£ J& ^UUa 
ciLl U (_>uaj thereupon every soul will experience what it did in the 
past. 

JS£ tubla [imperf. of pass. v. [Ji buliya] 1 to be put to the test 
(3:186) J^u^jlj s j^til yow are surely to be tested in your 

possessions and in your persons 2 to be declared, to be brought 
into the open (86:9) jSl'JU Juj 'fji the Day when secrets are 



114 



brought into the open. 

J& yubll [imperf. of v. IV Ju 'abla trans.] either to give the 
chance to someone to do well or to confer a great gift on (8:17) 
liiak Ala 'jjju>ll \J$j and to test the believers with a fair test 
from Him (or, to confer upon the believers a great gift from Him). 

J&i "ibtala [v. VIII, trans.] 1 to test (2:124) '4j ^I'J p)j 
"j^ojla pUKj and when his Lord tested Abraham by certain 
words/commands and he fulfilled them 2 to put to the test (89:15) 
t>jkl Jij Jjia ^ukjj <*"jkU 4jj iStjjl U li] Jjlluj)/I as for man, 
whenever his Lord puts him to the test, honouring him and granting 
him ease in living-he says 'My Lord has honoured me ' 3 to confer 
(8:17) li^ <i« "od*°>^ to confer upon the believers a great 
gift from Him (or, and to test the believers with a fair test from 
Him). 

'<jZi\ "ibtuliya [pass, of v. VIII] 1 to test, to be put to the test 
(33:11) Vl'jlj I jljfjj "ujV>1I cs^' ^erg the believers were 
sorely tested and deeply shaken. 

p% bald 3 [n./v. n.] 1 test, trial (44:33) 1% *4 ^ 't> fi^ij 
LtiA We gave them revelations in which there was a clear test; 
*(8: 17) Uluk favour, blessing, great benefit [lit. a gooa* fesf] 2 
affliction (2:49) jLJac- J^Sjj °<> ^ij J^ScUj 'j^kLuj uj^4^ 

slaughtering your sons and sparing only your women, this was a 
terrible affliction from your Lord. 

Jul* mubtali [act. part., pi. oJi^ mubtalin] one who puts to the 
test (2:249) ^ b) Goo* w/ZZ fesf yow w/fft a river. 

ts/J/'-e Z?-Z-y to be worn out, to degenerate with age, to whither away; 
to care about, to give attention to. This root is usually classified 
together with root j/J/m b-l-w (see J/j/^ b-y-l). Of this root, ^ 
yabla occurs once in the Qur'an; also ^ bald occurs 27 times and 
may be classified under this root. 

ylj yabla [imperf. of v. baliya, intrans.] to decay, wear out, 
to wane (20:120) Jtu V jlill SjkJi JSs. ^Ifi J* s/iaZZ / s/row yow 
f/re free of immortality and a kingdom that never wanes? 



115 



Jij bald [response particle (J'jk occurring 27 times in 

the Qur'an; it contradicts a negated proposition or denial and 
affirms the opposite; in this way it functions like Jj bal (q.v.) but 
unlike <_£, bald can stand alone functioning as a complete 
sentence] 1 [as a response to a negated sentence] yes, indeed; on 
the contrary (64:7) ££151 Jfjj Jl y 'J 1 jj^ ui^ p*0 ^£ 

disbelievers claim they will not be raised from the dead, say 
[Prophet], 'Yes indeed! I swear by my Lord!, you will be raised' 
2 [as a response to a negative interrogative sentence] yes indeed 
(2:260) (^JS yjajl yUj jj Jl y«jj jjj Jli //e sa/<f, 'Do yow no? 
believe, then?', 'Yes,' said he, 'but just so my heart may rest at 
ease. ' 3 [preceded by what is not literally, but has the force of 
being, a negative] yes, he did, he had (39:59) cli'^k jjU* 'J JL 
I^j yes, indeed! My revelations came to you but you denied them; 
which is preceded by (39:57) y ^Ija S J °jl if Gog? 

ow/y guided me I would have been of the pious. 

Jj &aZ (see J/^/^ fe-y-/ or J/j/ij b-w-l). 

'£)/<_i £-n-n tip of the finger, the entire finger; arms and legs; to 
remain in a place; constancy; odour. Of this root, yi bandn 
occurs twice in the Qur'an 

bandn [coll. n.; sing. bandnatun] 1 fingertips, also said 
to indicate the entire finger (75:3-4) <A^p- *J«kj yl yiaiyi ' .'' ■■ '•^ 
Ajlij 'J ^ 'jjjjll <ioes man f/imfc We cannot collect his bones?, 
yes, We can, We are able [even] to reconstruct his very fingertips 
2 also said to mean arms and legs or limbs in general (in an 
interpretation of verse 8:12) yi and strike off their 

every limb. 

"j/O/^ b-n-w/y sons and daughters, offspring; to adopt a child; 
building, wall, tent; to build, to form; to wed. Of this root, 13 
forms occur 184 times in the Qur'an: ^ band 11 times; *Uj bind" 
twice; *Lij bannd 3 once; bunydn seven times; 4^ mabniyyatun 
once; yj 3 ifen 40 times; ^ °ibnay once; uj^ banun 74 times; JUS 
"abnd' 22 times; ^jj bunayya six times; "ibnata once; ^iSjl 
"ibnatayy once and CjUj Z?awa7 17 times. 



116 



Ju band i [v. trans.] 1 to build, to construct (40:36) ^ <jil 
^J^=Haman, build me a lofty tower 2 to raise (91:5) lili Uj 
1*1^ U»j (>ajVl j #y f/ie and /low //e raised it and by the Earth 
and how He spread it. 

fUj fo'na 3 [n.] a raised structure, a dome, a roof (2:22) Jik ^ill 
iUj cLUlj Ul'ja |>ajVl j£l die One w/io made the earth spread out 
for you and the sky a canopy. 

fUj banna^ [n. of profession] builder, bricklayer, constructor, 
architect (38:37) oafjfcj ? Uj JS '^UuSJIj and die satans-every 
builder and diver. 

"cfe&bunyan [n.] building, structure (9:109) je. iiGi 
^yi (jl^Jajj aIII '(> cs'jii w die one w/io founds his building on 
consciousness of God and desire for His good pleasure better? 

<uia mabniyyatun [pass. part, fern.] built up, constructed 
(39:20) <-ijc l^Tji J> <_ijfc J41 /or diem are Zq/fy chambers 
above which are lofty chambers built. 

3 dm [n.; dual cyil "ibnayn] son (5:27) ^ii '^1 us J^jSc. J3j 
ij^Jlj and recde fo diem die story of die fwo sons of Adam in truth; 
*(2:215) JjjUI (jjl die wayfarer, the traveller [lit. die son o/ the 
road] . 

* * 

banun [pi. of J$ °ibn, in construct (SiU^I) > ji oanw, + I s 
pers. sing, suffix > ^ baniyy] 1 sons (12:87) I> I jLLkja I jjajI 
aj^Ij u^j^ my sons, go and seefc new* of Joseph and his brother 2 
children, descendants (7:27) V f "i» children of 

Adam, do not let Satan seduce you. 

f lii 'aona 3 [pi. of n. $ 3 ifot] 1 sons (4:23) I> 'j^l ^ JS^j 
j^XJ wives of your begotten sons 2 children, sons and daughters 
(implied by the context although usually interpreted as merely 
sons) (5:18) <iS *^>> t>j tsj^llj ' J P^j die dews and die 

Christians say, 'We are the children of God and His beloved 
ones. ' 

"J*i bunayy [diminutive of °ibn + 1 st pers. sing, suffix ^ (i)] 
(used for endearment) my dear son (12:5) ^JUjj 'un'rA' V ^iG <J15 
(Jc. /ie sa/d, 'My dear son, do nof re/ate your dreams to your 



117 



brothers. ' 

Ail "ibnata [n. fem.; dual "ibnatan, with 1 st pers. sing, 
suffix ^ (?) > ^jil "ibnatayya; pi. cAi bandt] daughter (28:27) 

^jjjl i/iJ a^£jf 'J jj J / would like to marry you to one of these 
two daughters of mine. 

I— fe/ij b-h-t to be confounded, to be taken by surprise, to be 
dumbfounded; falsehood, slander; to be argued down; to be 
perplexed. Of this root, three forms occur eight times in the 
Qur'an: c^jj tabhat once; cj$j buhita once and "cPh buhtan six 
times. 

tabhat [imperf. of v. c^j bahata, trans.] to render 
dumbfounded and unable to act, to stupefy, to stun (21:40) '^iP Jj 
Iaj'j 'q j'jKi' .i q Aiiu /f w/ZZ come w/?ora them suddenly, and 

it will stupefy them; so they will not be able to repel it. 

c^i buhita [pass, v.] to be confounded, to be dumbfounded 
(2:258) 

jaS ^ill so Abraham said, 'God brings the sun from the east; so 
bring it from the west', the one who disbelieved was confounded. 

buhtan [n./v. n.] 1 fabrication, perjury, falsehood 
*(60:12) (j^'Jj "Cy^M '6k ^yk lPw 60i they do not falsely 
attribute children to their husbands, they do not commit adultery 
[lit. nor do they produce any falsehood, they fabricate between 
their hands and legs] 2 malicious slander, calumny (24:16) Oj^ ^ 
JJic. y^j Ija IM^Im I j^j ^ISlj 'J U! /f not [proper] for us to speak of 
thisl-Glory be to Youl-this is a monstrous slander 3 deception, 
trickery; unjust act (4:20) t>ljkj ^li'j £ jj £jj Jl'igJ Juj'J 'jjj 
liul lliij j Ut^j <jjii.til Uli A-L» I jiklj !>li I'jUaj anJ // yew vv/s/i to 
replace one wife with another, and [even if] you have given any 
one of them [as a dower] a ton [of gold], do not take any of it 
[back], do you take it by way of calumny and manifest sin? 

'_fc/Lj b-h-j delight; freshness; verdancy; to please, to make merry. 
Of this root, two forms occur three times in the Qur'an: 
bahjatun once and bahij twice. 



118 



bahjatun [n./v. n.] delight, beauty, joy (27:60) J> Jjij 
CjIj jjl'jk <j Uuojti iU. f UsUl a«<i //e sent for you from the sky 
water with which We caused gardens of delight to grow. 

bahij [quasi-act. part.] joyful, delightful, lovely, pleasing 
(22:5) £jj '"".j t — ^jj ^jjjaI 1 ij'jTr. UTpl lili siolA (_>ajVl tsj^j 
a«<f yow perceive the earth lifeless, yet when We send down 
upon it water, it stirs and swells and puts forth [vegetation] of 
every joyous kind. 

d/_A/t_j b-h-l to leave an animal unattended, to neglect; to be 
without a husband; to chase out; to curse, to invoke God's wrath; 
to swear one's innocence; to pray eagerly. Of this root, 
nabtahil occurs once in the Qur' an. 

J$jjj nabtahil [imperf. of v. VIII 'ibtahala, intrans. with 
no prep.] to pray earnestly, reference to ^JaI^ mubahala a 
traditional form of 'trial by prayer' practised in Arabia in which 
two antagonists debate a disputed subject in public with one 
another and end by invoking God's curse upon the lying party 
(3:61) 'ctfjjlSlI JSs- aJII ^1 J*kia p and let us pray earnestly and 
then invoke God's curse on those who are lying. 

f/_fe/Lj b-h-m four-footed animals; to be dumb; obscure, 
unintelligible; to be dark; unmarked. Of this root, bahimatun 
occurs three times in the Qur' an. 

Aju^j bahimatun [n., pi. baha 3 im/quasi-act. part.] animal, 
beast; dumb *(5:1) (JiiVl livestock animals, plant-eating 
beasts, ruminant [beasts]. 

S/j/lj b-w- 3 dwelling, home, abode, residence; to take up a place for 
settling in, to provide abode for others; to take a wife, marriage; 
to come back; to incur; to admit; situation; equality. Of this root, 
four forms occur 17 times in the Qur'an: it) bd'a six times; vji 
bawwa^a six times; r^j tabawwa J a four times and mubawwa 3 
once. 

f Vj ba 3 a [v. intrans. with prep. — j] to come back with; to incur, 



119 



to bring upon oneself, to earn (2:90) <~L±t. je. i .f . ^i I jiUa they 
have incurred wrath upon wrath. 

Sjj bawwa'a I [v. II, trans.] 1 to settle, lodge, or establish 
someone in a place (7:74) I jjl^a 1^1 '<> 'jjiili i^i f^»j>fj a«<i 
//e established you in the land, that you take to yourselves castles 
on its plains 2 to prepare or appoint a place for settling in (22:26) 
"jjl^o ^jaI'_«V ^'j* w/re« We appointed/made habitable for 
Abraham the site of the House II [doubly trans.] 1 to settle or 
lodge someone in a selected place (29:58) li'jc. 't> '^^jl We 
s/iaZZ Zo<fge them in mansions in the Garden 2 to grant someone 
something (16:41) Ajluk Gj J J ^ We will grant them a good 

reward in this world. 

Sjjj tabawwa°a [v. VIII] 1 [intrans.] to reside, to settle down, 
to abide (39:74) iUj jLikJI fji we settZe w/ierever we please 
in the Garden 2 [trans.] to take up or select as a place of residence 
(10:87) ti jjj jl^4J UVjiil 'jl Aj^i j ^J] li^-'Jj We revealed to 
Moses and his brother, 'Take up dwellings for your people in 
Egypt.' 

\jia mubawwa" [pass, part., functioning as n. of place] abode, 
place of residence; rank (10:93) ij£ cAplj^j <J> ^jj '-^'j We 
settled the Children of Israel in a good settlement (or, in a 
situation of truth). 

b-w-b desert; wonders; doors, ways, choices. Of this root, 
two forms occur 27 times in the Qur'an: LAj bab 12 times and 
Li'jl 'abwab 15 times. 

Lilj bab [n., pi. tJ'Ji "abwab] 1 door, entrance, gate (13:23) 
JS 'qa 'jjki <SO j f/ie angels will go unto them from 
every gate 2 means, facilities, ways *(6:44) f'^> J£ M'_*>' 
We maJe if easy for them to acquire the good things [lit. We 
opened for them the ways to all things] of this life; *(2:189) I jpij 
I^jI'j^] '(> Cjjp ewfer houses by their [ main ] doors (a reference to a 
pre-Islamic custom by which men, under certain circumstances 
and for a certain period, would only enter their own houses 
through the back, this has come to mean: select the right means 



120 



for the right ends); *(54: 1 1) $>UUl IJ'jl and We sent 

torrential rain [lit. We opened the gates of the sky]; *(38:50) 
LjIjjS/I '^1 they are made welcome [lit. opened for them are the 
gates [of Paradise]]. 

j/jj^ib-w-r waste, uncultivated land; demise, to perish; corrupt; 
stagnant; lazy; to test. Of this root, three forms occur four times in 
the Qur'an: 'jj£ yabur twice; jjj bur once and "J'Js bawar once. 

jjjj yabur [imperf. of v. jU bara, intrans.] 1 to perish, to meet 
with a bad end, to come to nothing (35:10) ^loljl j£°j iu* 5 
jjS j* far them is a severe chastisement, and the plotting of such 
will come to nothing 2 (of trade) to be stagnant, to be unprofitable, 
to decline (35:29) jjjj y ujVjj in the hope of a trade that 
will never decline. 

jjj bur [pi. of act. part. jjLj ba'ir; v. n. functioning as quasi-act. 
part.] lost, ruined, condemned (25:18) I jjj &jI I ji^j jkill I jJ-j 
wnri/ they forgot the Reminder and were people ruined. 

jIjj bawar [v. n./n.] utter loss, condemnation, doom (14:28) 
JjjII jIj °4^j5 ljL>.ij a«<i cawse f/ie/r people to end up in the home 
of utter ruin. 

J/j/lj b-y-l (with a degree of overlapping with roots ^/J/^ b-l—y and 
J/l^/i-s b-w-l) heart, mind, thought; condition; importance; ease of 
living; disposition. Of this root, bal occurs four times in the 
Qur' an. 

JIj bal [n.] 1 mind, thought, heart, one's inner being, situation 
(47:2) J^lj jJlatj '^3d!L» '^c jik He will overlook their bad deeds 
and He will put them in a good state 2 condition, state (20:51) 
iAm' oJJ^ (Jj what about/what is the condition/state of the former 
generations? 

Ci/^/lj b-y-t tent, dwelling, abode, quarters; family; to spend the 
night, to do something at night; to raid by night, (of food) to 
become stale. Of this root, five forms occur 73 times in the 
Qur'an: ajm yabltun once; clia bayyata four times; ciii bayt 28 



121 



times; <i> jjj buyut 37 times and cJ^ bayat three times. 

Cujj yabit [imperf. of v. bdta, intrans.] to pass the night, to 
spend the night (25:64) UAjSj \%L> 'ojjjjj 'oi^j those who spend 
the night bowed down or standing in [constant] prayer. 

dii bayyata [v. II, trans.] 1 to do/decide something at night 

(4:108) (jJ-ajJ ^ l-» UJ^i ■'J ffr*- J* J Lfc° "J "^J (JulLiJI js« jji^LaJ 

JjSlI 'qa they hide from people, but they cannot hide from God, for 
He is with them while they plot at night discourse that He does 
not like 2 to raid someone at night; to kill someone at night 
(27:49) AJ»fj ajjjjj] aIL I jlliij I jUS f/i<?y said, 'Swear to one another 
[ that] by God we shall attack him and his household in the night. ' 

Cm bayt [n., pi. Cj jjj buyut] 1 tent (16:80) j jlk !> '^£1 <J*Vj 
^ Ijj j^u.n Ij jjj an<f //e /ias provided for you, from 
the hide of cattle, tents [lit. houses] that you find light on the day 
you travel and on the day you settle down 2 dwellings, rooms, 
houses {1:1 A) tijjj JUaJI 'jjjaJuj aw<i hewing the mountains into 
houses 3 mosques, places of worship (24:36) '^'J j aIII 'jil Pjjj ^ 
l^jj jS jj j in houses of worship, God has ordained that they be 
raised high and His name be remembered in them; *(2:125) clM 
the House [at Mecca]; *(5:2) ^IjaJ c-ujII f/ze Sacred House [in 
Mecca]; *(33:33) ji&S members of the Prophet's household 
[lit. people of the House] 4 building (24:29) I jlitsi 'J j^Uk J^Sjic. 

j-lla l^a JjjSl^ jjc. Ujjj yo« will not be blamed for entering 
vacant/public buildings [lit. uninhabited houses] in which there is 
some errand/business for you.. 

cjIjj bayat [v. n. used adverbially] at night, during the night; as 
a night raid (7:97) 'jjiub 'fa tilaj Uiij '^L 'J i/jill JaS j>til Jo 
people of these towns feel secure that Our punishment will not 
come upon them by night, while they are asleep? 

j/^/lj b-y-d desert; to vanish, to be cut off; to perish, to become 
extinct. Of this root, jjjj tabid occurs once in the Qur'an. 

jjjj tabid [imperf. of v. jL) bada, intrans.] to perish, to become 
extinct (18:35) \"4 °J 0^ ^ I do not think that this will ever 

perish. 



122 



^ji/^/tj b-y-d eggs; white, to become white, to whiten, to 
whitewash; to honour. Of this root, five forms occur 12 times in 
the Qur'an: '"o±L\ "ibyadda three times; 'u^d 'abyad once; il-^u 
bay da" six times; ly=a bid once and ly=^ bayd once. 

"jjkul "ibyadda [v. IX, intrans.] to become white *(3:107) jjjJI 
°4i ja. j i' '.^ij'il f/iose vv/ro become joyful, those who are favourably 
judged [lit. f/iose whose faces become white/turn white]; *(12:84) 
JUjc. cjlailj interpreted either as Aw eyes became full of tears [and 
so glistened in the light], or, he became blind [lit. his eyes turned 
white]; the latter interpretation finds support in (12:93) ^ 1 _>5*^ 
I'jo^ ch ^1 4k'j (^Jc. ijalla l& fa/ce s/u>f of mine and lay it over 
the face of my father-he will regain his sight and (12:96) ilk 'j tUa 
Tjj^ Sfijli j ^ ftUil ^ill f/ien, w/iew fAe bearer of good news 
came and placed it onto his face, he forthwith became able to see 
again. 

'tjkuS 'abyad [quasi-act. part.; fem. iU^u bayda\ pi. "o^j bid] 
white, without blemish, clear (27:12) ill<£j ui ^ cK^'j 

f jl« Jjc '(> and put your hand inside the neck of your cloak, it will 
come out white, without a blemish; *(2:187) Jail! j> ... o^^ 1 luaJI 
the first streak of light [lit. f/ie vv/i/te thread ... of dawn]. 

"o^jj Z?ayJ [coll. n.] eggs (37:49) "uji£° "^^u "j^IS Z//c<? protected 
eggs. 

g/^/v /?-y- c buying and/or selling, exchange of goods, merchandise, 
deals; to pledge allegiance, to acknowledge someone as ruler; ^jj 
biya c , a place of worship, is also classified under this root 
although it is generally recognised as being of foreign origin, 
possibly Persian. Of this root, four forms occur 14 times in the 
Qur'an: £jG baya c a six times; ^li tabaya c a once; £5 bay" seven 
times and /?/ya c once. 

jjIj baya c a [v. Ill, trans.] to pledge allegiance, to swear fealty, 
declare oneself a loyal subject to a ruler (48:10) Ikij ^j^Jjj b] 

'jjSuLjj f/iose w/io pledge loyalty to you [Prophet] are but 
pledging loyalty to God. 

jjIjj tabaya c a [v. VI, intrans.] to exchange goods, to trade with 



123 



one another (2:282) lil IjV^'j and have witnesses present 
whenever you trade with one another. 

jjj bay c [n./v. n.] an exchange of goods, trade, buying and/or 
selling (62:9) ^jjII IjIpj ^ j^P Ij^li juiskJI ^ 'j^ s^tLill jj lij 
w/ie« f/ie call to prayer is made on the day of congregation 
[Friday], go immediately to praise God and leave off your 
trading. 

£jj biya c [pi. of n. bay c atun] churches (22:40) aIII V'jTj 

Mill ^ujl l^_ia ^.Uuilaj Clll jf. ^ij £-1Jj £-alj^-a Cxa^J ^paxjj ^ i >it J ^jiloil 

had God not repelled some people by means of others, many 
monasteries, churches, synagogues and mosques, where God's 
name is much mentioned, would surely have been destroyed. 

Ojisl^ b-y-n separation, severance, division; to be disconnected, to 
become divorced; in between, middle; to clarify, to declare, to 
explain; eloquence. Of this root, 14 forms occur 574 times in the 
Qur'an: bayyana 35 times; 'j^ yubln once; 'cbp tabayyana 18 
times; tastabln once; ££j bayyin once; bayyinatun 19 

times; CjLuj bayyinat 52 times; mubayyinatun three times; 
cjLui mubayyinat three times; mubin 119 times; 
mustabln once; yi bay an three times; yiy tibyan once and "jjj 
bayna 317 times. 

bayyana [v. II trans.] 1 to make clear, to explain (14:4) U«j 
uS 3 ^j 5 lWj VI JjlTj °i> ^"'J We /iave never sent any 
messenger but [that he communicated] in the tongue of his 
people, that he may make [the message] clear for them 2 to 
clarify, to explain away (43:63) ^ill "u^Vj ^SjJU J^ia. 'J 

ojallij / /jave brought you wisdom; and I have come to clarify 
some of your differences for you 3 to bring out into the open, to 
make manifest (5:15) yta J^. '^j^ ^ ' j±£ ^ ciS ^ j-0 f&t* 
owr Messenger has come to make manifest to you much of what 
you have kept hidden of the Scripture 4 to specify (2:70) UJ gol Ijjli 
U Ul d£j f/iey sa/J, 'Pray to yowr Lore? /or ms, to show us 
[exactly] what it is.' 5 [with no object] to explain, to itemise 
(4:176) I jL^j °J 'fSl <lll Gog? explains [all this] to you lest you 
err. 



124 



O&i yubln [imperf. of v. IV 'jUl "abana, trans.] to enunciate, to 
express oneself clearly (43:52) 'ca^ Vj ls.^ ^ I> ^ ^ 

am / not better than this contemptible wretch who can scarcely 
express himself? 

tabayyana [v. V] I [intrans.] 1 to become clear, to become 
manifest (4:115) <_s-4^ ^ t^? ^ ^4 i> Jj^ji' o? 1 -^ I>j a«<i whoever 
oppposes the Messenger, after the guidance has become clear to 
him 2 to become known (9:43) I jSi^> 'jjill ^11 ^ ^ cjjjl jJ w/iy 
<f/<f yow g/ve them permission, before those who spoke the truth 
became known to you? 3 to become distinct, to become 
discernible (2:187) t> Lp=£^ -5=4^ ^ er^- 1 j^j-^j ' j^j 

Jajll 't> eaf and drink until the white thread of dawn becomes 
distinct for you from the black 4 to discern, to discriminate, to act 
in a judicious way (4:94) Vj I Jj^ ^ li] I jiali "(jjill 

lia^ cjU ? !>lU ^1 'j^I I jJjSj yew w/io believe, when you travel 
in God's cause be discriminating, and do not say to one who 
offers you peace, 'You are not a believer' II [trans.] to discover, 
to realise (34:14) ^ I Jul U L r 4iJI 'oJ^i I jh^ jJ 'J JjaJI .^4^ !>■ ^ 
jjj^Ul so w/ie« he fell down the jinn realised, that, if they had 
known the unseen, they would not have remained in the 
demeaning torment. 

'(•jjjjLj tastabln [imperf. of v. X 'jLjU "istabana, intrans.] to 
become distinct, to become marked out (6:55) ^lliSj 
'jxa JJ*\\ JjjL 'jjjjl^ilj thus We expound the revelations, so that the 
way for sinners becomes distinct. 

'da bayyin [quasi-act. part.] sure, manifest, evident (18:15) s-Vja 
J£ ^Lkllij "jjjjU V jl «j ji '(> I ji^l tijS f/iese people of ours 
have taken gods other than Him, why do they not produce clear 
evidence about them? 

aJjj bayyinatun I [quasi-act. part., pi. bayyinat] manifest, sure, 
evident, clear (2:211) jui JXe '<> 'filiili j>k JjjIj1»] ^ Ji» asfc f/ie 
children of Israel how many clear signs We brought them II [n., 
pi. bayyinat] clear evidence, proof (8:42) Ij^J, Jiu I> ^ i> L ^ 1 fe i 

'jc. ^ f/iaf /ie who perished might perish by a clear proof, and 
that he who survived might survive by a clear proof, * <iull name 



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of Sura 98, Medinan sura, so-named because of the reference in 
verse 1 to ' clear evidence' . 

mubayyinatun [act. part, fern., pi. cMua mubayyinat] 1 
explaining, enlightening, guiding, verifying, showing the way 
(24:46) IjJ'jj^ °JaJ We have sent down enlightening verses 

2 evident, manifest, flagrant (33:30) 

LiljjJI l^i eicU^ wives o/ f/ie Prophet, any of you who 
commits a flagrant indecency, for her the chastisement will be 
twice doubled. 

"i^iIa mubln [quasi-act. part.] 1 eloquent, expressing things 
clearly, perspicuous (5:92) 'j^l £M Ul jlfj ^ Ui I j^Lli '^Iji // 
yow pay wo /iee<f, fcraow f/iaf f/ze sole duty of Our Messenger is 
clear communication of the message 2 clear, manifest (6:16) I> 
'qiL^ jjill aiij jaa 'f^y r <i "-ijl^j /ie /rom whom [such 

retribution] is diverted on that day, He [God], indeed, has had 
mercy on him, and that is the manifest triumph 3 flagrant (7:60) lj) 
tjoi ^ 'A\'jA we believe you are in flagrant error 4 plainly 
visible (7:107) "u^ ^ '4* so he threw his staff and- 

lo and beholdl-it was a snake, clear to all 5 clearly decisive (48:1) 
t_ui ai ukjj Uj indeed, We have opened up a decisive triumph 
for you. 

** mustabin [quasi-act. part.] guiding, clarifying, sorting 
out, making [things] clear (37:117) UiLnjlij and We 

gave them the clarifying/clear Book. 

"cfei bayan I [v. n.] act of explaining, elucidating (75:19) °ci P 
lilt then it is Our duty to elucidate it II [n.] 1 faculty of 
speaking, faculty of thinking, the ability to express oneself (55:3- 
4) 'o^P <Jc 'jlluVI jjli He created man, [and] taught him to speak 
for himself 2 declaration, announcement (3:138) i/jaj l&h ^ 
'jj^ll ^kc'j^j this is a declaration to people, and a guidance and 
an admonition for those who are mindful of God. 

tibyan [v. n.] elucidation, explanation, clarification 
(16:89) JSJ Uljjj ^LL Ufjjj aw<f We have sent down to you 
the Book elucidating everything. 

dabayna I [adverb of place] 1 between, in between (2:164) 



126 



(>ajVlj fUUl "jS jil<ill ljUUIj aw<i clouds that are made to run 
appointed courses between the sky and earth; *(27:63) '</i 'Jjj 
aj^j ahead of, or heralding, His mercy [lit. between the two 
hands of His mercy]; *(3:50) ^> Ul ISjI^j and 

confirming what came before me in the Torah; *(34:12) °i> "jaJ 't>j 
aIii tS^u and of the Jinn, some worked in his presence; *(36:9) 
liu. '^i! ^yj 'j- Ul*Vj We set a barrier in front of them 2 among, 
amongst (56:60) cSJA\ ^SijLjjja We ordained death among you 
II [n.] connection, bond as in the variant reading baynukum in 
(6:94) ^ (f^) '-^ flW bonds 

between you tore up, and left you and what you have been 
alleging; (4:35) i> '(> U>£k I jj^U U^j (U44>) °uTj 

l^Ekl yow /ear severance of the bond between the two, appoint 
one arbiter from his family and one from hers; *(8:1) ^ the 
relations between yourselves; *(18:61) the point of 

meeting between them. 



fUJi 3 al-ta 3 the third letter of the alphabet; it represents a voiceless 
dento-alveolar plosive sound. 

3 ta- [particle of oath prefixed to M also carrying with it-in the 
words of 'al-Suyuti-interjection implying a sense of awe (m^), 
occurs in four places in the Qur'an] 'by the name of, 'by the 
might of (21:57) 'joA* IjJjS °j' jJjSV ^IMj fry Goc? 

Almighty, I will harm your idols after you have gone away. 

cjjjtj tabut [a borrowing, said to be from Aramaic, Ethiopian, 
Hebrew or others; philologists also derive it from various Arabic 
roots, e.g. £j/i_s/cj t—b—t and —a/^/cj t-b-h]; it occurs twice in the 
Qur'an 1 basket, box, chest (20:39) ^1 ^ pjil2ll ^ Ajaial J 
cast him in the chest, then cast it in the river 2 the Ark, the chest, 
also rendered as heart (2:248) I> cj jilill J^jk °j asL aX* °J\ 

aSjXJ 4i«kj 'jjjlA J» j ^ j!« Jli I^'jj ajSj'j f&e sign of his 
kingship will be that the Ark [of the Covenant] will be brought to 
you, carried by angels, containing [ the gift of] tranquillity from 
your Lord and relics of the followers of Moses and Aaron. 

Sjti taratan (see j/j/^ t-w-r). 

i_i/i_i/cj t-b-b to stamp down, to flatten, to crush, to ruin; to cause to 
lose, to destroy; to become stable, to settle down, to become 
well-ordered. Of this root, three forms occur four times in the 
Qur'an: La tabba twice; CJi tabab once and "l_uj2j tatbib once. 

ljj tabba i [v. intrans. also trans.] to lose, to come to ruin, to 
perish (111:1) Luj ^ tJ« may the hands of 3 abu Lahab be 



128 



ruined [paralysed]! May he come to ruin [too]; * clu name of 
Sura 111, Meccan sura, so-named because of the initial word 'to 
be paralysed' in the sura. It is also called ^ _J (see h/o/J l-h-b) 
and -wll (see j/oVf m-s-d). 

IJm tabab [v. n.] loss, ruin, failure (40:37) ^ V) 'jj^jl 'ik Uj 
lJjj and Pharaoh's scheming [ends] only in failure. 

Lujjj fatorZ? [v. n.] utter destruction, ruin (11:101) '(4^ ^ 

their gods, which they called on beside God, were of no use to 
them when what your Lord had ordained came about; they only 
increased their ruin. 

j/lj/Ci t-b-r gold dust, raw metal, ore; to fragment, to crush, to 
destroy, to annihilate. Of this root, four forms occur six times in 
the Qur'an: Jj tabbara twice; jjjjj tatbir twice; "J^ mutabbar 
once and "Jjj tabar once. 

jjj tabbara [v. II, trans.] to crush, to destroy (25:39) IjjjI* 
I'jjjjj \j°Ju JlXoS/l ttfor each We struck similitudes, and each [of 
them ] We destroyed completely. 

jjjjj tatbir [v. n.] destruction, annihilation (17:7) I'jjc. L, I JJ&j 
Tjoiu and to destroy utterly what they had overrun. 

jj£» mutabbar [pass, part.] destroyed, crushed, eradicated 
(7:139) ^ji 'fi U "Jio f V> f/zese people are [doomed to have] 
what they are engaged in utterly destroyed. 

jti tabar [v. n./n.] ruin, destruction (71:28) I'ji V) '^^1 pjs Vj 
£>wf £>rmg nothing but ruin on the unjust ones! 

t-b- c an attachment, to follow, to succeed, to pursue, to abide 
by, to comply with; to send after, to cause to go after; a follower, 
a creditor; result; liability; consequence; follow up, successor; 
uniformity; one's shadow. Of this root, 13 forms occur 174 times 
in the Qur'an: ^ tabi c a nine times; ^atba c a 13 times; ^ 
"utbi c a twice; "ittaba c a 134 times; jjjI "uttubi c a twice; y2 
tabi c twice; jjuulj tabi c in once; ^UjI "ittiba c twice; uj^4" 
muttaba c un twice; o^ 12 " mutatabi c ayn twice; jjj to^a c twice; ^jjj 



129 



tabi c once and ^jj tubba c twice. 

jjj tabi c a a [v. trans.] 1 to come after, to succeed (2:263) Jji 
tsi! I^ujj Jlila '(> ^yi Sjai^j <-«/J«^ a word //rom a would-be 
giver] and forgiveness [from the would-be receiver of charity] 
are better than almsgiving after which follows hurt 2 to abide by, 
to follow, to adhere to, to keep to (2:38) <Jfji y& ^Ija ^jj i>s 
jjjj'jk^ JiVj f/iose w/io follow My guidance need not fear nor 
grieve. 

jjjS "atba c a [v. IV] I [trans.] either: to make someone a 
follower, to subjugate; to catch up with, to overtake (7:175) c$j 
jjjlill qa 'jl£a JjUajjill 4*jjU l^ia ^Liili LuUli sLmle <jill Uj an<i recite 
to them the story of the one to whom We gave Our messages, but 
he tore himself apart from them, so Satan recruited him as his 
follower (or, caught up with him) and he became one of the lost; 
*(18:85) so he went after/in search [lit. followed a road] 

of [knowledge/wisdom] II [doubly trans.] to cause to come after, 
to cause to follow (2:262) U> '<jy4k V p lW^ ^ °<4^_P 1 > uj^4 "oi^ 
tsil Yj lia Ijiia f/iose w/zo spend their wealth in God's cause and do 
not cause hurt [to the recipient] to follow what they have spent. 

jjj! °utbi c a [pass, v.] to be followed with, to be pursued (by) 
(11:99) AjkJ si* I jLulj an<f f/iey were pursued in this [life] by a 
curse. 

jit "ittaba c a [v. VIII, trans.] 1 to follow (12:108) Jjf. J 
,^5*2)1 (>j Ul Sj^^j aJII jL'J say, '77i/s w my way: / call to God 
with sure knowledge, I and all who follow me. ' 2 to go after, to go 
behind (15:65) '^jCsf j^lj cPI t> <45»^ j^^ so frave/ w/?/z yowr 
household in a part of the night, and walk behind them 3 to 
accompany (48:15) U jji U jiifo JjUw J] J^iikil 111 '^jiklll J jSlu. 
f/iose who were left behind will say, when you set out after spoils 
to capture them, 'Let us accompany you ' 4 to emulate, to copy, to 
repeat (75:18) iilVjS ^uti »l3j5 lili emulate the recitation when We 
have recited it. 

£j3 "uttubi c a [pass. v. VIII] to be followed (2:166) 'j^l t£ - 1 ) 
I jiil 'jjill j> I jijjl w/ien f/iose w/io Ziave Z?ee« followed disown 
those who followed [them]. 



130 



jjLj fa£/ c [act. part.] [one] following (2:145) I j3jl 'jjill ^ b^j 

even ?/ yow brought every proof to those who were given the 
Scripture, they would not follow your prayer direction, nor will 
you be following theirs, nor indeed will any of them be following 
one another's prayer direction. 

cijjulj tabi c ln [pi. of act. part./n. g\l tabi c ] helpers, attendants, 
followers, entourage (24:31) Jjt. 'j^ljll j ... Jj^J J*2 V) 'jjjju Vj 
.... Jlkjl 't> ajjVI J and nof reveal their charms except to their 
husbands, or such men as attend them who have no sexual 
desire .... 

^ittiba" [v. n.] following, conformity (2:178) I> ^ I>a 
jllkb <A\ *rij Uij'ji^llj g-Uali "c*^ Aja.1 £>wf if someone [the culprit] is 
relieved from some [of the penalty] by his [aggrieved] brother [in 
humanity [, then there shall be conformity [to his wish] in fair 
practice, and restitution [of the remaining part of the penalty [ to 
him [ the aggrieved] in a good way. 

muttaba c un [pi. of pass. part. muttaba ] those 
followed, those pursued (44:23) oj*+" *f^j ^ qs$&i so travel 
in the night with My servants, for you are sure to be pursued. 

mutatabi' ~ayn [dual of act. part. mutatabi c ] 
successive, consecutive, following one another without 
interruption (4:92) c£*pi* jj>j*" 'fa-^ '^i '6*& but anyone who 
does not find the means must fast for two consecutive months. 

jjj taba c [v. n. functioning as a coll. n. or as an adj.] followers, 
following (14:21) Ijuj °{S1 US Uj \j'JiS£J iU*i^ll <JUa Hj^. «il IjXwj 
and they [humankind] appeared before God, all together; and the 
weak said to those who thought themselves great, 'We were 
followers [or a following] of yours. ' 

jjjj tabi c [pass./act. part.] either helper, protector, prosecutor, 
one who is prosecuted, or sued, for a right or dues, particularly 
for blood revenge (17:69) p p'jsS ^jiia ^jjII '<> li^li J^'jia 
Uui Ullc- '{SI I jiaj V a«<i seeds' against you a hurricane of wind 
and drowns you for your ungratefulness, then you will find no 
helper for you against Us (or, you shall find none to demand 



131 



compensation, or, prosecute Us for it). 

£±i Tubba c [proper name] title and name of a number of 
Himyar kings who ruled in Southern Arabia until overrun by the 
Abyssinians in the 4 th century A.D. (44:37) °i> oa^j '? °J $ $ 
'^J^l I J4jj ^AVjSEkl J^Jja are they better than the people of 
Tubba c and those who flourished before them?, We destroyed 
them all, they were guilty. 

j/jr/cj t-j-r wine merchant, wine seller; to barter, to buy or sell; to 
trade, to exchange; (of a camel) to be saleable. Of this root, s'Jki 
occurs nine times in the Qur'an. 

SjIaj tijaratun [v. n./n.] 1 merchandise (2:282) s'jUj 'ojS °J VI 
UjiS VI ^Ua. 'fSjXt f^jjj ^jji-^ s'j^lk unless it be ready 
merchandise which you hand one to the other, there is no blame 
on you if you do not write it down 2 commerce, business, trade 
(2:16) f4j'jl^5 ^j'j ^ <_s'-4^ ^T>lUl Ij'jLil 'jjill ^IjIjI f/iese are the 
ones who have purchased error in exchange for guidance, so 
their trade brought no gain. 

cjaj taht [adv. of place, occurring 5 1 times in the Qur' an] 1 
underneath, beneath (20:6) ^44^ <^ plj^LJ ^ U iJ 

(/Jill cjk2 to Him belongs all that is in the heavens and on the 
earth, everything between them, and everything beneath the soil; 
*(66:10) c^^= Uijc. °q& ^ the two women were 

wedded to [lit. under] two of Our righteous servants 2 below, at 
the foot of (48:18) '4 o^j-^' Cfi- ^ Is**' J Go<i 

was well pleased with the believers when they were swearing 
allegiance to you [Prophet] under the tree 3 within, in close 
proximity to (3:15) IfeVI l^kj '<> ^J^, cAjk '^j I'jsjI for 
those who are mindful [of God], with their Lord are Gardens 
within which streams flow. 

t-r-b earth, dust, to cover with dust; to become poor, poverty, 
need; playmates, people of similar age; to become wealthy; to 
become tame, to become docile; the base of the neck, the area 
between the breasts and collar bone. Of this root, four forms 



132 



occur 22 times in the Qur'an: JJj3 turab 17 times; CJ'jsl 'atrab 
three times; LjSI'jj tara'ib once and matrabatun once. 

Liljj fwraZ? [n.] dust, earth (30:20) lJ'jj I> '^Siik 'J ajUI; '^j one 
of His wonders is His creating you from dust. 

LiIjj! ''atrdb [pi. of n. Ljjj rirfc] people of similar age, 
playmates, companions (38:52) CJ'jst mjU CjI'j^JJ Jiijcj aw<i w/f/z 
f/zem are f/iose restraining their glances, of equal age. 

LuIjj tard"ib [pi. of n. taribatun] collarbone, upper chest, 
ribs (86:7) <-jjlj3Jlj iJ Lal l ^ ^jij if [liquid] issues from between 
the loins and breast bones. 

matrabatun [n./v. n.] the state of being covered with dust 
*(90:16) lj abjectly poor, nothing between him and the earth 
[lit. m the state of being covered with dust]. 

i-i/j/Ci f-r-/ a watering place within easy access, (of plants) to be 
watered; good food; to live in luxury, to provide with lavish 
means, affluence. Of this root, three forms occur eight times in 
the Qur'an: <_ijj! "atrafa once; <_ijit "utrifa twice and jjaj" 
mutrafun five times. 

uijjS °atrafa [v. IV, trans.] to provide with the good things of 
this life, to cause to be opulent (23:33) U&ll sUkJI J± ^USjij and We 
had granted them ease and plenty in this life. 

ljjjS °utrifa [pass, of v. IV] to be made opulent, to be 
corrupted by ease of living (11:116) I jsj3 U I J^a 'j^jll 'g&j wMe 
f/ie evildoers revelled in pursuing the ease of living which was 
granted them. 

mutrafun [pi. of pass. part. <_ij£» mutraf] those endowed 
with the good things of this life, ones spoilt by wealth and easy 
living (17:16) Jjiill tfcilc- (jai 1*js I jSLia 1$jSj£« UjiJ y UYJ lijj 

I jjLa'jj UU'jl'ja awj We desire to destroy a township, We command 
the affluent of its inhabitants, and they commit abominations in it, 
so the word [judgement] is passed against it and We destroy it 
utterly. 



133 



(j/j/d t-r-q (no evidence of verbal root) collarbone, the uppermost 
of the chest. Of this root, only Ji\'y taraql occurs once. 

J&'Ji taraql (read as jl'ji taraq, with the final I elided, for 

" ' it * , 

rhyming harmony with following verses) [pi. of n. s'jSjj 
tarquwatun] collarbone, the uppermost part of the chest *(75:26) 
^SI'jjII piL lij when life is about to abandon the body, when a 
person is on the point of expiring [lit. when it [ the soul, life, last 
breath] reaches the collarbone]. 

&ljjCi t-r-k to relinquish, to abandon, to let be, to do without, to 
finish with, to leave behind; neglected, forlorn, spinster. Of this 
root, three forms occur 43 times in the Qur'an: ^Tjj taraka 36 
times; '^'jZyutrak four times and SjIJj tarik three times. 

'<£ji taraka u [v. trans.] 1 to leave behind (4:7) ". *UilTj 
ujo&' j jll <^ J 2 to ^£ women a share of what the parents 
and kinsmen leave; *(37:78-9) ^ ry j*- ou^" tsi 
'jjJUJI We left for him [a eulogy] among later generations: 'Peace 
be upon Noah among all the nations!' 2 to abandon, to forsake 
(12:37) aIIL, 'jjiajj V ? j5 <L c£.ji jk I have forsaken the faith of a 
people who do not believe in God 3 to leave or put someone in 
charge of (12:17) Luill iKti Uc-lla iie. u^j^ US'jjj a«<f left Joseph by 
our things, and a wolf ate him 4 to take to task (16:61) <M jXj 
ajI j *(> l^jk U. ^ olh.i ^Ull zj Got/ were to tafce humankind to task 
for their wrongdoing He would not leave on the earth one living 
creature 5 to render, to change from one condition into another 
(2:264) liLa iS'jia JjIj Ajllati LJjj aIL jl^ala Jj^S iK«a /i/^ likeness is 
as the likeness of a slab of smooth solid rock with earth on it: 
heavy rainfalls and renders it completely bare 6 to let be (44:24) 
'oj2j<U ii. °4->] j jkJ udjjl j and let the sea remain parted; they 
are a drowned host. 

yutrak [pass, v.] to be left alone (29:2) 'J I jS'jij 'j £>AJ Lb-kl 
'jjiii V *pAj IjJji Jo people think they will be left alone after 
saying 'We believe', without being put to the test. 

<i!jlj tarik [act. part.] one who abandons, or forsakes something 
or someone (11:53) '^y 'jc. LsSpi. ^ Jjj J>j U'j and we will not be 



134 



forsaking our gods on the strength of your word. 

£/oV'- j t-s- c this root revolves around the number nine. Of this root, 
four forms occur seven times in the Qur'an: Jjla tis c four times, 
tis c atun once; '_>ic- %L£ tis c ata c ashar once and oJ*^ tis c un 
once. 

°jluZtis c [card, no., fem. tis c atun] nine (17:101) liuli jiTj 
CjLuj pUli ^uy We gave Moses nine c/ear signs. 

'ju& AjiIu tis c ata c ashar [comp. no.] nineteen (74:30) l^k 
in charge of it [Hellfire] there are nineteen. 

CiyL4tis c un [card, no.] ninety (38:23) 'dj^4j "^4 ^ ^ l& b] 
this, my brother, has ninety-nine ewes. 

o*l%J& t- c -s peril, misfortune, destruction; to fall on one's face, to 
meet with disaster, evil, to be wretched. Of this root, (_>«*j ta L s, 
occurs once in the Qur'an. 

o*«j ta c s [v. n. used interjectionally] falling on the mouth, 
destruction, bad luck *(47:8) J4 1 I j'JS- 'oiWj as for the 
disbelievers, may destruction befall them! 

iL/ti/ii t-f-th hair matting and dirt accumulating on the body as a 
result of leaving off acts of body cleansing, to become dirty in 
such a manner. Of this root, only lL.su tafath occurs once in the 
Qur' an. 

£ij tafath a rare word interpreted either as: dirt resulting from 
abstaining from certain body grooming, such as shaving, cutting 
the hair, clipping the nails and using perfume; or acts of worship 
specified for the pilgrims (22:29) I jSjl*tfj J^'jj^ 1 j£j J4^j I J^=^ p 
JiuJI pajlb then let them carry out their needed acts of cleansing 
their bodies (or, let them perform their acts of worship), fulfil 
their vows, and circle around the ancient House. 

L)/<jj/*ii t-q-n dregs of a well, to dredge up a well; nature; to do 
something well, to be skilful, to be eloquent; to perfect, 
perfection. Of this root, 'jsd "atqana occurs once in the Qur'an. 



135 



jS3 "atqana [v. IV, trans.] to perfect (27:88) l. ' fr V. nVi JUaJI i/jij 
f JS 'jail ill <M ^jLi i-AlUl *J* J jki '^j s>lk and you will see the 
mountains, deeming them standing still, when [in fact] they are 
passing by like the passing of clouds; [this is] the handiwork of 
God who has perfected all things. 

tilka [fern, of demonstrative dhalika, occurring 43 times in the 
Qur'an] (see \idha). 

J/J/d t-l-l hill, heap, mound, elevation, to mount, to heap up; to 
knock down, to lay down, to be tough, to be stocky, to agitate. Of 
this root, Jj talla occurs once in the Qur'an. 

Jj talla i [v. trans.] to throw or lay someone face down, with 
his mouth or forehead touching the ground, or on his side with the 
side of his forehead touching the ground (37:103) juail UlJ t& 
when they had both submitted [to God], and he had laid him 
down on his forehead. 

j/J/cj t-l-w to leave behind, to overcome; to come after, to come one 
after another; to accumulate, to be wealthy; to attach; the hind 
part; to read after, to recite, to follow a singer. Of this root, four 
forms occur 63 times in the Qur'an: ^ tala 37 times; tuliya 24 
times; CjUIIj taliyat once and s'j^j tilawatun once. 

Utala u [v. trans.; pass, imperf. yutla] 1 to succeed, to 
come after, to follow (91:1-2) U^i li] J^Si'j Utklij qjU^j by the 
sun in its morning brightness, and by the moon as it follows it 2 to 
recite (3:108) 'j^b L* olX* 'A these are God's 
revelations: We recite them to you [Prophet [ with the Truth 3 (to 
have the skill) to read (29:48) Ai^j Vj j- <K j* jis Ci& U'j 
and you never were able to read any book before it; or write 
one down with your own right hand 4 to recount (6:151) Ja $ 
'^k. J=4j f jk U say, 'Come! I will recount to you what your Lord 
has forbidden you!' 5 to narrate (5:27) ij jklj £1'* Lj JS'j 
UCjS U'ja a«<i narrate to them in truth the story of the two sons of 
Adam when they [each of them[ offered a sacrifice 6 to teach 
(2:102) jUuL. £L ,Jc. jjJ=U^ll L\ Ijiilj a«<f [instead] they 



136 



followed what the evil ones teach about the Kingdom of Solomon 
7 to be very conversant in, to be knowledgeable about, to study 

(2:113) fjc- Ciuu] LSjL^aill tlJlSj C-^j-ii L$ b- ^SjU-ajll j"unjl Jjfrp i^^J 

L_iti£ll "jjjJi °J* j the Jews say, 'The Christians have no ground 
whatsoever to stand on, ' and the Christians say, 'The Jews have 
no ground whatsoever to stand on, ' though they both study the 
Scripture 8 to follow, to put into practice (in one interpretation of 
2:121) ^jj^j JJ^LluIc. "^iil those to whom We have 

given the Scripture, follow it as it ought to be followed 9 to 
convey, to deliver, to relate (27:91) Uuli </JJ*1 <>a 'jlijSlI jfi 'jj 
^■iil am commanded] to deliver the Qur'an. Whosoever 
chooses to follow the right path does so for his own good. 

iUlj taliyat [pi. of fern. act. part. taliyatun] reciting; 
conveying (37:3) I'jSj pUlUJla a«</ f/iose who recite a reminder! 

»[pj tilawatun [n./v. n.] reciting; practising, following; 
recitation (2:121) *j'p£ '■•aj&i LjI&II ^kLuSl'c 'jjill f/iose to whom We 
have given the Scripture, follow it as it ought to be followed. 

t-m-m complete, whole, entire, to become complete, to 
complete; to perform, to carry out, to fulfil; to come to the end, to 
finish one's term; to be tough. Of this root, four forms occur 22 
times in the Qur'an: p tamma four times; "atamma 16 times; 
jXu tamam once and mutimm once. 

"fj tamma i [v. intrans.] 1 to reach completeness, to reach 
fulfilment (7:142) <*j iijliw ^ UUI^ij W 'tjJ£& U'jcljj 
<ZA We appointed for Moses thirty nights, then completed 

them with ten, so the term of his Lord reached completion, forty 
nights 2 to come to pass (6:115) Y-stj liV=> the word 

of your Lord has come to pass in truth and justice. 

"t& ^atamma [v. IV, trans.] 1 to complete (2:233) '<y>^Ji ^I'J'jUj 
<cL±J>\ '"fL 'J 'i'j '(jA ^yTjk s jAjS/'j mothers shall suckle their 
children for two whole years, for those who wish to complete the 
period of nursing 2 to comply with, to fulfil (2:124) '^'Ji ijj 
"j^IjU CiUKj <4j w/ie« Abraham's Lord tested him with certain 
commandments and he fulfilled them 3 to perform, carry out 



137 



(2:196) Ail i'JAW'j gkJI \Jdj perform the pilgrimage and minor 
pilgrimage for the sake of God 4 to spread, to propagate, to bring 
to fullness (9:32) I'jy 'J VI iill jfcj 'f&YjL aM jjj I °J 'jjijj 
fftey wanf to extinguish the light of God with their mouths, 
however God refuses but to bring His light to fullness 5 to 
honour, to fulfil (9:4) '^"4^ I so fulfil their treaty 

for them till their term [given to them]. 

jiUi tamam [v. n.] completing, fulfilling, perfecting (6:154) p 
't>kl ^ IXi Lslkll (jluji bjjli f/ien We gave Moses the 
Scripture, completing [ Our favour] upon those who do good. 

pZ» mutimm [act. part.] one who perfects/completes (61:8) 
s jjj aJIIj ^aIjsL aJII jjj I jjil=i^ oAuS they wish to put God's light 
out with their mouths, but God is bringing His light to fullness. 

jjjj tannur [a borrowing, said to be from Persian, Hebrew or 
undetermined origin, occurring twice in the Qur'an. Some Arab 
philologists link it to either jjj nur or jU nar while °ibn c abbas 
describes it as common to all languages], variously rendered by 
the commentators as: oven/furnace; spring; surface of the ground 
(11:40) jjfill 'Jij Ujy ilk lil J**, till when Our command came to 
pass, and the furnace (or, the Earth's surface, or the spring) 
boiled over. 

Lj/j/cj t-w-b (this root could be a variant of tj/j/i th-w-b) to return, 
to go back, to relent, to encourage someone to abandon their bad 
deeds. Of this root, eight forms occur 87 times in the Qur'an: LA2 
taba 63 times; Liji tawb once; tawbatun seven times; cjUfti 
ta°ibat once; jjjjIj ta'ibun once; LA'ji tawwab 11 times; jjjlji 
tawwabln once and LA1« matab twice. 

L12 faZ?a u [v. intrans.] 1 to repent (7:153) ^ oIjjLJI I jU. 'jjillj 
I jiali j lijju 'j> I jjIj f/iose w/io <io wrong, then repent afterwards 
and truly believe 2 to turn to God (11:112) LAj (j^j ^jj^l LS j 1 1 nli 
so keep to the right course as you have been commanded, 
together with those who have turned to God with you 3 [with prep. 
(^Jc] (of God) to accept repentance, to absolve (of sin) (2:37) J&i 
£Sc Litis pLK ajj 'qa £li then Adam received instruction from his 



138 



Lord and [ complied with them ] so, He accepted his repentance. 

Lijj tawb [n./v. n.] repentance, penitence (40:3) <Jj15j i-uill 
t_j'jall For giver of sins and Acceptor of penitence. 

Ajjj tawbatun [v. n./n.] 1 penitence by a sinner to God (66:8) 
Ik jLu ajjS aIII J) Ij^jj Ijioli 'jjill t^jlG yow wfto believe, turn to God 
in sincere penitence 2 acceptance of repentance by God (4:17) UjJ 
t^jS °q* uj^j^ p » CiJ^i oi'r^ ^ aj'jjS /?wf Go<f on/y 

undertakes to accept penitence from those who do evil out of 
ignorance and soon afterwards repent; * AjjSII name of Sura 9, 
Medinan sura, so-named because of the reference in verses 117— 
18 to the 'Forgiveness' granted to the three who had repented. 
Also called Sftjj (see S/j/lj b-r-°). 

CiUuU ta'ibat [pi. of act. part. fem. ajjIj td 3 ibatun\ masc. pi. (jjifc 
ta^ibun] ones who repent or turn to God, righteous ones 
(66:5) cAjjIS tiiliojii Cil «Jm« tj£ia lj^=»- ^jj' 'i) ^jSiiLi y <uj 
. . . pUfti /f may be that His Lord will, should he divorce you, give 
him instead of you, wives better than yourselves: wives 
surrendering to God, believing, devout, turning [to Him] in 
repentance. . . . 

Liljj tawwab [intens. act. part.] 1 (of God) most accepting of 
repentance; ever absolving/pardoning (4:64) Up-j lilji <M I jVj 3 
they would have found God most accepting of repentance and 
most merciful; *(2:37) L/55II [attribute of God] best Acceptor of 
repentance, 2 [pi. QjXfi tawwabln] those sincerely given to 
repenting or eagerly turning to God (2:222) 'jjjIjSlI 0! God 

loves those who eagerly turn to Him. 

SjLj taratan [adverbial, also classified under the roots J j/o t-w-r 
and/or j/ls/^ t—y—r, occurring twice in the Qur'an] a time, one 
time, one turn (20:55) csjil O 2 >u l^iaj J^iuu l^jj ^lilk l^i. owf 
o/i? [earth] We created you, into it We will return you, and from 
it We will bring you forth yet another time. 

SljjSJI "al-Tawratu [proper name of Hebrew origin occurring 18 
times in the Qur'an] generic name for the Law or Scripture 



-»/<f/«a 



139 



revealed to Moses comprising the Pentateuch (the first five books 
of the Bible) as distinct from "al-^injll (the Evangel, the Gospel, 
the New Testament (q.v. 3 al-°injll O^VI)) (3:65)^ uM JaIu 

'(> V] J^V' J jj^l P^jj' f^*l'j^j (jl people of the Book, 

why do you argue about Abraham when the Torah and the Gospel 
were not revealed until after his time? 

The Qur'an states that these scriptures were subjected to 
distortion and tampering (2:75-9; 4:46 and 5:15). The Qur'an 
also alludes to the fact that the Prophet Muhammad's advent was 
predicted in these sacred scriptures (7:157). 

&u tin [coll. n. with no verbal root thought to be a borrowing from a 
sister Semitic language occurring once in the Qur'an] fig(s) (95:1) 
ojh3'j O0j by the fig and the olive; * jill name of Sura 95, 
Meccan sura, so-named because of the reference to 'Figs' in 
verse 1. 

—kj^jd t-y-h expanse of desolate unmarked featureless desert; 
wilderness; to lose one's way, to be misguided; to be conceited, 
to be obstinate. Of this root, o_km yafihun occurs once in the 
Qur' an. 

'<niyatlh [imperf. of v. ;i3 taha, intrans.] to wander around 
having lost one's way (5:26) ,J 'o4s ^ os^'J Vj^> 1*4* 
cpa'jVI He said, 'It [the holy land] is forbidden to them for forty 
years, [they will] wander in the land [being lost]. ' 



&/tha D 



f. tfli *al-tha° the fourth letter of the alphabet; it represents a voiceless 
inter-dental fricative sound. 

cj/<_j/Jj th-b-t to stand firm, to be fixed, to hold out; to establish, to 
make fast; to prove; to transfix; to be constant. Of this root, six 
forms occur 18 times in the Qur'an: 'uthbut once; dp 
thabbata 10 times; yuthbit twice; Cj Jp thubut once; cJH thabit 
twice and Cimi tathblt twice. 

dp, ^uthbut [imperat. of v. Ciu thabata, intrans.] to stand firm, 
to hold fast to one's position (8:45) I _>uili i& jAal lij I jiali 'jjill I^jIU 
yow w/io believe, when you meet a force [in battle], stand firm. 

Ciu thabbata [v. II, trans.] 1 to set fast, to make firm, to give 
firmness (14:27) s>Vl </j li&l sl*j J pill JjSL I jLi; 'j^l aIii ^ 
Go<i g/ves firmness to those who believe with the firmly-rooted 
word, in this life and in the Hereafter [also interpreted as: God 
gives firmness to those who believe in the firmly-rooted word, in 
this life and in the Hereafter]; *(2:250) clu make us stand 
firm 2 to bolster, to strengthen (25:32) t&l^a jo clpjl that We may 
strengthen your heart with it. 

Cujj yuthbit [imperf. of v. IV cup\ °athbata, trans.] 1 to confirm 
(13:39) e-Li Ij^u God erases whatever He will and 

confirms [whatever He will] 2 to immobilise, to transfix, restrain, 
to tie up, to take as captive (8:30) ^SjISj °j jjiiul I JJS. 'jjill & jSlu ilj 
'A jl>4 "J remember when the disbelievers were plotting against 
you, to take you captive, kill you or expel you. 

cjjjj thubut [v. n.] being steadfast, steadfastness, being firm 
(16:94) tfcjjju I£u jijs Jj5a Zest a /oof should slip after its being firmly 



141 



placed. 

Cuih thdbit [act. part.] firmly rooted, steadfast, sure (14:27) cIxL 
s'ja.VI Ui'J slkll ^ pjlill JjilU Ijiale 'jjill illl Go<f gives firmness to 
those who believe, with the firmly-rooted word, in this life and in 
the Hereafter [also interpreted as: God gives firmness to those 
who believe in the firmly-rooted word, in this life and in the 
Hereafter]. 

cjjjjj tathblt [v. n.] act of confirming, affirming, strengthening 
(2:265) 

likeness of those who spend their wealth seeking God's pleasure, 
and strengthening themselves [their souls]. 

th-b-r ruin, destruction, to perish; to be vanquished, to be 
transfixed, to be detained; to persist, to be diligent. Of this root, 
two forms occur five times in the Qur'an: "jju thubur four times 
and jjjj- mathbur once. 

jjjj thubur [v. n.] ruin, destruction, perishing (25:13) I j$ lilj 
Ijjjj ^UUa Tjc-j 'qujL. (ilia U£« a«J w/ien they are thrown into a 
narrow place in it [Hell], chained [together], they will cry out 
[for[ death. 

mathbur [pass, part.] one who is lost, ruined, doomed, 
vanquished (17:102) S'jjZ* 'cjjp-'Jk ^jj and indeed, I deem 
you, Pharaoh, ruined/vanquished. 

Ja/i_j/di th-b-t to be slow, sluggish, phlegmatic; to cause someone to 
lose heart, to discourage, to turn away. Of this root, J=S thabbata 
occurs once in the Qur'an. 

iajj thabbata [v. II, trans.] to frustrate, to discourage, to 
impede; to cause someone to be reticent (9:46) ojS 'jSTj 

jjj^clill \ jikal j 'fi^'fA but God was averse to their going forth, 
so He discouraged them, and it was said, 'Stay behind with the 
laggards. ' 



^/lj/Jj th-b-y a group of horse riders, to divide into groups; to be 
constant; the centre of a water trough. Of this root, CjGj thubat 



142 



occurs once in the Qur'an. 

Citjj thubdt [pi. of n. XL thubatun] separate groups each 
consisting of a small number, small groups of horse riders or 
fighting men (4:71) Iku^. I Jjd J cXu I Jjj\l I jii. I ^jIIj 
yow w/io believe, be on your guard, then march [to battle] in 
small groups or march all together. 

jr/jr/^ th-j-j downpour, to flow forcefully, to gush out, to flood, 
waterfalls. Of this root, lktkj thajjajan occurs once in the Qur'an. 

UIaj thajjajan [intens. act. part.] pouring forth, cascading 
(78:14) IkllS cljt^A '<> UTjitj and We send down from 
rain-carrying clouds (or, by means of rain-causing winds) 
cascading water. 

6/c/ 1 - 1 th-kh-n thickness, solidity; to do something to the utmost; to 
wear out, to exhaust, to weaken, to conquer; to be solemn, to be 
overcome with strain. Of this root, 'c^i "athkhana occurs twice in 
the Qur'an. 

'{J>3, 'athkhana [v. II] I [intrans. with <^] to battle strenuously, 
to gain victory (8:67) u^j^' ij <J>* ls'J^ ^ "uj^ 'J ^ u 1 ^ ^ it 
is not for a prophet to take captives before he has successfully 
battled in the land II [trans.] to overcome, to vanquish, to 
overpower, to rout (47:4) li] lJ3?J\ uj^i I j'jiS 'jjill lili 
jljjll Ijjula JJkjlijiJii when you meet the disbelievers [in battle], 
strike their necks until, when you have routed them, tie fast the 
bonds. 

Lj/j/di th-r-b thin layer of fat over the stomach; fingers; to point out 
faults, to blame, to abuse, to reproach, to upbraid. Of this root, 
Lujn tathrlb occurs once in the Qur' an. 

Lujn tathrlb [v. n.] blame, reproof, reproach (12:92) LujSj V Jli 
'fJA\ [but[ he said, 'You will hear no reproaches today. ' 

ls/j/£ th-r-y (somewhat overlapping with j/ th-r-w) moisture, 
to moisten; soil, wet soil; goodness. Of this root, t/Ji thara occurs 



143 



once in the Qur'an. 

jjj thara [n.] soil, face of the earth, the crust of the earth, 
surface of the ground (20:6) U'j U44h <J plj^ll <ji ^ 

(_5 'Jill ii^j to Mm belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth, 
everything between them, and everything beneath the soil. 

<_j/£/di th- c -b snake, serpent, adder; to wriggle; channels cut by 
floods in the mountain, to flow, to flood. Of this root, IjLmj 
thu c ban occurs twice in the Qur' an. 

thu c ban [n.] serpent, snake (7:107) JjCi lili 
",jxL so he threw his staff and-lo and behold! -it was a snake, clear 
to all. 

Lj/jj/di th-q-b to bore, to perforate, to puncture, to pierce a hole; to 
heighten; to kindle, to light, to shine up. Of this root, LsSIj thaqib 
occurs twice in the Qur'an. 

Lili thaqib [act. part.] piercing, piercing bright (37:10) I> V) 
Lilii L_>l$J; Aikkll i kjaa except for he who snatches away a 
fragment, and he is pursued by a piercing flame. 

ui/j/di th-q-f to straighten, to put into the correct shape; a capable 
person; to locate, to catch, to overcome, to dispute. Of this root, 
two forms occur six times in the Qur'an: u£ thaqifa four times 
and u£ thuqifa twice. 

i-iSj thaqifa a [v. trans.] to catch, to overtake, to come upon, to 
overcome, to gain the upper hand (60:2) il'jct j>£J I jjjk; j>£ jiai y z/ 
f/iey gain f/ie wpper hand over you, they will revert to being your 
enemies. 

uSj thuqifa [pass.] to be found, to be overtaken, to be 
overcome, to be caught (33:61) I j I I ji£ ^4 o^J^ 
accursed, wherever they are found, they will be seized and 
[fiercely] slain. 

J/jj/Jj th-q-l weight, to weigh, heavy, loads; sin, responsibility; to 
find heavy, to become reluctant, to find burdensome; to oppress, 



144 



to distress; phlegmatic, dull. Of this root, 10 forms occur 28 times 
in the Qur'an: J£ thaqula four times; cM\ ^athqalat once; JSjI 
"iththaqala once; JjS thaqll twice; JUS thiqdl three times; *J2u 
muthqalatun once; uj^" muthqalun twice; J^iiS '" 'al-thaqalan 
once; Jliit "athqal five times and JU1« mithqal eight times. 

JSj thaqula u [v. intrans.] 1 to be of heavy weight, to weigh 
heavily on the scales (101:6) '*±,J_y> ^JS '<> Uli as for the one 
whose good deeds [lit. scales] weigh heavily 2 to be serious, to be 
burdensome, to be momentous (7:187) JS XaLJJ* 'jd ^HJ jc. & jLy 

question you [Prophet] about the Hour, 'When is its arrival [lit. 
coming to port] ?' Say, 'The knowledge of it is only with My Lord: 
None but He will manifest it at its due time, it [the knowledge of it 
or expecting it[ has become burdensome in the heavens and the 
earth. ' 

cjffiS 'athqalat [v. IV, intrans.] (of a pregnant woman) to 
become heavy with child (7: 189) liJS <> clj*& liai. cjLk ULiij Ilia 
jjjjSLill 'qa jj jSil tkllla Liuili 'jjl L4jj aIII Ijc-'j i— ilSSl ara<f when he 
covered her she bore a light pregnancy, and she passed by with it 
[unnoticed], but when she became heavy, they both prayed to 
God, their Lord, 'If You give us a righteous [son] we shall 
certainly be of the thankful. ' 

jStit "iththaqala [an assimilated form of v. VI tathaqala, 
intrans.] to become reluctant *(9:38) lPO^ 1 iA you show 
great reluctance to move [lit. you inclined heavily towards the 
earth]. 

JjSj thaqll [quasi act. part., pi. JIsj thiqdl] 1 heavy, burdensome 
(76:27) X£ fieljj jjj^j uj*=4 f^j* *oj f/zese [people] 

love the immediate life, and put behind them [ all thoughts of] the 
Day of Reckoning [lit. a Heavy Day] 2 momentous, weighty 
(73:5) X£ Yjs <JkL, Uj We shall cast upon you a weighty 
discourse 3 heavily laden (9:41) VIST, lili?. I jjisl so go forth, lightly 
and heavily [armed]. 

AJSiw muthqalatun [pass. part. ; pi. oj^" muthqalun] one who is 
burdened, heavily laden (68:46) jj^" ? I> (4* '*J^ (J or do 



145 



you ask them for a wage and so they are burdened with a levied 
payment?; *(35:18) V l^Iu* ^ aw<f a 

sow/ heavily-laden [by sin] calls for its load [to be carried], not a 
thing of it will be carried. 

Cp3j±\ 'al-thaqalan [dual of n. J£ thaqal] eminence, importance; 
most commentators interpret this as the parallel worlds of humans 
and jinn (55:31) cP&H t$ '^1 j-'jiL. We shall take you to task [lit. 
free Ourselves exclusively to you] two masses of jinn and 
humankind [lit. two weighty entities] . 

* , og _ " " * 

JUjI ^athqal [pi. of n. thiqal] a load, a burden (16:7) J^j 

L^ijS/l jjAj V) I jj jSj °jj jL J) J^lliji a«<i they carry your burdens 

to a land you could not reach without great hardship. 

JtfL mithqal [n.] a weight (4:40) s'ji JiL Jjk V ^ill o] Got/ does 
not wrong [anyone] by as much as the weight of a speck of 
dust/an ant. 

&/d/& th-l-th this root revolves around the concept of the number 
three. Of this root, eight forms occur 32 times in the Qur'an: 
thalath six times; thalathatun 13 times; uj£^ thalathiin twice; 
l1£ thuluth three times; thuluthan three times; lUIj thalith 
twice; ajUj thalithatun once and thulath twice. 

f/ia/af/i [card, no.] three (19:10) JU "^Ull ^ yl JJ 
tiy^ He said, 'Your sign is that you will not [be able to] speak to 
people for three nights [and days, though being] well'; 
*(9: 1 19) Ijik 'opll ^jII ffte fftree wfto made false excuses and 
stayed behind [lit. f/ie three who were left behind] when others 
went on the campaign of Tabuk in the heat of the summer 
9 A.H/630 A.D. 

Ojjbti thalathiin [card, no.] thirty (46:15) I'JpS "oj^ il^4j 
period of] bearing and weaning him is thirty months. 

ii£ thuluth [n., dual thuluthan] a third (73:20) 'S, fa &j Q 
a!Zj Ailajj JJJI '(> (^j'J J>jsj [Prophet] your Lord knows that you 
[sometimes] stay up [praying] less than two thirds of the night, 
and [sometimes] half of it and [sometimes] a third of it. 



146 



thdlith [act. part./n., fern, 32112 thalithatun] a third of three, 
the one that, with two others, makes a group of three (36:14) ij 
dJti, Ujjki jjjki (Jiul J^j UL.'J w&en We sewf to them two 
[messengers], but they rejected both, so We reinforced [them] 
with a third. 

££&thulath [n. adverbially used] in threes, threesome (35:1) 
j-ljjj d^jj LS ZL f~*±J\ ^Jjl %Jj Jplk who appoints angels, 

messengers with wings, in twos, in threes and in fours. 

J/J/Jj th-l-l a herd of sheep, wool, a group of people; to perish, to 
ruin. Of this root, a£ thullatun occurs three times in the Qur' an. 

aJj thullatun [n.] a multitude, a group, a crowd (56:12-13) J> 3£ 
tltU^I t> cWj o/j^ many /ram f/ie /?asf generation, and a few 
from later generations. 

j/f/Jj th-m-d little water; to dig for water; a ditch in which water 
seeps, name of a tribe suffering from scarcity of water. Of this 
root, j Thamud occurs 26 times in the Qur' an. 

Thamud [proper name] name of an extinct tribe which 
dwelt in Northern Arabia, particularly in 3 al-Hijr (q.v.) (17:59) 
tgj \ J*M "o'jt-^A AaLill J J£ Uilij and We gave the people of Thamud 
the she-camel as a visible sign, yet they did wrong by her. 

The Qur' an describes how the homes of Thamud were carved 
from the rocky mountain in which they dwelt. The Thamud are 
juxtaposed with the c ad whose recalcitrance likewise led to their 
downfall. The Prophet Salih was sent to this tribe (11:61). 

j/f/di th-m-r load of trees, yield of trees, fruit, to fruit; wealth, 
offspring, full milk. Of this root, three forms occur 24 times in the 
Qur' an: jA ^athmara twice; _>«j thamar six times and c£j& 
thamarat 16 times. 

jjjS "athmara [v. IV, intrans.] to bear fruit, to fruit (6:141) IjK 
oiioa. j>'jj 4**. I jjlij 'jA lij °(> so eat of their fruit, when they 
bear fruit, and pay its dues [the poor's share] on the day of 
harvesting them. 



147 



jju thamar [coll. n.; unit n. thamaratun, pi. c£j& thamarat] 
1 yield of trees and plants (14:32) J> <j ^ t> 
J^l lijj pl'j^ll and he has sent down water from the sky and 
brought forth with it produce as provisions for you 2 fruit bearing 
trees; wealth (18:34) 'j&l u ja'j ajsAI^I <JUa aJ 

I'jjj jclj and he had fruit [in abundance], so, he said to his friend, 
while engaged in dialogue with him, 'I am greater than you in 
wealth, and mightier in respect of men. ' 

j»j thamma [adverb of place indicating a removed point either 
physically or in rank (high rank), occurring four times in the 
Qur'an] 1 there, at that point (26:64) 'o*jH\ p tifjj and We 
brought the others near there 2 'there for you to see!', 'at that 
[glorious] place!' (76:20) IjjjS ISL'j llgu cjjf'j p c$'j lilj and if you 
were to cast a look around, there you would see bliss and great 
wealth. 

j»j thumma [conjunction indicating a separation in time, or in rank, 
between the two entities it joins (as distinguished from proximate 
sequence (^^) denoted by the conjunctive i fa- (q.v. 1.2)); 
occurring 338 times in the Qur'an] 1 then, afterwards (6:22) 
^jlSjJ; jjl I jS'^ii jjjill Jjij p UuA JJk'j^ on the Day We will gather 
them all together, then We will say to those who ascribed 
partners [to God] 'Where are your partners?' 2 then, in the end 
(3:79) J> I'ijc- I jj jS (jabll Jji p s^illj ^ II j Lit&ll aJII 'jl _>iul 'cJS U 
<UI jji *(^» it is not [befitting, possible] for any human being that 
God should give him the Scripture, wisdom and prophethood, 
then, in the end [after all this], he say to humankind 'Be 
worshippers of me instead of God. ' 

th-m-n (1) this root revolves around the concept of number 
eight. Of this root, five forms occur eight times in the Qur'an: 
thamin once; i JC& thamanl once; thamaniniyatun four times; 
jjjUu thamanln once and thumun once. 

"j>Ij thamin [act. part./n.] one making up a group of eight, the 
eighth one (18:22) °4f& 'pi^j 'oAj*!j <z«d [some[ say, 'They 
were seven, and their eighth was their dog. ' 



148 



( jjCu thamani [card, no., fem. <^ thamaniyatun] eight (39:6) 
grljjt <uCh ^Jj\ j> J^J Jjjtj //<? sen? down for you of the cattle eight 
kinds/pairs. 

thamdnln [card, no.] eighty (24:4) p plV. r>\\\\ 'oJ&°Jj "oi^j 
s'jJk 'jjjUu JJk j^-la »rj^J; I jjU <35 ^or those who accuse chaste 
women [of adultery], then fail to provide four witnesses, lash 
them eighty lashes. 

Cy& thumun [n.] an eighth (4:12) '^k'Ji 'j^ STj j>kl 
/>w? /fyoM Ziave children, to them [your wives] is an eighth of what 
you leave. 

th-m-n (2) price, value, to price; equivalent. Of this root, i>!i 
thaman occurs 1 1 times in the Qur'an. 

Cy" thaman [n.] price (3:77) Xia liu J^^j <M oJj^i oi^ bl 
,ji i>>Li- V t&Jj those who sell out God's covenant and 
their own oaths for a small price, for them there will be no share 
in the Hereafter. 

thamud (see Y?/^ th-m-d). 

isjOj& th-n-y two, to make two, to double; to bend, to twist, to fold 
up; incisor teeth; to do in twos; to praise; to insult; to exclude, to 
except. Of this root, nine forms occur 29 times in the Qur'an: ^ 
yathni once; i J±L^ yastathni once; ^Ju than! twice; °ithnan 11 
times; cp&> "ithnatan four times; j^o. ^ "ithna c ashara twice; trul 
e'jZc "ithnata c asharata three times; mathna three times and 
mathani twice. 

<jjlj yathni [imperf. of v. thana, trans.] to bend, to fold up, 
to twist *(11:5) jJk'jjiLa 'oj£> they conceal their enmity, they hide 
their thoughts [lit. they fold up their breasts]. 

J&L*iyastathrii [imperf. of v. X jZIA "istathna, trans, also 
intrans.] to exclude, to make an exception, to make an allowance 
[for the will of God] by saying 'God willing' *U jj) (68:17- 

We tried them as We tried the owners of a certain garden, who 



149 



swore that they would harvest its fruits in the morning, and made 
no allowance [for the will of God/for the poor]. 

yjli than! [act. part./n.] 1 one of two, one making a group of 
two (9:40) ujjjI ^ilS I jj& 'jjill <*-'j^ ij ^1 »>-aj °-^a Go<f helped him 
when the disbelievers drove him out: the second of two 2 one who 
is twisting, bending *(22:9) Aiiac. ^jlii acting arrogantly [lit. 
twisting his side] . 

£UjI 3 ithndn [card, no., fem. jti±il 3 ithnatdn] two (13:3) I>j 
($51 jjVjj I^js J*V plj^ll and of every fruit He made two, male and 
female [lit. two types/spouses]. 

u±i\ "ithna c ashara [n., fem. "ithnata c asharata] 

twelve (9:36) I'JJhS LSI iie. sV b) ^ number of the 

months with God is twelve months. 

Jua mathna [n. used adverbially, pi. mathani] 1 in twos, 
two by two (34:46) ... ls^'jG Ail Ij^jSj °j siaJjJ Uuj say 
[Prophet], 'I only impress upon you one thing: to stand before 
God, in pairs and singly ... ' 2 oft-repeated, that which repeats; 
that which draws comparisons between things (39:23) 'cy^l Jjj 
^jliLa l^jLiil ilyiaJI Go<f /ias seraf down the most beautiful of all 
discourses-a Book that is consistent [in the message it conveys], 
drawing comparisons [also interpreted as: repeating good news 
and warning]; *(15:87) ^J&tt 1> ^liul* We /?ave g/ve« yow 
seven of the oft-recited verses [the opening sura of the Qur'an] 
[variously interpreted as: the whole Qur'an, certain suras and 
others] . 

<_j/j/di th-w-b a ditch to which water returns, stones stacked on top 
of one another; to return, to come back, to come to a gathering, a 
place of gathering, a resort; garment, clothes; reward, recompense, 
to reward, to repay; to repeat, to volunteer. Of this root, six forms 
occur 35 times in the Qur'an: Ljjm thuwwiba once; Lsl3 'athaba 
three times; Lii'Ji thawab 13 times; mathabatun 11 times; 
mathubatun twice and LAjj thiyab eight times. 

Ljjj thuwwiba [pass, of v. II IJy thawwaba, doubly trans.] to 
be repaid, rewarded, requited for (83:36) '<jj**i 1 'J^ 1 h*Ji lS* 



150 



have the disbelievers [not] been repaid for their deeds? 

La 'athaba [v. IV, doubly trans.] to give someone something 
as a reward, to recompense (48:18) llji Iksi j4P'j and rewarded 
them with a near victory. 

Litjj thawab [n.] reward, recompense (4:134) LA'£ ajjj !> 
s'jiVlj LjIjj ii«a li&l if some want the rewards of this world, 
then the rewards of this world and the next are both God's to 
give. 

Ajllu mathabatun [n. of place] gathering place, meeting place, 
resort (2:125) VXJj ^UM cip LiLk ilj awe? w/iera We made the 
House [at Mecca] a resort and a sanctuary for people. 

hjiA mathubatun [n./v. n. implying intensity] great reward, 
recompense (5:60) aIh ise. ^Sli '(> 'fS&f J* li say, 'S/ia// / 
te/Z yow w/io deserves a worse recompense in the eyes of God?' 

ilu thiyab [pi. of n. Liy thawb] garment, clothing (11:5) 'o^ Sll 
'jjj&u ^ f^H °(4?3 'u j ii ^tun evew when they pull their clothes 

over themselves, He knows what they conceal and what they 
reveal; *(24:58) s (> "uj*^ o^j a«<i w/ten you lay aside 
your garments at noon. 

cjVjj thubat (see is/^/^ th-b-y). 

j/j/di th-w-r bull, to stir, to raise, to excite, to rise, to swirl up; to 
agitate, to rebel, to rage; to break up, to plough; to chase, to dig 
up, to look into. Of this root, 'j3 'athdra occurs five times in the 
Qur' an. 

jIjS "athdra [v. IV, trans.] 1 to raise, to stir (100:4) <j q'Jm 
raising with it a cloud of dust 2 to move, to drive, to set in motion 
(35:9) Oil. jjjjs ^Ujll Ju'J ^ill AJSlj Go<i w /fe w/io sends forth the 
winds, and they set in motion the clouds 3 to plough, to till (2:71) 
dj'jaJI Vj L>i»jVl j£» Jj^ V s'jsj l^jj /f w a cow, not tame to 
plough the earth or water the tillage. 

tg/j/& th-w-y dwelling, abode, animal enclosure, to abide in a place, 
to live for a long time in one place. Of this root, two forms occur 



ljLlu 



151 



14 times in the Qur'an: ^ j& thawi once and <_s'j£° mathwa 13 times. 

csjtf f/iawj [act. part.] residing, dwelling (28:45) J* CuS U»j 
LuUlc j^jL jl2 'jj'ia JaI wor were you residing among the people of 
Midian reciting Our Revelation to them. 

j jla mathwa [n. of place/v. n.] a place of residence, an abode; 
residing (47:12) ij'y* jUllj but the Fire will be their abode 
*(12:21) sljj- ^jkl look after him well!, treat him with hospitality 
[lit. honour his abode]. 

CiVjjj thayyibat (possibly from th-w-b) [pi. of quasi-act. part./n. 
fern. L±u thayyib, occurring once in the Qur'an] widow, divorcee, 
non-virgin woman (66:5) I'JSj'j previously married or 

virgins. 



£ / jim 



fjaJ 'al-jim the fifth letter of the alphabet; it represents a voiced 
palato-alveolar affricate sound. 

j/Vsj— 3 — f (of cattle) to low; to cry for help; anxiety; (of plants) to 
grow tall and plentiful; to be stout. Of this root, jlkj yaj'ar occurs 
three times in the Qur'an. 

jikj yaj'ar [imperf. of v. Jk ja°ara, intrans.] to cry out for 
help, to raise the voice in prayer or supplication (23:64) bid lil 
jjjlkj lil juJU 'f^gjii until [the time], when We seize with the 
chastisement those of them who lead a life of pleasure, they will 
cry out for help. 

cjjJlk Jalut [a proper name of Hebrew origin occurring three times in 
the Qur'an] Goliath (2:251) ijl'j JSj <M cyL jiTj$i a«<f 50 
wiYA God's will they defeated them and David killed Goliath. 

This verse occurs in the context of the testing of the Children 
of Israel in battle. Saul, chosen by God as king of the Children of 
Israel in spite of their opposition, leads his unwilling army against 
Goliath and his vastly superior forces, invoking the support of 
God. At the conclusion of the story Goliath is slain by David 
who, in the words of the Qur'an, is granted dominion and wisdom 
(2:251). 

Si/v/s j-b-b to cut, to sever; the crust of the earth; hard rocky land; 
any kind of well, a large-mouthed well, a well containing much 
water, a deep well, also a well that is not deep. Of this root, LA 
jubb occurs twice in the Qur'an. 

jubb [n.] well (12:10) <^ J* » j&'j <-Vjj I V Ai- JjII Jli 



153 



LAJ another speaker from among them said, 'Don't kill Joseph, 
but cast him into the depth of the well. ' 

Cua jibt [n. of either Ethiopic or Hebrew origin occurring once in the 
Qur'an] variously interpreted as false deity, sorcery, the devil, 
idol, a name of a certain idol, said to belong to the tribe of 
Quraysh (4:51) jcLLSj tiuaJL 'ojVjj t> ^n-^ ' J 1 J 'ui& lA > ^ 
have you considered those given a portion of the Scripture, who 
believe in idols and evil powers. 

jj^/^j-b-r to set broken bones; to restore, to assist; to compel, to 
force, to be impregnable; giant, tyrant, almighty. Of this root, two 
words occur 10 times in the Qur'an: jtk jabbar eight times and 
jj'Jja. jabbarun twice. 

jVja jabbar [intens. act. part., pi. jjjj?. jabbarun] mighty, 
having absolute power, tyrant, proud, perverse (28:19) 'J VJ jjjm 'J 
^ I'Jjk jjS you only want to be a tyrant in the land 
*(59:23) jIjsJI [an attribute of God] variously understood as the 
Impregnable, the Compeller, the Mender, the Almighty. 

Jjjja. Jibril [proper name of Hebrew origin occurring three times in 
the Qur'an] the Archangel Gabriel through whom the Qur'an was 
revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (2:97) -uli Jjj1?J Ij-^- '(P- i> <3 
<13l tjijj ilJa ^ Afjj ray [Prophet], 'Whosoever is an enemy of 
Gabriel [let him know that it is he] who brought it [the Qur'an] 
down to your heart by God's leave', the Qur'an also refers to him 
as the trustworthy spirit (26:193). 

6/^/^j-b-l mountain; to form, to shape, to create with a firm natural 
disposition; intrinsic nature, idiosyncrasy; population, crowd, 
multitude. Of this root, four forms occur 41 times in the Qur'an: 
Jja. jabal six times; JUa. jibal 33 times; Jf?- jibill once and aL*. 
jibillatun once. 

Jja jabal [n., pi. JUa. jibal] mountain, hill (59:21) Ija UTjjl 'jl 
aAII tL!U. ajjIjI Jjk ^ 'J* jail if We had sent this 

Qur'an down upon a mountain, you would have seen it humbled, 



154 



split asunder out of fear of God. 

Jj* jibill [coll. n.] crowds of people, great multitude, nation 
(36:62) IjjSS Xa. JliJ jSTj /ias Ze<i great numbers of you 
astray. 

aIa jibillatun [coll. n.] generations, great multitudes (26:184) 
'jjfjS/l iLaJI j j>£ik ^ill I jail j be mindful of Him who created you and 
the former generations. 

&/^fcj-b-n forehead, the two sides of the forehead; to be cowardly; 
to be flat; cheese; cemetery. Of this root, "o^- jabin occurs once in 
the Qur'an. 

jabin [n.] forehead (37:103) jjAll *£j uLf t& when they 
had both submitted [to God], and he had laid him down on his 
forehead. 

— fc/tj/jr j-b-h forehead, to strike on the forehead; chief; to embarrass, 
to hold the head down, to be humiliated; group of horses. Of this 
root, SUa. jibah occurs once in the Qur' an. 

sLta. jibah [pi. of jabhatun] foreheads (9:35) °(4*Ua. lsj&s 
jjjij °<44j4-j and their foreheads, sides and backs would be 
branded by them. 

ig-j/^fcj-b-w/y pools; basins, cauldrons, to collect water in a 
basin, collected drinking water; to request; to select; to invent; to 
kneel down. Of this root, three forms occur 12 times in the 
Qur'an: yujba once; Juai "ijtaba 10 times and iJj* jawab 
(variant reading ^I'ja. jawabt) once. 

yw/'&a [imperf . of pass. v. jubiya] to be collected as 
dues or taxes; (of water) to be collected for future use (28:57) 
f jj<5 JS cjl'j^ All] ^^jkj liali Ui'jk ^ ^ove We raof established for 
them a secure sanctuary to which every kind of produce is 
brought as dues?! 

Lf i^.\ "ijtaba [v. VIII, trans.] 1 to select, to choose, to single out 
(22:78) '^IjAI ja jk aJII I jjaIVj sfn've /or God a* 
striving for Him is due: He has chosen you 2 to request, to ask for 



155 



(7:203) \ 'j iVn> l Vjl IjSli JjL ^ju °J lilj w/ie« yow Jo «of &n'«g f/iem a 
[fresh] revelation, they say, "But can't you just ask for one?' 3 to 
invent, to fabricate, to do by oneself (in another interpretation of 
7:203) r^Vn\l Vji I _>H3 JjIj ^& lilj w/iera yow Jo nof Z?rmg them a 
[fresh] revelation, they say, 'Why can't you just make it up?' 

ljIj* jawab (variant reading only in non-pausal recitation ^Ija. 
jawabi with a shortened final long vowel f) [pi. of n. 4jJk 
jabiyatun] large pools, large watering-troughs (34:13) U aJ 
i_il'jkK jlVj JjjUsjj Lyjl^ I> Jiey maJe /i/m whatever he 
wonted-palaces, statues and bowls as large as watering troughs. 

ih/ihfcj-th-th seedling, to transplant; to uproot, to eradicate; body, 
corpse; impurities. Of this root, liiiaJ 'ijtuththa, occurs once in the 
Qur' an. 

i^jaI "ijtuththa [pass, of v. VIII] to be uprooted, pulled out 
(14:26) IgJ Uo (_>ajSfl (jji cjjjkl Alui. e ja i *^ Ajj±i. AlaK Jiilaj anc? 
Jie likeness of an evil word is as an evil tree, uprooted from the 
surface of the earth, with no power to endure. 

t/&/l£j-th-m body, corpse; structure; to crouch, to lie down on one's 
chest, to lie face down; to be heavily laden. Of this root, jj^la. 
jathimin occurs five times in the Qur' an. 

O&fR* jathimin [pi. of act. part. j£la. jathim] crouching, lying 
flat, lying on their faces; strewn about motionless (29:37) I jjiSa 
'jj^la. '{A Jj I jkl^ali i^'J\ J4jii.li they rejected him and so the 
earthquake overtook them and by the morning, they were lying 
dead in their homes. 

j-jj&fcj-th-w/y rock-pile, mound, a small hill; to kneel; body; a 
grave mound. Of this root, two words occur three times in the 
Qur' an: jathiyatun once and Jj*. jithiyy twice. 

AjjIa jathiyatun [fem. act. part.] kneeling alert and ready to be 
called; kneeling down in humility (45:28) Jul l£ jM </j5j 
I^jIjS yoK w?7/ see every community kneeling: every 

community will be summoned to its record; * Agl^JI name of Sura 



156 



45, Meccan sura, so-named because of the reference in verse 28 
to the 'kneeling posture' of all on the Day of Judgement. 

jithiyy [pi. of act. part. jathi] kneeling down, 

humbled, vanquished (19:68) Jj^ '^ij^jA p 'jjJallillj J40"^ ^jja 
tu*. so by your Lord We shall gather them together with the 
devils, and then set them around Hell, kneeling. 

Yc/S J~b~d barren land, stifled plants, (of plants) to fail to grow 
properly; to deny, to disown, to reject; to become penniless, 
paucity. Of this root, ikk jahada occurs 12 times in the Qur'an. 

j^a. jahada a [v. trans, and intrans. occurring with or without 
— j] to absolutely reject, give the lie to or categorically deny 
(something whilst knowing or not knowing it to be true) (27:14) 
UAk °41ij| r^riy . n lj l^j I j'iaVj they denied them absolutely, out 
of wickedness and arrogance, even though their souls 
acknowledged them as true. 

?/c/E i~h-m great fire, blaze, intense fire, to light a fire, to burn. Of 
this root, jLu^. jahim occurs 26 times in the Qur'an. 

jahim [n.] intense fire, Hell, Hellfire (79:37-9) J*^> t> C»ti 
csjtall ^ li'J sliJ 'JAVj for the one who has transgressed 

and preferred the present life, Hell will be home. 

j-d-th (a doubtful verbal root) a grave, to make or prepare a 
grave. Of this root, only 'ajdath occurs three times in the 

Qur' an. 

^ajdath [pi. of n. liiik jadath] graves (54:7) jllajl Ilia, 
j^iji il'jk 'j4jl£ i^likS/l J> 'jjkjij [with] their eyes downcast they 
emerge from the graves, as if they were locusts, fanning out. 

j-d-d ancestor, grandparent; luck, good fortune; greatness, 
glory, majesty; hard work, seriousness; new, to renew; middle of 
the road, main road, straight, correct path, level land. Of this root, 
three words occur 10 times in the Qur'an: jadd once; itja- jadld 
eight times and xL judad once. 



157 



ja. jadd [n./v. n.] glory, majesty, greatness (72:3) USj JIju Aij 
IjTj Vj iijl U and ?rtaf //<?, g/ory ^ e fo Owr Lord's Majesty, 

has not taken [for Himself] either a consort [ spouse ] nor a child. 

jadld [quasi-act. part] new (14:19) J^i ptj '^'4 lJ 
if He wished to, He could remove all of you and replace you with 
a new creation. 

jjk judad [pi. of n. sik juddatun] streaks, tracts (35:27) j>j 
ijLi LauIjcj l^jljll ■ ijWi i'j?. tfeJI and [consider as well] 

in the mountains, tracks/layers of white and red of various hues, 
and jet black. 

j/jt j-d-r wall, walling-in, an enclosure; pustules, smallpox; to be 
worthy of something. Of this root, three forms occur four times in 
the Qur'an: jikl J ajdar once; jlia. jidar twice and j4- jwdwr once. 

jjkl "ajdar [elat.] more/most likely to, more/most disposed to; 
more/most worthy of (9:97) j jik I j^Sy vt jikJj lilfoj I "j& i<sl £JjfcVl 
aJjIoj <M (Jjji f/ie desert Arabs are more severe in their 
disbelief and hypocrisy, and more likely not to know the limits of 
what God has sent down upon His Messenger. 

J)'.** jidar [n., pi. jik judur] wall (18:77) 'J jjjj I'JV lljs likji 
^lala ^asi they found in it a wall on the point of collapsing and he 
set it up. 

ifcj-d-l to braid, to twist tightly, to be well-built; to knock down; 
to dispute, to argue in a contentious manner, to debate. Of this 
root, three forms occur 29 times in the Qur'an: Jik jadala 25 
times; Jik jadal twice and Jl'ja. jidal twice. 

Jjlk jadala [v. Ill, trans.] 1 to argue or dispute with (11:32) I jJIS 
IsTik 'J ^ jilj they said, 'Noah!, you have disputed with 
us, and have put up a lot of disputation with us ' 2 [with prep. 'cj^\ 
to plead for, to argue the case of (4:109) J* '^ik f V> '^A U 
A^UslI ^ '(4^ ^ I>3 U&ll sU^JI /iere yow are, die ones who 
argued on their behalf in the life of this world, but who will argue 
on their behalf with God on the Day of Resurrection? 

Jsk jadal [n./v. n.] disputation, contention, argument (18:54) 



158 



Yia. t'ffU jjSi ^UaJyi 'jl^j £>wf man zs ffte mosf contentious of all 
creatures [lit. things]. 

Jt'-ia, j7<fa7 [v. n./n.] arguing/argument, disputing/disputation, 
contending/contention (2:197) gaJ ^ Jja. Yj jjl«s Yj liij r/i<?r<? 
zs «o intercourse [also interpreted as: abusive speech], 
misbehaviour nor disputation during/on the pilgrimage. 

* AlsUllI "al-mujadalatu name of Sura 58, Medinan sura, 
so-named because of the reference in verse 1 to the 'Dispute' 
which took place between a woman and the Prophet. 

i/ifcj-dh-dh to sever, to cut off, to break off; to hinder; fragments, 
breakage, shreds, chippings. Of this root, two words occur once 
each in the Qur'an: i majdhudh and ilik judhadh. 

jjiaji majdhudh [pass, part.] cut off, discontinued, interrupted, 
hindered (11:108) *U U Yi LpsjVlj ^Jj^-J U fe? 

j ji^. jjc. f/iere ro remain as long as the heavens and earth endure, 
unless your Lord wills otherwise-a gift unhindered. 

.alia, judhadh [coll. n./pl. of quasi pass. part. i£a. jadhidh] 
breakage, wreckage, pieces, fragments (21:58) IjjjS Yj lilik 
J4 1 «e Z?ro£e rTiem into pieces, except for a great one of them. 

tl'^j-dh- the young of domestic animals; new; to amputate, to 
deny food to someone or something; trunk of a palm tree. Of this 
root, two words occur three times in the Qur'an: £■ ia. jidh c twice 
and jia. judhu once. 

jpSa, j'z<f/i e [n., pi. jj- jik judhu ] trunk of a tree (19:25) s&lj (/Ja'j 
AlLill £-iaj s/iafce rTie rrwnfc o/fTie pa/m free towards you. 

j/y^j-dh-w the base of a tree, to stand firm, to be erect; firebrand, 
burning log. Of this root, Sjik jadhwatun occurs once in the 
Qur' an. 

S jia, jadhwatun [n.] firebrand, piece of burning wood, burning 
branch (28:29) jbll J> fjia. jl jjaj l^ia Jil IjU cjUi I _££<J 
n\ °?<Sxl wait! I have caught site of a fire; perhaps I may bring 
you news from there, or a burning brand, that you may warm 



159 



yourselves. 

Z.hl^j~ r ~b to wound, to injure; to defame, to invalidate, deficiency; 
to strive to earn one's living; birds and animals of prey. Of this 
root, four forms occur once each in the Qur'an: £jk jaraha; ^'jiaJ 
''ijtaraha; £ jjk juruh and £ Jjk jawarih. 

jaraha a [v. trans.] to endeavour, to accumulate, to gain, 
to earn, to acquire (6:60) J^-i "^j* ^ f^yj lPL? ls.^ 1 j*j # ^ 
He who recalls you by night, and knows what you have earned by 
day. 

^jjkl ^ijtaraha [v. VIII, trans.] to commit (45:21) 'jjill Lj*«k jJ 

Ci la Jll al l I jUc. j I jiali 'jjiK J4^H °j* pl^Ul I jk'jjkl <fo f/lOSg w/lO 

commit evil deeds think that We will make them like those who 
believe and do good ... ? 

ijjfcj-r-d to peel, to bare, to strip; barren land, locust, land savaged 
by locusts; cloudless sky. Of this root, i jar ad occurs twice in 
the Qur'an. 

iljk jarad [collect, n.] locust (54:7) 't> ujVIvh (*'J^*p 
j^ai "JJ*. dJjkS/l [with] their eyes downcast they emerge from 
the graves, as if they were spreading locusts. 

j/j/^j-r-r to draw, to pull, to drag along; track, trail, galaxy; crime, 
guilt; to ruminate. Of this root, jkj yajurr occurs once in the 
Qur' an. 

'jkj yajurr [imperf. of v. ja. jarra, trans.] to drag, to pull, to 
draw (7:150) $1 £jkj qJ'jj iitj J&'j he threw the tablets 
and took hold of the head of his brother, dragging him to him. 

j/jfej-r-z barren land, land afflicted by drought, famine; to eat up, 
to devour, to cut off, to kill. Of this root, jjk juruz occurs twice in 
the Qur'an. 

X>k juruz [quasi-pass, part.] (of land) barren, dry (with water 
cut off from it), afflicted with drought (32:27) lPO^' lA ^ 
^jj £ j'J^ We direct water [rain] to the barren land, and 



160 



with it produce vegetation. 

£/j/jr j'-r- c barren land that does not hold water; to drink, to sip, to 
gulp down, a mouthful of drink. Of this root, ^1h4> yatajarra c 
occurs once in the Qur'an. 

yatajarra [imperf. of v. V, trans.] to make oneself drink, 
or gulp down, particularly something unpleasant, in small 
amounts or one after the other (14:17) Vj '^j^k he 

[forces himself to] gulp it down, although scarcely able to 
swallow it. 

<-*/ j-r-f cliff, precipice, undercut bank, slippery mountainside; to 
sweep away, to wash away, to shovel away. Of this root, i-ijk 
juruf occurs once in the Qur'an. 

<-*J* juruf [n.] overhang, precipice, overhanging cliff 
... jj^k jti jljjla jU liu (jJc. AjUi (9:109) w f/ie owe w/io 
founds his building on the brink of a crumbling precipice that will 
tumble down into the Fire of Hell, taking him with it ... ? 

fjjfcj-r-m body, mass, volume; to cut off, to pick, to harvest, to 
acquire for oneself, to earn, to deserve; to commit a crime, an 
unlawful act, aggression, crime; to pass away. Of this root, six 
forms occur 66 times in the Qur'an: J>Jh yajrim three times; 
"ajrama five times; "ijram once; ? mujrim twice; oJ* jW« 
mujrimun 50 times and f V Za jarama five times. 

J>jaj yajrim [imperf. of v. jarama, trans.] to compel, to lead 
into, to tempt, to incite, to induce (5:2) °£ J^La 'J £jL5 '^S^J^ Vj 
IjiSu 'J j>ljaJI ,■>>* ■ n'J jc. <5?o «of Zef yowr hatred for a group of 
people, because they barred you from the Sacred Mosque, induce 
you to commit aggression. 

"ajrama [v. IV, trans.] to commit (a crime or sin) (34:25) 
jjLki &c jtlu Vj Liajkl lie 'jjlLu V Ja say, Tow w/ZZ not be taken to 
task for what we commit, nor will we be responsible for what you 
do.' 

ft-M "ijram [n./v. n.] guilt, crime, sin (11:35) '"Jt*i> '*%J$ Ji 



161 



'qJa jkj ll* jj U j say, 'If I have made it up, upon me falls 

my crime, but I am innocent of what you commit. ' 

pJ*!a mujrim [n./act. part., pi. qj* JW» mujrimun] evildoer, 
wicked person, criminal, the guilty one, sinner (25:31) Ukk aiiSj 
'qu> J±U t> Ijic. ^jj jkl but We have always appointed, for every 
prophet, adversaries from the wicked. 

V la jarama [considered by grammarians to be either a 
single composite unit meaning 'certainly', 'no doubt' or two 
successive words, negative particle V + f which could be either 
a verb meaning 'it became right', 'due', 'incumbent upon' or a 
v. n. '^j^l'fj^. jarma/jarama meaning 'reproaching/reproach,' 
'incriminating/incrimination', 'crime, offence'] 'surely', 'no 
doubt' (16:23) "uj^ uj>4 ^ ^4 *^ *3 fj» ^ there is no doubt 
that God knows what they conceal and what they reveal. 

is/j/fij-r-y to run, to flow, to stream, to sail; stream, channel, the 
way of things; vessel, boat; to continue, to be constant; young 
female, overseer. Of this root, five forms occur 64 times in the 
Qur'an: i/jk jara 57 times; ajJI jariyatun twice; cjUJk jariyat 
once; ls J jp- jawari three times and ^ majri once. 

jja. jara i [v. intrans.] 1 to run (31:29) ^Jsj jk 'J^SSj ^Iclill 'jiluj 
Ja-i J] //e /ias subjected the sun and the moon, each to run 
[its course] for a stated term 2 to flow (5:119) °i> ijj^ 
jlLiVl X^kzfor them are gardens through which streams flow 3 to 
sail (22:65) ?jUt J*2\ ^jkj aiiil'j a«<i f/ze sai7 f&e sea Z?y 
command 4 to blow (21:81) sj^Ij l?Jh jyjll 'jUuLJ^ a«<i 
/or Solomon [We subjected] the wind, stormy, blowing by His (or, 
Solomon's) command. 

AjjIa jariyatun [n./act. part, fem., pi. cjUjlk jariyat and i/J'jk 
jawari] 1 that which sails, water vessel, boat (69:11) ^^il- Hi Ul 
3j JkJ J^ULk w/iew f/ie wafer flooded, it was We who carried 
you in the sailing vessel 2 that which flows, flowing, (of water) 
running (88:12) "cjf- l^g in ;Y f/iere w a flowing spring 3 stars 
and planets (81:16) o^ll Jjkll f/ie [stars and planets] that run 
and sink [out of sight] . 



162 



<« Jaui majrl [v. n. (also read as is mujri act. part.)] sailing 
(11:41) UL'jlj {La. 1$js I jjk'J JUj aw<f //e sa/J, 'Board it 

[the ark]; in the name of God is its sailing and its anchoring. ' 

S/j/jr j-z- 3 part, portion, share; to divide, to partition; to make do 
with; to fill in. Of this root, juz 3 occurs three times in the 
Qur' an. 

juz 3 [n.] 1 part, portion (2:260) li'jk s j^i<i Jjk JS J*kl ^ 
then place a part of them on each mountain 2 share, group 
(15:44) jLjiuSLa I'jk ° ( 4x« J^l ljI^I Aij^ 1^1 seven gafes if /ias, to 
each gate is an allotted group of them 3 daughters, offspring 
(43:15) WJ*. '(> <1 yef f/iey assign some of His own 

servants to Him as offspring! 

t/j/tij~ z ~ c to break into two, to traverse, to divide up; anxiety, 
shock, to be distressed, to be disturbed. Of this root, two forms 
occur once each in the Qur' an: ^ ja. jazi c a and £• Jj*. jazu c . 

jazi c a a [v. intrans.] to become anxious, distressed, 

disturbed (14:21) !> ^ ^ ^j?^ ^ Li-j^ ^ if is the 

same for us [now]; whether we show distress or bear with 
patience: for us there is no escape. 

jazu € [intens. act. part.] given to collapsing under stress, 
prone to anxiety, fretful (70:20) jjill *1U lil he becomes 

overly anxious when misfortune touches him. 

tg/j/G.j-z-y recompense, to repay, to reward, to punish for bad 
deeds, judgement; to stand in for; taxation, tribute. Of this root, 
six forms occur 118 times in the Qur'an: i/jk jaza 50 times; i/jaj 
tujza 23 times; j^-> nujazl once; ^jlk j'az? once; Jljk 42 
times and 4j> jizyatun once. 

tSJ* i I [v. trans.] 1 [with prep. _j] to recompense, to 
reward/punish (53:31) IjiA.! 'jjill lsJn'j LA** 1 ^ Ij^UJ 'jjill Isj^ 
(jiAJb f/iaf //e wi// repay those who do evil for what they did and 
reward with what is best those who do good 2 [with prep, °jc.] to 
stand in for, to take the place of, to undertake responsibility for 



163 



(31:33) ojilj 'jc. illj isj^i V U>jj ry^klj and fear a day when no 
parent will take the place of their child II [v., doubly transitive] 
to compensate, to reward, to pay someone for something (28:25) 
US CmLa U 'jJ ^LJ?al '^jLi jj iiJli s/ie sai<f, 'My father invites 
you so that he may pay you the wages for having watered [ our 
flock] for us. ' 

tujza [pass, v.] to be rewarded/punished, to be 
recompensed, to be paid (20:15) o*^ ^ ls'J^ 

AjjIc A^lUl jj 

^gzLZ Uu the Hour is coming; I almost keep it hidden, so that each 
soul be rewarded for what it does. 

$ jUJ nujazi [imperf. of v. Ill i/jlk jaza trans.] to repay a bad 
deed in particular, to recompense, to punish (34:17) ^lli 
jjiSlI V) ij jlkj Ji j Ij'jiS in this way We recompensed them for their 
ingratitude-do We ever punish anyone but the ungrateful! 

$ jU. jazi [act. part, with jc.] one who stands in for another, one 
who undertakes to do something instead of another (31:33) Vj 
Uli sill j jc. jl^ ji j jTj* «or w/ZZ a child take the place of his parent 
for anything. 

'f.\'j*. jaza" [n./v. n.] 1 reward (20:76) j£y> I> M'ja. aiij such is 
the reward of those who purify themselves 2 retribution (9:82) 
U<u il'jk TjjjS Ij£uTj UJ5 IjS-J^la let them laugh a little; 
they will weep a lot as a retribution for what they have been 
doing 3 penalty, requital (5:95) J> JjS U '^Sia <Sj5 j*j 

whoever from among you kills it [the hunted animal] 
intentionally the penalty for it is [an offering of] the equivalent in 
domestic animals of that which he has killed. 

Ajj* jizyatun [n.] payment in return; [jur.] head tax collected in 
return for receiving the protection of the Muslim state with all the 
accruing benefits, as well as exemption from military service and 
from such taxes required of Muslims as Zakat. This tax, from 
which members of the clergy were exempted, was levied only on 
able-bodied free males who could afford it. The amount generally 
varied between one and two dinars per year and was determined 
in accordance with the means of each individual (9:29) V jjill I jisli 

fight those who do 



164 



not believe in God and the Last Day . . . until they pay the tax and 
agree to submit. 

±lo*lflj-s-d body, to embody, to take a concrete form; to coagulate; 
to be next to the body; to be dyed with saffron. Of this root, 51«a. 
jasad occurs four times in the Qur'an. 

14 jasad [n.] 1 body (21:8) ^illl 'oMi V K** We 
did not give them bodies that could do without eating food 2 
effigy, statue, image [also interpreted as: saffron in colour, made 
of gold] (20:88) jlji aJ Ijuk 50 /je produced for them 

a calf an effigy that produced a lowing sound 3 in one 
interpretation of verse (38:34) lifeless body, skeleton 'jUuL ^ 

aIjjS (jle lisll j We certainly tested Solomon and placed on his 
throne a [lifeless] body. 

O'/o'/s j-s-s to test by hand, to probe, to examine; to spy, to probe 
into other people's private lives. Of this root, I j . ' . «•>' tajassasii, 
occurs once in the Qur'an 

o*^H tajassas [< ^^l, tatajassas imperf. of v. V, j>£42 
tajassasa, with the 2 nd person prefix 2 ta- elided, intrans.] to spy, 
to spy on other people's private affairs (49:12) '±&u Yj I jLLiki Yj 
hVi a«<f Jo nof spy, araJ Jo nof backbite one another. 

f/o*/l£j-s-tn group of people or animals, body; to become large, to 
become great; to select, to undertake, difficulties, wise people. Of 
this root, two words occur once each in the Qur'an: £1*?. jism and 
jLllki J ajsam. 

^ jism [n., pi. "ajsam] body, physical constitution 

(63:4) '^llkl ^4^«2 f4^tj lijj a«<i w/zen yow see f&em f/ie/r physical 
constitutions impress you. 

J/£./jr j- c ~l reward/payment set for a task to be carried out, bribe; to 
put, to place; to make, to create, to constitute; to attribute; scarab, 
seedling. Of this root, four forms occur 245 times in the Qur'an: 
J*k ja c ala 238 times; JA ju c ila once; Jc.ll ja c il four times and 
jjk-U. ja c ilun twice. 



165 



J*a ja c ala a I [v. trans.] 1 to place (12:70) <J«. J=Ajfe? f*j«?> ^ 

Jkj AjliJI anj when he provided them with their 

provisions, he placed the drinking-cup in the pack of his brother 2 

to instil (57:27) A^kjj Ailj » jiil 'jjill ljjS Ukkj a«J We instilled 

into the hearts of those who followed him compassion and mercy 

* -= *° - a - - 

3 to construct, raise, put up (17:45) 'jjjj lik?. 'jlijall ^' j 5 ^jj 

IjjjIw Oka. s'j?.VL; 'ojVjj ^ w/ie« you recite the Qur'an, We place 

between you and those who do not believe in the life to come a 

hidden barrier 4 to create, to make, to bring into being (6:1) j^JI 

jjjllj pUAkll Jkkj pr_>*LJI jjLi. ^ifl Ail praise belongs to God 

who created the heavens and the earth and made darkness and 

light 5 to ordain, to bring about (60:7) 'jjill 'Jjuj iSij *J <M JJc 

Sj'j* ' { 4i» '^li- God may well bring about affection between you 

and those of them you face as an enemy 6 to provide with, to 

appoint for (16:80) Jjia. !> ikl USI» J^Sj^j I> J^l J*^ 

'^££.13 pjjj J^kii f 'jj v^j j^-f i n* Ij J£ and He has appointed for you, of 

the hide of cattle, dwellings that you find light on the day you 

travel and on the day you settle down 7 to fix as a tribute or 

reward (18:94) li* J44hj l£>^ °J lVj»> ^ J»^> l& so may we 

fix a tribute for you on condition that you set up a barrier 

between us and them? 8 to attribute something to, to assign to 

(16:57) P'jp 4ii oj^hj they assign daughters to God-may 

He be exalted! 9 [with prep. 1] to prepare, to facilitate, to find 

(65:2) IV_>-* ^ l£sh ^ 3h I>j whosoever is mindful of God, God 

will find a way [out of difficulties] for him 10 [with prep. LS ic-] to 

put in charge (12:55) o^j^ Cfi'j*- <J^- J$*^ [Joseph] said, 'Put 

me in charge of the nation's storehouses' II [doubly trans.] 1 to 

appoint someone/something as, to make somebody/something 

into (6:91) ^Ull <_si*j Ijjj <j ilk («ill s-iIj$1I <X)si I> Ja 

I'jjjS IjjjiuS 'cyM'J say, 'Who was it who sent down the 

Scripture, which Moses brought as a light and a guide to people, 

which you made into separate sheets, showing [ some of] them but 

hiding many?' 2 to appoint somebody/something as (23:50) Ukkj 

ajI; '^j* 'Jjl and We appointed the son of Mary and his mother 

as an exemplar 3 to constitute something as, to make something 

be (25:45) U£li> 4]*kl cLi 'jlj Jiill 'ji jJ /iave you not 

considered the way of your Lord, how He lengthens the shadow?, 



166 



had He willed, He could have created it still 4 to ordain as (8:10) 
^^15 <j "jjlakUj j£l fj'j^ V] <M Aka. Go<f ma<fe a message of 
hope to reassure your hearts 5 to put something into order, to 
arrange something into, to divide something into, to set into a 
system (49: 13) I jijUul JjUsj UjLi ^Ukkj a«<i We have ordered you 
into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. 

J*l ju c ila [pass. v. with prep. to be ordained, to be 
obligatory (16:124) I jiUkl 'jjill ^ ii^Ul JA Uuj f/ie Sabbath was 
made obligatory only for those who differed about it. 

J&U. ja c il [act. part, pi. jjlc-La. ja c ilun] 1 one who places or 
puts something/somebody somewhere (2:30) Jli ilj 

Aiia. tj^jS/l ^ Jcta- w/zen yowr Lord told the angels, 'I am putting 
a successor/representative on earth' 2 one who causes 
something/someone to be (3:55) J) \Jj& 'jjill J^a ^Ijiiil 'jjill Jclkj 
^ / will cause those who follow you to be above the 
disbelievers till the Day of Resurrection 3 one who reduces 
something to, turns something into another (18:8) ^ ujV^ ^jj 
I'jjk liala to We tarn everything on it into barren dust 4 one who 
appoints, makes into or installs someone/something as (2:124) JU 
yiall akl^. //g 5a/<i, 'I will make you a leader of men. ' 

S/ui/jrj-/- 1 scum, flotsam; corruption, falsehood; to cleanse, to 
uproot, to knock down. Of this root, *Uk jufa° occurs once in the 
Qur' an. 

jufa 3 [v. n./n. used adverbially] waste, scum, something 
worthless, with no consequence (13:17) ilil ijjil &li as for 
the foam, it goes away as scum/waste. 

Oj^fcj-f-n eyelid; scabbard, large pot; to feed, to cater for; to 
disdain, to shun. Of this root, "J^ jifan occurs once in the Qur' an. 

^Ua. jifan [pi. of n. jafnatun] large bowls, one of which is 
described as having the capacity to hold food enough to satisfy 
the hunger of ten [men] (34:13) Ji^jj I> ^> ^ oJ^i 

t_Jjil£ f/iey made him whatever he wanted-palaces, statues 
and bowls as large as water troughs. 



167 



j/i-i/jr j-f-w separation, to move away, to keep a distance; to shun, to 
dislike, to be antagonistic, to be coarse in manner. Of this root, 
^Ujj tatajdfd occurs once in the Qur'an. 

^Ujj tatajdfd [imperf. of v. VI, intrans. with prep. <>] to stay 
away from, to keep off, to shun *(32:16) £?A^1I jc. J4bk 
Xju£= 3 j they forsake their beds [lit. their sides keep off 

the beds] praying to their Lord in fear and hope. 

i-j/J/j: j-l-b commotion, raised and mixed voices, excitement; to 
attack, to assail; to fetch, to earn, to seek pasture. Of this root, 
Lkf °ajlib occurs once in the Qur'an. 

LikS °ajlib [imperat. of v. IV, intrans. with to urge a horse 
with noise and shouting to run, to assail with noise and shouting, 
to overwhelm, to overpower (17:64) t*ik jj '^S^j J^jk Lkfj and 
assail them with the noise of your cavalry and infantry. 

^I^l^j^j-l-b-b a cover-all garment worn particularly by women, to 
put on such a garment; headscarf, veil covering the head and 
chest, night garment. Of this root, jaldbib occurs once in 

the Qur'an. 

Luj5U jaldbib [pi. of n. LsUk jilbdb] either an outer garment 
covering the whole body or a large veil covering the head down 
to the waist (33:59) 'o&d** i> "o£fc- o£4 to draw their garments 
over them. 

cjjfta. Jdlut (see alphabetically). 

i/dfcj-l-d skin, hide, leather, to whip; to duel; to take heart, to be 
tough, toughness; hard rocky land, ice. Of this root, three forms 
occur 13 times in the Qur'an: Ijikl "ijlidu twice; s'^k jaldatun 
twice and j jL julud nine times. 

jkl 3 ijlid [imperat. of v ik jalada, trans. ] to strike, to whip, to 
lash (24:2) sik ajU U4v> ^Ij l£ I jikli ^'jfij as for the 

adulteress and the adulterer, strike each of them one hundred 
times. 



168 



»jk jaldatun [n. of unit] a stroke, a lashing (24:4) j^LS j>i 
sik give them eighty lashes. 

jjik j'wZwif [pi. of n. jL jild] 1 skins (39:23) J4bSj Ja- 
j^j f/iera f/ie/r s/cms a«<f f/ie/r hearts soften to the words of 
God 2 animal hides (16:80) 12jJj ? UuVl jjlk J> j>kl Jikj a«<f He 
appointed for you dwellings of the hides of cattle. 

o^/6/^j-l-s mountain, rocky, hard land; heavy, deep-rooted tree; to 
sit down, seat, sitting place, social gathering, assembly, gathering; 
rank. Of this root, o^+* majalis occurs once in the Qur'an. 

'u*KL« majalis [pi. of n. of place o4*~° majlis] [place of] 
assembly, rank in a battle (58:11) I J^Ai <jJU^ll I jkliG '^£1 JjI lij 

Aill ^lui i/ z'j sa/<i to yow, 'Make room!' in assemblies, then 
make room, and God will make room for you. 

J/J/(T j—l—l old age, greatness, glory, majesty; to rise, to rise above, to 
honour, to exalt. Of this root, jalal occurs twice in the 
Qur' an. 

jalal [n./v. n.] majesty, glory *(55:27) JiaJ jj [an 
attribute of God] Lord of Majesty. 

iS~j/6/^j-l-w/y evacuation, to evacuate, to clear away; to manifest, 
to clarify, to appear; to polish, to remove; to go away. Of this 
root, three forms occur five times in the Qur'an: j*. jalla twice; 
(^Jki tajalla twice and "c^ jala" once. 

jalla [v. II, trans.] to manifest, to disclose, to bring to light, 
to reveal (7:187) ja V] l^Sjl I^jLj V Ji'j ise. l^iJc. Uuj JS say, T/ze 
knowledge of it is only with My Lord: none but He will manifest it 
at its due time. ' 

Lfkl tajalla [v. V, intrans.] to appear in full glory, to come in 
full view (7:143) l£i iJ*^. <ij J^j l^ia ant/ w/ie« his Lord 
revealed Himself to the mountain, He made it crumble to dust. 

f5l» jala" [n./v. n.] evacuation, banishment, immigration being 
dispersed, exile (59:3) U&ll <ji '(4^ Ail) L±& 'J TjTj ZiatZ 

GoJ nof decreed banishment for them, He would have chastised 



169 



them [even more severely] in this world. 

Z-hl&j~ m ~ c gathering, collection, collection point, to collect, to 
unite, to combine, to accumulate; to assemble, to become close 
together, to become united, to decide; to be compact; assembly, 
gathering place; to be faultless; main points, essence. Of this root, 
14 forms occur 129 times in the Qur'an: jam c a 20 times 
jumi c a twice; :, ajma c a four times; ^iikl J ijtama c a twice; 
jam c nine times; J-*^ jam an four times; jami c three times; 

majma c twice; majmu c once; jjc. jlk^ majmu c un twice; 

jjL^kl mujtami c un once; jLuia. j'amr 53 times; jjiAi :, ajma c un 26 
times and jumu c atun once. 

jama c a a [v. intrans.] 1 to gather, to amass (3:173) b\ 
'{SI 'J f/ie people [your enemies] have gathered [an army] 
against you 2 [intrans.] to assemble, to round up, to marshal 
(18:99) *fAl fc» ai jjLJI ^ jijj f/iew the trumpet will be blown 
and We will round them up altogether 3 to reassemble, to put 
back together (75:3) ^lic ^«kj yj 'jliuVI f.i' . nVj l does man think We 
will not put his bones back together? 4 to bring face to face 
(42:15) 'jn-^\ Ajljj Ujjj f^&J ^ ffere w «o argument 

between us and you-God will bring us [face to face] together, 
and to Him is the returning; *(4:23) ujj^I "uS I to tafo? 
simultaneously, as wives, two sisters 5 to hoard, to amass (104:2) 
ojjc-j VU> jJak ^ill the one who amasses riches, and multiplies them 
over (or, keeps them as a safeguard, or keeps counting them) 6 to 
decide, to plot, to put together (20:60) J$ p o'y^'J J^y* 

Pharaoh withdrew and decided his strategy, then he returned 7 to 
bring together [with prep. to unite in/around (6:35) Aill »U 'jTj 
(4*^ had it been His will, God would have united them 
in guidance. 

jumi c a [pass, v.] 1 to be joined, or brought, together (75:9) 
'JJ&'j yCuill when the sun and the moon are brought together 
2 to be marshalled, assembled (26:38) ? {J* pttj-J s'jaUl '^Ai 
the sorcerers were [to be] assembled at an appointed time on a 
certain day. 

jA'i J ajma c a [v. IV, trans.] 1 to resolve, to unanimously agree 



170 



(12:15) t_jkll ajUc sj>kkj °J fl«<i f/iey became of one 

mind/agreed to place him in the depth of the well 2 to muster, to 
gather (20:64) ULa I jjjI p I ji-«kU so muster your resources and 
form a line. 

ja^I :, ijtama c a [v. VIII, intrans.] I to come together, to gather 
together (22:73) I jiiukJ jTj Ojj IjSkj y f/iey w/ZZ wof create a fly, 
even if they gather together for it [the task] 2 [with prep. LS &] to 
unite over, to be of the same wish/conviction, to concur (17:88) 
jli jill I ja Jl»j I jjU 'J ^ 'jaJI j ' L yj^\ tiu^jkl jjl // flZZ humankind and 
jinn came together [and pooled their efforts] to produce 
something like this Qur'an. 

jam I [n.] host, troops, crowd, forces (54:45) ?j&*> 
jj'J 'jjTjJj the forces will be routed and they will turn tail and flee 
II [v. n.] 1 collecting, putting together (75:17) klVjSj Ail*. Lilt '"q\ 
collecting and reciting it is Our task; *(42:7) 'fj* (an epithet 
of the Day of Judgement) the Day of Gathering, the Day of 
Rounding up 2 [used adverbially for emphasis] gathering, 
assembling, rounding up (18:99) '^ili^a jjLJI ^ and the 
trumpet will be blown and We will round them up altogether. 

Cpu^ jam c an [dual of n. jam ] two hosts, two armies, two 
groups (26:61) jU«^P iS*\'y ^ and when the two hosts came in 
sight of one another, *(8:41) jUUaJ J?^ ?Ji the day when the two 
hosts met the day when the Muslims and Quraysh fought their 
first battle at Badr (2 A.H./624 A.D.) and (3:155 & 166) the day 
when the armies of Quraysh and its allies fought the Muslims in 
the battle of 3 uhud (3 A.H./625 A.D.). 

jami c [act. part.] 1 one who assembles, gathers, rounds up 
(3:9) 4ji V f'jjl ^iill ^Ik IM Ujj our Lord, You will be rounding 
people up on the inevitable Day 2 one who joins together, puts 
together (4:140) Uu^. ^ "uu^j ^ bl God will be 

gathering all the hypocrites and disbelievers together into Hell; 
*(24:62) jJi a matter of communal concern [lit. a matter that 
gathers everyone together]. 

jA^i majma [n. of place] a point of gathering, a meeting place 
(18:60) oj'jp^l J**- V / will not desist [from 



171 



journeying] until I reach the place where the two seas meet. 

jpj^kji majmu [pass, part., pi. oj^j-*?- majmu c un] gathered, 
assembled (11:103) o-Ull \_ ^ '^lli f/iaf w a day for which 
humankind will be gathered. 

Q yuu^U mujtami c un [pi. of act. part. mujtami c ] ones who 
gather, assemble, come together (26:39) 'd J->/h'" 'f^ Ja JjSj 
and it was said to the people, 'Are you coming together?' 

jaml c [quasi act. part.] 1 entire, whole, all (36:32) Hi 'Jfj 
jjj^aal li'jl ji-jA yef all of them will be brought before Us 2 united 
(59:14) °(4^j3sj (4 yow fftin& f/iey are united but their 
hearts are divided 3 [nominalised] host, gathering, group, 
multitude (54:44) "j^L y**. lp- 3 aA« f 1 do they perhaps say, 'We 
are a great host [that will be] victorious' 4 [adverbial] a) 
altogether, in a body (4:71) I jjjjl j pli I jjjjli march [to 
battle] in small groups or as one body b) entirely, in its entirety 
(4:139) UuA All Sj«ll s jli aZZ power is entirely for God. 

^jju^S 1 ajma c un [pi. of quasi act. part, ilkl "ajma c ] 1 all 

. A* J .... S ^ 

together in a body (15:30) Qji^y a££0 a«<i f/i<? angels 
all knelt 2 all and everyone (44:40) 'jj»ny J^all fjy bj 

Z)ay of Decision is the time appointed for them all. 

Ajwkll 'al-Jumu' : atu [proper name] [the day of gathering, the 
day of congregating] Friday (62:9) 4*1111 fjj °qa 0Le& jj lij w/ien 
call to prayer is made on Friday; * Ailkll name of Sura 62, 
Medinan sura, so-named because of the reference in verse 9 to the 
call for the 'Congregational Prayer on Friday'. 

J/f/jr j-m-l camel, grace, beauty, elegance, to adorn, to make 
beautiful; to have good character, to be kindly, to ask nicely, to 
treat well; group of people, sentence, to add together, total, 
entirety; thick rope. Of this root, five forms occur 11 times in the 
Qur'an: Jill jamal once; cfeaa. jamil seven times; AlUa. jimalatun 
once; jamal once and <IA jumlatun once. 

JLaa jamal [n.] grace, elegance, beauty (16:6) 'jj^ Jill fel J^j 
'jjk'Juu 'jjkjji in f/iem f/iere « beauty when you bring them 
home [to rest[ and when you drive them out [to pasture]. 



172 



Ji«A jamil [quasi-act. part.] 1 gracious (15:85) <0 ^lUl "J\ 

Jj^JI k£Lall xiLali f/ie //owr « certainly coming, so, forgive with 

, > "- i ■ ■■ 

gracious forgiveness 2 generous, amicable (33:28) (j£*£J 'jjlUua 
Ikak ^jSkjl«!j f/ien come, I will make provision for you and 
release you [from the bondage of marriage] with amicable 
release 3 gracious, charitable, free of rancour, free of bitterness 
(73:10) IjV* fijaAlj ^ jA-a'j patiently endure what 
they say, and part with them with a gracious parting 4 comely, 
goodly, worthy, fitting (12:83) UyA ^ 'J ^ 
so comely patience [is most fitting for me]: may God bring all of 
them back to me. 

jimalatun [coll. n.; n. for the species; pi. of pi. n. 
jimal] (variously interpreted as) camels; thick ropes; copper 
(77:33) jala iilf '■dz and as bright as yellow copper (or, like giant 
fiery ropes, like yellow camels). 

J«a jamal [n.] camel; thick rope (7:40) ^ J**- 
JaUaJI ^ ^ J«kJI anJ f/zey w«7/ rcof enter f/ie Garden until a thick 
rope passes through the eye of a needle. 

jumlatun [n., used adverbially] whole, in totality, all at 
once (25:32) «Vj ^4- 'j'ij^ ^ J> V'ji I jjiS 'jjill JIj the 
unbelievers said, 'If only the Qur'an was sent down to him in one 
body!' 

?l?l&j-m-m large group of people, multitude, to abound, to be 
plentiful; forelock; to relax. Of this root, p*. jamm occurs once in 
the Qur'an. 

jamm [quasi-act. part., used adjectivally] very much, 
abounding, dearly (89:20) lia. ^ 'oJs^'j and you love wealth 
with excessive love. 

±>/d/£j-n-b side, part, the great part; partner, neighbour; to put to 
one side, to avoid, to disdain, to ward off. Of this root, eight 
forms occur 33 times in the Qur'an: Luy 'ujnub once; Lj^j 
yujannab once; '.nVn yatajannab once; Ijjjjy 'ijtanabu nine times; 

s A f 

Luk janb three times; ^ j4 junub five times; LiL junub four times 



173 



and Luta. janib nine times. 

Likl "ujnub [imper. of v. Lua. janaba, doubly trans.] to keep 
someone away from, to turn someone aside from, to make 
someone avoid, to protect from, to preserve from (14:35) uUQ'j 
iSu 'j "tjij and preserve me and my offspring from 
worshipping idols. 

Luaj yujannab [imperf. of pass. v. II Luk junniba] to be spared 
from, to be protected from (92:17) ^S/l r a Vr ? y , n j f/ie most /hows 
w/ZZ be spared it. 

Luajj yatajannab [imperf. of v. V Luaj tajannaba, trans.] to 
avoid, to shun, to disdain (87:11) (jlsVl 1 g:Vu 'j Z?wf f/i<? mart 
wicked will avoid it. 

LujaI "ijtanaba [v. VIII, trans.] to stay away from, to avoid, to 
shun (16:36) ^jc-UJI IjjuSJj I worship God and avoid false 
gods. 

Lua. j'anZ? [n. pi Lsjik junub] side (4:103) I jjSili s!>lLJI '4* 
J»Sjjik JSc'j lijka'j HUS a/ifer yow /jaw performed the prayer, 
[continue to] remember God-standing, sitting and lying on your 
sides; *(4:36) s-"^ ^iLallj the friend-and-partner [lit. the friend 
at [your] side], the friend who shares business with one, one's 
spouse; *(39:56) <M L-iik f/iaf which is due to God; *(32:16) 
^.llaiJI jc. J4b4- Z/zey forsake their beds [lit. ?/?e/r s/cfes /ceep o/f 
the beds], they spend the night in prayer; *(22:36) tjiji. Cukj 
w/ie« /7/ie slaughtered animals] completely expire [lit. w/zen to 
sides fall to the ground]. 

Luk junub [quasi-act. part.] 1 that which is to one side, 
unrelated, that which is separated, stranger (4:36) ^uaJI J^Jj 
distant neighbour and/or who is not of kin; *(28:11) 'jc. 4j CjjLus 
u4 so s/ie watched him from a distance 2 [jur.] one who is barred 
from prayer on account of having had intercourse until he/she 
performs total ablution (4:43) I J*&a ^pk ,j'JSL jdfj s!)lLall I jj'jsj V 
I jLiij j^jo. Jjj^ ^ jjIc V] Ujk V j 'uj5 <5?o not come anywhere near 
prayer, while you are intoxicated, until you are aware of what 
you say, nor [enter a mosque] when you have had intercourse, 
until you have bathed, unless you are passing through. 



174 



LuIa jdnib [n.] 1 side (28:29) IjU s^U i> o^'* ^ caught 
sight of a fire on the side of the Mount; *(17:83) J\j he 
becomes haughty, arrogant [lit. he draws away with his side in 
disdain] 2 direction (37:8) t_yU l£ °u* uj^j 
f/iey cannot eavesdrop on the Supreme Assembly, and they are 
pelted from every direction. 

Z/dfcj-n-h wings of a bird; side; arm, hand; to lean on, to tilt, to 
incline, to go over, to turn away; error, crime, harm. Of this root, 
five forms occur 34 times in the Qur'an: ^ janaha twice; £Ua. 
janah five times; j^-li. janahayn once; AkS»J 'ajnihatun once and 
j^Uk junah 25 times. 

jLja janaha a [v. intrans. with prep. JI] to incline towards 

(8:61) U! jcjkla (ill Ijki. '(jjj but if they incline towards peace, then 

incline you to it [ too ]. 

* ' ' * , i 

janah [n., dual u^ 1 -^ janahan, pi. ; Ujkl 1 ajnihatun] 1 wing 

(6:38) '^llal jUI V] ^-Ij^j jj11= Vj o^'j^' J ?5' J I> tftere are 

no creatures on the earth, or birds that fly with their two wings, 

but they are communities like yourselves 2 arm, side, flank, upper 

arm, armpit (20:22) t-J^ Jjt 'q* iUai J) jUlalj and 

place your hand under your armpit: it will come out white 

without a blemish; *(15:88) 'di^'J^ Lp^' j be tender for/to 

the believers [lit. lower your wing towards the believers]. 

rLik junah [n.] 1 sin, crime; blame, censure, discordance 
(4:128) UjLoj y 1 Mr- ^1^?- bla U^ljc.] jl Ij^iu USu tiiaU. slj!«l (jjj 
UiL= U^u and if a woman experiences discordance or alienation 
from her husband, there is no blame on them if they agree 
between them on a settlement 2 [Jur.] financial obligations (2:236) 
; ui=jj2 J^J I jlbjsG *j Jji jlUj U iUull ffii'h y ffi'lr. ^IjV V there are no 
financial obligations on you if you divorce women unless you 
have touched them or have appointed a dowry for them. 

j-n-d troops, forces, host, army; helpers, supporters; thick 
rocky land; to enlist a fighting force, to muster. Of this root, two 
words occur 29 times in the Qur'an: lik jund seven times and j jjl 
junud 22 times. 



175 



ijk jund [coll. n.] host, army, helpers (67:20) ii. 'y> ^ill Ij» 'i>1 
(>kjil jji '(> J^jl^jj ^ w/io is rAw one wZto w/ZZ be an army for 
you to defend you against the Beneficent? 

jjjk junud [pi. of n. iik yuncf] army, host, helpers, companions 
(27:17) 

marshalled to Solomon were his hosts of jinn, humankind and 
birds and they were set in battle order. 

i-ij 'o/jt j-n-f hunchback, to incline, to deviate, to go over, to be 
crooked, crookedness. Of this root, two forms occur once each in 
the Qur'an: <-tta. janaf and <■ mutajanif. 

uilk janaf [n./v. n.] unfairness, straying away from the right 
path, deviation, mistake (2:182) US] 'J liik 'qa <_ili °(>a Z?wf // 
anyone has reason to suspect that the testator has made a 
mistake, or done wrong. 

< i i > >V« mutajanif [act. part.] one who inclines towards (5:3) (>a 
jj^ ^ bp f^V j j-£ <^aaJa "jLl^l but if any one is 
forced by hunger [to eat such food], with no inclination to sin, 
then God is most forgiving and merciful. 

0/Ofcj-n-n to shield, to cover, to engulf, shield, enclosure, place of 
hiding; the world of the jinn, the hidden people; night; grave; 
heart, inside, foetus; garden, verdant; madness; snake. Of this 
root, 10 forms occur 201 times in the Qur'an: s ja. janna once; Jjlk 
jann seven times; ja. jinn 22 times; <ia. jinnatun 10 times; "uj4^ 
majnun 11 times; <ia. jannatun 70 times; jllia. jannatan eight 
times; cjUk jannat 69 times; 3ia. junnatun twice and fcJ °ajinnatun 
once. 

0* janna u [v. trans. /intrans. with prep. <^lc.] to cover up, to 
hide, to descend (6:76) ^'jS. JCj jyil ^ Ilia when the night 
descended over him he saw a star. 

£jla, jann [nominalised act. part, used collectively; pi. (or a 
quasi-pl. of) J> y'inn] (members of a parallel but hidden world of 
invisible people, beings, forces, spirits, angels or a kind of demon 
and the like, both good and bad (see app. Ill of Muhammad 



176 



Asad's The Message of the Qur'an)); specific usages are 
contextually determined: 1 (as opposed to humans) the jinn 
(55:14—15) jU I> ^jU I> o^- 51 ls^j J±*ft£ t X * i> 'j^V He 
created mankind out of dried clay, like pottery, the jinn out of a 
flame of smokeless fire 2 a big snake, serpent (in one 
interpretation of 27:10) JJj Jtj j%j IaTj Ilia au^c jjlfj 

Lakj f/zrow down yowr stajf/ 7 ' , £>wf w/zera /i<? saw it writhing like 
a snake (or, a demon), he turned and fled, and did not come back. 

0* jinn [coll. n./pl. (or sing.) of ^ jann] 1 the j7tot (as 
opposed to humans) (51:56) uj- 2 ^ u^V'j W J created 

the jinn and humankind only to worship Me; * name of Sura 
72, Medinan sura, so-named because of the reference in verses 1- 
17 to 'the Jinn' 2 hidden beings generally including the jinn and 
angels, a species of angels said to have been entrusted with 
guarding the earth and the garden of Paradise (18:50) a££0 UK ilj 
ajj jJt 'jc. t>uia "jjaJ ^.Lit] V) Ijio-ui Ijiklal an<i We said to 

the angels, 'Prostrate yourselves before Adam,' and they 
prostrated themselves, except "iblls: he was one of the jinn and so 
broke away from the command of his Lord. 

4% jinnatun I [n.] madness (7:184) fi?. '(> '^Maj U> I JjZ£u Jjj 
have they not reflected?, there is no madness in their companion 
II [collect, n.] 1 jinn (11:119) o^'j t> ^'j ^ 

jjjj^i f/i<? wore? of your Lord will be fulfilled: T shall definitely fill 
Hell with jinn and men together' 2 angels (7:158) 'c&j kill I jlkkj 
'qJJ^IA J4jj piJc. Ui*j <iaJI f/iey c/a/m f/iaf //e has kinship 
with the angels, yet the angels themselves know that they will be 
brought before Him [like the rest of His creation]. 

"CijxLa majnun [pass, part.] mad, possessed by a bad spirit 

> - > - , i * > . 

{26:21) "dy^ cW f^j^j "u! y° ur Messenger who has 
been sent to you is truly possessed. 

jannatun [n., dual jUL jannatan, pi. ^U> jannat] 1 garden 
(17:91) tjjc-'j Jj?j I> ^ ^11 jjjSj jl or wnft'/ yow Ziave a garden of 
date palms and vines 2 paradise (7:27) U£ JjLLj^l ^vfoj V 

'^ jji ^ children of Adam, do not let Satan seduce you- 
like his ousting your two parents, from the Garden. 



177 



kjk.junn.atun [n.] shield, cover, protection (58:16) 1 
*jL they have used their oaths as a cover for [ their false deeds ]. 

AjJi "ajinnatun [pi. of *c#U janin] foetuses, something hidden 
(53:32) 'f^l^at jjiaj fcJ J^jl jj j and when you were foetuses in the 
bellies of your mothers. 

is/dfe j-n-y harvest, yield, crop, to harvest, to pick; to commit a 
crime, to cause an injury, crime. Of this root, two forms occur 
once each in the Qur'an: jana and ^4- janiyy. 

Ji*. jana [coll. n.] fruit, yield, fruit ready for picking (55:54) 
jl'j ls^j o'J^A I> 4j^=4 <_£j9 Jb. 'ojjSjI they are reclining on 

couches lined with brocade, and the ripe fruits of both gardens 
are near [ at hand]. 

"(J*, janiyy [quasi-pas. part.] fresh, fruit ready for picking, fruit 
picked at the right time (19:25) IjJaj -MU^ ^4-j lsj^j 
ife. and shake the trunk of the palm tree towards you, it will drop 
upon you ripe dates. 

j/_fc/jr j'-/i-<f barren land, desert land; hardship, strive, to tire oneself, 
to exert oneself; ability, capacity, exertion; to become emaciated, 
to squander one's wealth. Of this root, five forms occur in 41 
places in the Qur'an: '-^4- jahada 27 times; 4-^ jahd five times; "4V 
juhd once; jihad four times and j_A*La^ mujahidun four times. 

jaL* jahada I [v. Ill, intrans. with prep. ^] to strive, to 
endeavour, to fight (8:74) aIB Jjj^, ^ I jja4j I j'J*&'j I j^'* 'j^'j 
those who believed and emigrated, and struggled in God's cause 
II [trans.] to urge; to argue, to dispute with, to put under pressure 
(31:51) 14*4^ JJc. <j t» '^b-^ 'J <^=- '^'oAlk '(jjj tof if they 

pressure you to associate with Me anything you do not know [to 
be deserving], do not obey them. 

j^a. jahd [v. n. used adverbially] the utmost of, the most 
possible, to the limit (16:38) 44°^ 4^ 1 they have sworn 
by God with the utmost of their oaths. 

juhd [n./v. n.] capacity, power, ability, extreme effort 
*(9:79) 'fA^p- V] "uj^h V ji^'j f/zose who find nothing [to give for 



178 



charity ] but [ the very little they can spare of] their utmost effort. 

jL$a jihad [v. n./n.] striving, struggling, fighting (22:78) I jklkj 
»i^a. strive for God's cause as striving for Him is due. 

^jjaIa^ mujahidun [pi. of act. part. jaI^ mujahid] those who 
strive, those who fight (47:31) 'jjjiUj J^ia 'jAi*l^»ll jJkj ^ J^jjMj 
We w/ZZ fry yow M«f/Z We foiow those who strive among you, and 
the steadfast. 

jj—bfcj-h-r plain treeless land; the outer appearance of a person, 
appearance; to declare, to say openly, to be loud, to be open, a 
loud voice; to be pure. Of this root, four forms occur 16 times in 
the Qur'an: jahara five times; jahr seven times; s'Jjk 
jahratan three times and I J+a. jiharan once. 

jahara a [v. intrans. with prep. — j] 1 to speak loudly 
(17:110) ^jjIj isllj 'Jjj jjjlj iiiUj Vj ^^C^>j 'j^kj Vj an<f <io rao? be 
loud in your prayer, or too quiet, but seek between this a way 2 to 
speak openly (13:10) 'i>j JjSlI 'jJ I> t\'j>* alike among 

you is the one who conceals his words and the one who speaks 
them openly. 

'J$* jahr [n./v. n.] I speaking loudly, raising the voice (7:205) 
Jjsll '{j* Jjkil 'jjij ^ijij tfj^iu '4uij jSilj and remember your 

Lord, in your soul imploringly and in awe, and in subdued tones 
[lit. without loudness] 2 speaking openly (21:110) J> j*aJI <ij 
jjlsS U JJkjj Jjill but He knows what is said openly and He knows 
what you conceal 3 divulging, announcing, declaring, disclosure, 
telling (4:148) I> VI jjs ;> P jUl & V God does not 
like the publicising of evil except [by] someone who has been 
wronged. 

Sj^a. jahratan [v. n. used adverbially] 1 openly, visibly (2:55) y 
s'j^k <M ^ jj (jja. ^11 we w/ZZ not believe you until we see God 
visibly 2 expectedly, after a warning (6:47) °j aIII LJi. '^13 y 
s'j^k // f&e punishment of God should come to you suddenly or 
with warning. 

Ijtf* jiharan [v. n. used adverbially] openly (71:8) '^jc-j ^1 
I jl^a. / Ziave called them openly/aloud. 



179 



j/_ fc/jr j-^-z equipment, gear, rig; to fit out, to prepare, to equip, to 
make ready; to finish off, to be quick and light-footed. Of this 
root, two forms occur twice each in the Qur'an: jahhaza and 
jl^/jl^. jihaz/jahaz. 

j^a jahhaza [v. II, trans.] to equip with necessary gear, to rig 
up, to provide with necessary provisions (12:70) '^J^ ^'J**- ^ 
<iiJ Jkj ajIaLJI Jkk anJ when he provided them with their 
provisions, he placed the drinking-cup in the pack of his brother. 

jihaz/jahaz [n.] gears, supplies, provisions (12:59) CJj 
'fkj '(> ^ pL ^jjjI Jli 'fAj^aj '^'J^a. a«<f w/ierc /i<? /ia<i provided 
them with their provisions, he said, 'Bring me a [half] brother of 
yours from your father [ 's side]. ' 

J/— */jr j-h-l ignorance, lack of knowledge, to ignore; foolishness, 
quick temper, to be peevish, to be rash. Of this root, six forms 
occur 24 times in the Qur'an: l&h tajhal five times; jahil 
once; oJ&h- jahilun nine times; <Jj$a. jahul once; aJL^. jahalatun 
four times and jahiliyyatun four times. 

tfeki fa//iaZ [imperf. of v. trans, with no object] to be devoid of 
knowledge, to have no information, not to know; to be foolish 
(7:138) "uj^h f j 5 f^j '(41 ^ 1*1J VjI ^j^Ij Ijlll f/iey sa/<f, 

'Moses, make for us a god as they have gods. ' He said, 'Surely 
you are a people who do not know. ' 

JaIa jahil [act. part., pi. OjUli. jahilun] 1 ignorant (2:67) Ijili 
jjjkl^J 't> jjfl 'J <S1L. ijLl Jli I jji Uiijj! f/iey said, 'Are yow making 
fun of us?', he answered, 'God forbid that I should be so 
ignorant' 2 uninformed, undiscerning, unaware (2:273) J4f"^? 
i mjuII '(> Ja^JI f/ze undiscerning might think them rich 

because of their self-restraint [from showing how needy they are ] 
3 the angry, aggressors, abusers; foolish (25:63) 'uj^^ 11 lijj 
££L* I jlll and who, when the abusers address them, say, 'Peace. ' 

Jj4^ jahul [intens. act. part.] very rash, very foolish; 
ignominious (33:72) V ^ j&> 'j^ M but man carried 

it-indeed he is sinful, very foolish. 

jahalatun [n. state of complete unawareness, ignorance, 



180 



foolishness (6:54) jjic- '<AA ^LJj ajkj 'q* LAj j3 JJI^j li jl- J*c. 

whoever of you does evil in ignorance, and thereafter repents 
and makes amends, God is All-Forgiving, All-Compassionate. 

AjJaUJI "al-Jahiliyyatu [proper name] (normally associated 
with lawlessness) the time prior to the coming of Islam in Arabia, 
the state of pagan ignorance (5:50) 'oj*h do they want 

judgement according to the time prior to the coming of Islam in 
Arabia [lit. the state of pagan ignorance]? 

jahannam [a borrowing from Hebrew (also thought to be from 
Persian) occurring 77 times in the Qur'an] Hell (25:65) tu'j 
^4^- M-^ ^k- our Lord, turn away from us the chastisement of Hell. 

vjjj^j-w-b round pool, to pierce, to make a hole, to cut out, to 
split; to roam, to go about; to clear away, to reveal; to reply, to 
answer, to respond, to grant, to accede to a wish, compliance. Of 
this root, eight forms occur 43 times in the Qur'an: LAI jaba 
once; LAkl ''ajaba six times; LuJ J ujiba twice; LlkiLJ J istajaba 27 
times; LuajLJ "istujiba once; LA'jk jawab four times; Lu?J« mujib 
once and oJb^* mujlbun once. 

LjIa jaba u [v. trans.] to hollow out [and use for dwellings], to 
hew (89:9) jIjIIj jilall Ijjlk 'jjill ijiSj a«<f /w/f/i f/ze tribe of] 
Thamud, who hewed into the rocks in the valley. 

ljUS J ajaba [v. IV, trans.] 1 to reply, to answer (28:65) 
'jjL,'jiJI /iow c?i"c? yow answer f/ie messengers 2 to answer a distress 
call, to come to the rescue (27:62) lil Luaj '(>! w/io w /f 

f/iaf awswrs distressed when they call upon Him? 3 to obey, 
to follow, to respond to (46:31) <j I <M I 
people, obey God's summoner and believe in Him. 

t-uJ 3 «/r6a [pass, of v. IV] 1 to be replied to, to be answered 
(5:109) J>jjaJ liUi JjSjs Ji»jll <M <^n fjs! ow ^ e when God 
assembles the messengers and asks, 'How were you answered?' 2 
to be granted, to be fulfilled (10:89) U&fjtJ CjLJ i$ yowr prayer 
has been accepted. 

ljUjLI "istajaba [v. X], I [intrans.] 1 to respond, to obey [a 



181 



command] (6:36) oj*^ oi^' '.'JV"'J only those who can hear 
will respond 2 [with prep. J] a) to answer a prayer/person (21:76) 
j alikji U^iuali JjS '(> i/jU il 11 jjj and [ also mention ] Noah 
when he cried out to Us long before that and We answered him 
and saved him and his household b) to comply with, to follow the 
call of (13:18) J±>^ IjjI^jU 'jjill for those who respond to 
their Lord will be the best of rewards II [trans.] to accept (42:26) 
aJL^s °q* °Jk jj jjj pi '-, ft * all I jLi j I jiali "jjjill L. uaju njj and He accepts 
those who believe and do good deeds and gives them more of His 
bounty. 

LjjajLl ^istujiba [pass, of v. X] to be obeyed, to be responded 
to (42:16) <! < ^uȣJ |> ^ ^ uJ?^ o^'j and those who 

argue about God after He has been obeyed. 

LIja jawab [n.] an answer, reply, response (27:56) LJja- ^ 
... IjllS 'J VI a-«j5 but the answer of his people was only to say ... 

Lua!» mujib [act. part., pi. aJ^mujibun] responsive, granting 
[a wish], replying, answering [a prayer] (11:61) s-u=^ LujS Jfj *Ji 
my Lord is Near, Responsive. 

■i/jfcj-w-d horses, to seek a horse; generosity, generous person; 
goodness, excellence, nobility; rain-laden clouds. Of this root, 
two forms occur once each in the Qur'an: ^JjaJI "al-Judiyy and 
iUa. jiyad. 

"^jjaJI ^al-Judiyy [proper name] the mountain upon which 
Noah's ark settled, traditionally identified with Mount Ararat 
located in either Armenia or Syria and now said to be in Turkey 
(11:44) ^JjaJI JSe. cSjLA'j and it [the Ark] settled on [Mount] 
Judiyy. 

iU* jiyad [pi. of n./quasi act. part, il'ja. jawad] horses, chargers; 
magnificent, the select, well-bred (38:31) cjUalLJI ^iiib <$c il 
... iUaJI when, at the close of the day, well-bred light-footed 
horses were paraded before him . . . 

jjj/^j-w-r neighbour, adjacent; to protect, to shelter, to give refuge, 
to seek refuge, protege, spouse; to veer away, to tilt, to deviate; to 



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be unjust, injustice. Of this root, seven forms occur 13 times in 
the Qur'an: jjUj yujawir once; jj^j yujir five times; jIIj yujdr 
once; 'JkiLJ 'istajara once; jll jar three times; jjL?. ja'/r once and 
ii/jjlii mutajawirat once. 

jjIaj yujawir [imperf. of v. Ill 'Jjlk jdwara, trans.] to dwell in 
the neighbourhood of, to be or become adjacent to, to be a 
neighbour of (33:60) ^JS V] t$ja jjj^j ^ ^ <zwd fney wz7/ nof 
&e yowr neighbours in it but for a short time. 

jjaj yujir [imperf. of v. IV jUl "ajara, trans, with prep. <>] to 
protect, to grant asylum or sanctuary (72:22) ^> ^jj^j y no 

one w/ZZ protect me against God. 

jIaj yiyar [imper. pass.of v. IV jUl 'ajara, with prep. to 
be protected over/against something or someone, to be given 
sanctuary against (23:88) jl^4 Yj ja'j iijjSL ? iu '<> 

jjUii '(jj say, 'W/io /ioW^ in His hand the dominion of 
everything and protects while against Him there is no protection, 
[speak] if you know?' 

J*U "istajara [v. X, trans.] to ask for protection, to seek 
asylum, to seek sanctuary (9:6) ^TjlllJ 'jjSjl&JI "<> ikl °Jfj if 
any one of the polytheists should seek your protection [Prophet], 
grant it to him. 

jU jar I [n.] neighbour (4:36) ^jSII lsp J^'j and the neighbour 
who is of kin II [quasi-act. part.] one who protects, one who 
provides asylum or sanctuary (8:48) jk. J> j£l <-jl£ V 

'(^1 no man shall conquer you today for I am a protector for you. 

j51a ja'/r [act. part.] deviant, going the wrong way, straying 
away (16:9) !>0 far some of them [the 

roads] are going the wrong way: if He willed, He would have 
guided you all together. 

litjjlai* mutajawirat [pi. of quasi act. part. fem. s'jjlki 
mutajawiratun] adjacent, side by side, next to one another, 
bordering on one another, within easy reach of one another (13:4) 
oljjlki y=| cpsjVl ,_sij ana* in ?ne land there are neighbouring 
plots. 



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j-w-z beam; to cross, to traverse, road, crossing; to allow, to 
pass off, to help to cross; to pardon, to disregard; to reward, prize. 
Of this root, 'j'J*. jawaza, occurs five times in the Qur'an. 

jjU. jawaza [v. Ill, trans.] 1 to cross, to traverse (2:249) lils 
XjL* \ jioli ja when he crossed it with those who had kept 
faith with him 2 to pass by, to leave behind, to go further (18:62) 
lilic. Ujli slSl Jli I'jjlk Ilia f/ien w/iera f/iey ZiaJ gone pasf the 
appointed time/place, he said to his servant, 'Fetch us our lunch! ' 
3 [with prep, jc] to forgo, to overlook, to pass over (46:16) jj^'j 
j^iljjiu °jc «w<5? We/orgo f/ie/r Z?a<i deeds. 

o^jjj^j-w-s to rummage, to peer about, to play havoc, to overrun; 
to investigate, to spy. Of this root, ^La. jasa occurs once in the 
Qur' an. 

oA*. jasa u [v. intrans.] to overrun, to ravage, to plunder 
(17:5) Jj'-JI jSu. I jll^i .in^, ui IjUc 'Juic. likj We send 

against you servants of Ours of great might, and they spread 
destruction throughout the habitation. 

J~ w ~ c hunger, to hunger, to yearn for something, to starve, 
starvation, famine. Of this root, two forms occur five times in the 
Qur'an: jki taju c once and jk ju c four times. 

'^y£taju c [imperf. of v. g^lk ja c a, intrans.] to become or go 
hungry, to hunger (20:118) c/J" Vj l+ji £ jaj VI "Ji it is [granted] 
for you that in it [ the Garden ] you will not go hungry, or naked. 

j? jk ju c [n./v. n.] hunger, starvation (106:4) ^ jV I> (4**^ 

J4i«li j //<? who has removed hunger from them [lit. fed 
them away from hunger], and made them safe [away] from fear. 

i-*/j/£j-w-f belly, the interior, the inside; valley, to be hollow; to 
penetrate. Of this root, t-i'ja. jawf occurs once in the Qur'an. 

JijA jawf [n.] the interior, the inside, cavity (33:4) AAM J*^ U 
Ai'jp. J^IS '(> Jk'jJ God does not give a man two hearts inside 
him. 



184 



j/j/jr j'-w-vv atmosphere, the arch of the sky, air, the space between 
the face of the earth and what appears to be the sky; large expanse 
of open land. Of this root, "j*- jaww occurs once in the Qur' an. 

ja, jaww [n.] mid-air, air (16:79) jk j» £i\'jL*L jlkll Ji \'JJj jJ 
*M VI oV^.n'ij U fUUl do they not consider the birds, sustained (or, 
enabled) [lit. subjected] in the air of the sky, nothing holding 
them up except God? 

filiSl^j-y- 3 to come, to arrive, to reach, to get, to bring; large ditch 
for collecting rain. Of this root, three forms occur 278 times in the 
Qur' an: ilk ja°a 275 times; i<>?. jVa twice and ilkl ^aja^a once. 

fla. jd :, a i I [v. intrans.] 1 to come (36:20) ^-=51 J> ilkj 
^ytl^y Jk 'j from the furthest part of the city, a man came running; 
*(4:43) JaSlill (> flLi jkl ilk one w&o answered the call of 
nature [lit. one of you came from the low land] 2 to arrive, to 
approach (10:49) 'jjlsaluy Vj 4i.lk 'o/jali-y Sli *lk 13 Jkl Jli jkl 
to every nation a term; when their term arrives they shall not put 
it back by a single hour, nor put it forward 3 [with prep. — j] to 
bring, to bring about, to do (6:160) i>j IklliJ <Ss ^Lklb ilk |> 
l^Jla VI t/jki ^ ^LX. *lk w/ioever brings about [something] good, 
shall have ten times the like of it, and whoever brings about 
[something] evil, shall be repaid only the like of it II [v. trans.] 1 
to come to (10:57) '^ij °t> Zli&'J* J^ilk °Ss a teaching from your 
Lord has come to you 2 to commit (18:71) Cua. iii I^JaI jjal ll^aji.1 
1'jjal Ulu die? yow mafe a hole in it, so as to drown its 
passengers[/occupants] ! ? , indeed, you have committed a foul 
thing! 3 to come to, to visit someone, to approach, overtake (6:61) 
ULj k&ji ciJA\ J^'jkl ilk lil till death visits/approaches any of 
you, Our envoys claim him 4 [with prep. —>] to bring something to 
someone, to offer, to come to someone with (30:58) JjL j^"?- l#j 
'jjljai V) °Jt Ij'jaS 'jjill yjil yet if you brought them a miracle, 
the disbelievers would still say, 'You [messengers] are only 
bringers of falsehood. ' 

*<j^ jVa [pass. v. with prep. —>] to be brought (89:23) ixajj i^j 
^kj and on that Day Hell is brought near. 



185 



flk) ^aja^a [v. IV, trans.] to cause to come/go, to compel to 
come/go, to drive someone to something (19:23) 'o^U^ll liilkU 
AiLill ^-ia. birth-pangs drove her to the trunk of the palm tree. 

Si/<|/jr j-y-b neckline of a garment; to cut out, to hollow; breast, 
bosom; entrance. Of this root, two forms occur three times in the 
Qur'an: Luk jayb twice and Ls jik juyub once. 

Luk j'ayZ? [n., pi Lijik juyub] 1 garment's neckline (24:31) 
^jik s jA jlkj tjjj^j f/zey should draw their head scarves to 
cover their necklines 2 an opening in a garment (28:32) ^ ^ 
?J L, jjc. '(> iliiaaj ^Ljk pwf yowr hand inside your garment and 
it will come out white without a blemish. 

^isl^j-y-d neck, long beautiful neck, to have a long beautiful neck. 
Of this root, ija. jid occurs once in the Qur'an. 

jja, jid [n.] neck (111:5) '<> Jik around her neck [let 

there be] a rope of palm fibre. 



£ / ha 3 



ftaj 3 al-ha 3 the sixth letter of the alphabet; it represents a voiceless 
pharyngeal fricative sound. 

lj/lj/^ h-b-b grains, seeds, plants, bulbs; core of the heart, affection, 
love, to love, to prefer; loved one, a friend; dew. Of this root, 
eight forms occur 95 times in the Qur'an: L>k habbaba once; LuJ 
3 ahabba 64 times; f.iVU 3 istahabba four times; Li- /iwoo nine 
times; "ahabb three times; *uJ 3 ahibba 3 once; 

mahabbatun once; La. /iao/> seven times and ^ habbatun five 
times. 

Lua. habbaba [v. II, trans.] to render likeable, to cause 
something to be loved, liked or accepted, to endear something 
(49:7) 'fLjB (ji 'c^4j\ s4=>- ^ but God has endeared 
faith to you and made it beautiful in your hearts. 

La.S 3 ahabba [v. IV, trans.] 1 to like (49:12) £J jkt 'J k&ki LaJ 
4ja.l would any of you like to eat the flesh of his brother [even] 

dead? 2 to want dearly, to wish, to desire (9:108) j oj4n J^j 

I jjjlcy in if are men wfto desire to grow in purity. 

'.'■>"' ' " I "astahabba [v. X, trans.] to prefer, to find more likeable, 
desirable (41:17) ^ <j-«ll 1 jjkLia ^Lu^i uj as /or 

Thamud, We showed them the right way, but they preferred 
blindness to guidance. 

Lk hubb [n.] love (2:165) J^j^ ^ uj j I> i> !>j 
Ail lik Is! I ji«l'c 'jjjJIj aJII Lsk£ mere are some wfto choose to worship 
others besides God as rivals to Him, loving them with the love 
due to God, but the believers have greater love for God; *(12:30) 
lik he has smitten her with love [lit. penetrated the core of 



187 



her heart]; *(76:8) -uk ^ 'qJ*x±4j and they give food, for 
the love of Him [also interpreted as: even though they long for it 
themselves] . 

uj^i 'ahabb [elat.] 1 dearer, more loved (12:8) I j^j jil I JIA i] 
liJ ^Jj Lskl w/zew f/iey said [to each other], 'Joseph and his 
brother are indeed dearer to our father than we are ' 2 more 
desirable, dearer, preferable (12:33) ^ ll« ^ 'JkUl Lfj 
41) /ie said, 'My Lord!, the prison is more desirable to me than 
what they are asking me to do. ' 

*LkS "ahibba" [pi. of n. habib] loved ones (5:18) i j^S pJISj 
SjlSaJj lpj esj^-^j tfte /ews awe? f/ie Christians say, 'We 

are the children of God and His beloved ones. ' 

mahabbatun [v. n./n.] love (20:39) ^ <^ ciaSj anj 
I showered My love [lit. love from Me] upon you. 

"lja /iaZ?Z? [coll. n.] 1 grains (50:9) U^U ^"J+° it* f^Ul Ufjjj 
^i^W Lkj plja. ant/ We se«<i <fovra /ram f/ze sfcy blessed water, 
and with it grow gardens and grain of harvested crops 2 seed 
(6:95) 't> Jr>4 ls'j^j JJli ^ bj # is God who splits 
open the seed and the fruit stone: He brings out the living from 
the dead. 

Xj*. habbatun [n.] a single grain (2:261) ^ J" 
Ji. ajU JJliL ^ JjlL, ^^jjjjl lS^S f/ie likeness of those 

who spend their wealth in God's cause is as the likeness of a 
grain that produces seven ears, each bearing a hundred grains. 

jAtVc h-b-r trace of an old mound, striped cloth made in the 
Yemen; embroidery, to embroider, silken material; to make 
beautiful, to make happy, to make pleasant; ink, writing; learned 
person, priest, rabbi, an authority in matters of faith. Of this root, 
two forms occur six times in the Qur'an: Cjjj^4 yuhbariin twice 
and jGJ 'ahbar four times. 

jAj yuhbar [imperf. of pass. v. hubira] to be made happy 
(30:15) "ujjf=4 (ji (4-2 ptaJHall I jLe'j I ji»l' s 'jjill Ilia as /or f/iose 
wto believed and did good deeds, they will be in a Garden, made 
happy. 



188 



jlAl 'ahbar [pi. of n. "J^ habr/hibr] variously interpreted as a 
learned person, an authority in matters of faith, a priest, a rabbi 
(5:44) Ij'jIa '(jjill I jVrJ 'jjill (jjjalll I^j J^kj jjjj ^'.i l^i slj^ll Gj'jjf Uj 
jUkSn j j^jUjllj We revealed the Torah, with guidance and light in 
it, by which the prophets, who had submitted [to God], made 
judgement for the Jews, and [ so did] the rabbis and the scholars. 

O'/v/c h-b-s to detain, to restrict, to confine, prison; to endow. Of 
this root, 'o4^yahbis occurs twice in the Qur'an. 

o-Aj yahbis [imperf. of v. habasa, trans.] 1 to delay, to 
stop from happening (11:8) U "jljil si j&U Zi Jft LsliJ Uja.1 
<*4=^ and if We delay the chastisement till a reckoned time they 
are sure to say, 'What is delaying it?' 2 [jur.] to detain, to keep 
back (5:106) <L^>jll 'jja. cIJA jliaa. lij '^SSjj sjiV^jS I jiali 'jjill l^jfcj 

s^LJI jiu J> L^jl^j p^J yo« w/io believe, the method of 
testifying among you when death approaches any of you and you 
are making a bequest, is to let two just men of your own people 
act as witnesses, or let two men from another people, if you are 
journeying in the land and the calamity of death afflicts you-you 
should keep back the two witnesses after prayer. 

L/lj/^ h-b-t cattle disease of swelling of the stomach caused by 
overeating and gas, to bloat; to be frustrated, to come to nothing, 
to be undone, to be futile, to be of no avail. Of this root, two 
forms occur 16 times in the Qur'an: JaA habita 12 times and Ja±J 
"ahbat four times. 

iajA habita a [v. intrans.] to be futile, to come to nothing, to be 
of no avail, to be in vain (39:65) "c^p^ 'cfi if you 

ascribe any partner [ to God], all your work will come to nothing. 

iaAS 'ahbata [v. IV, trans.] to frustrate, to cause to come to 
nothing, to cause to be of no avail (33:19) illl Ja±Ji I °^ 
J4JLii such people have not believed, so God brings their deeds to 
nothing. 

til/i-i/c h-b-k knot, belt, girdle; to weave tightly, to braid; track, lines, 



189 



trails of ships, wake, orbits of stars and planets. Of this root, >i£k 
hubuk occurs once in the Qur'an. 

&k hubuk [pi. of n. 'S^ hibak] trails, orbits (51:7) pli 
s^fikJI Z?y f/ie sky with its many orbits. 

J/<_j/£ h-b-l rope, halter; connection, link, means, covenant, pledge; 
snare, wiles, stratagem; to conceive a child. Of this root, two 
words occur seven times in the Qur'an: Ji*. habl five times and 
JUa. hibal twice. 

Jja habl [n.; pi. JU?. hibal] rope, cord (26:44) j4 jj-t-j 'j^fe 
'jjllUJI yaal U 'Jjc-ji I jllSj f/zey threw their ropes and staffs, and 
said: 'By Pharaoh's might, we shall be the victors'; *(3:103) 
<M bond, pledge, covenant of God [lit. by the rope of God]; 
*(3: 1 12) (_>»U1I 't> assistance from mankind; *(50:16) .jjjjII 
f/ie jugular vein. 

JZ*. hatta particle occurring 142 times in the Qur'an and broadly 
functioning as: I preposition, meaning 'until', 'to the point of, 
'up to', 'as far as'. It precedes either a noun, as in (97:5) J^- 
till the rising of dawn; or a sentence, as in (20:91) lull '^-'ji J^. 
^ J* until Moses returns to us II conjunction 1 meaning 'in order 
that', 'in order to', as in (63:7) J I> I jais V 'oArt ui^ 1 
Ijl^iij (jjk f/iey are the ones who say, 'Do not give financial 
support to those who follow God's Messenger, so that they may 
disperse.' Many instances of the conjunctive, meaning 'in order 
to' are also interpreted as prepositional, meaning 'until', as in 
(49:9) jl Jh ji*. l juj jA\ \j£Aj& fight that which does wrong 
until (or, in order that) it returns to God's commandment 2 
meaning 'unless' (8:53) Ji*. *j5 Jk. l^ul <£u I'jjil & U s jL dlli 
^ I j'jiij fto because God would never change a favour 
He had conferred upon a people unless they change what is in 
themselves III said to be synonymous with the meaning of 
exceptive V], possibly as in (2:102) 'Jaj Uuj Vj£ JZ*. iJ 
'jiSj !Xi Jjui yet they [ these two] never taught anyone before/without 
first saying, 'We are a test, so do not [fall for us and] reject the 
faith. ' 



190 



f/^/C h-t-m fate, decree, to ordain, to make absolutely irreversible; 
black; ill-fated. Of this root, Ju*. hatm occurs once in the Qur'an. 

^ hatm [v. n.; n.] decree, ordinance, judicial decision (19:71) 
ll-^u l^k 'Jj'j Jk. 'JS Ui J j V) J^la (jjj fnere w nof one o/ yow but 
shall come to it, it is a decree [imposed by Him] upon your Lord 
Himself, that must be fulfilled. 

'-'A-'/C h-th-th to urge, to spur on; to be fast, energetic; agitation; 
continuous motion. Of this root, liiyk hathith occurs once in the 
Qur' an. 

liujA hathith [quasi-act. part., used adverbially] swift, brisk 
(7:54) liy*. 4j12=u jl^all Jjlll LS A£ He makes the night cover the day; 
going after it swiftly. 

"/s/C b-j-b barrier, cover; to veil, to screen, to seclude, to prevent; 
to disappear, to vanish; eyebrow; doorkeeper. Of this root, two 
forms occur eight times in the Qur'an: hijab seven times and 
jjjjkk^ mahjubun once. 

ljIaa hijab [n./v. n.] 1 screen, curtain, veil (33:53) J£L* 
i_Aka. °(> s ji jlLli lilia an<f if you ask them for something, do so 
from behind a screen 2 seclusion (19:17) Ul^. '^ji °i> dikjli 50, 
sne wen? into seclusion away from them. 

^jjjjIaji mahjubun [pi. of pass. part, lj mahjiib] secluded, 
debarred, shut off, excluded (83:15) 'dJ>J?^ i> J4jJ ^ 

no indeed!, on that Day they will be debarred from their Lord. 

Z/ti/C n ~j~j head fracture, to test the depth of a head fracture; proof, 
argument, to argue, to defeat in an argument; to visit, to make a 
pilgrimage-particularly to the Holy Mosque in Mecca, pilgrim; a 
year's work, year. Of this root, eight forms occur 33 times in the 
Qur'an: hajja once; hajja 12 times; uj^4; yatahdjjun 
once; ^ hajja nine times; j^a. hijj once; jrl^. Aajj once; Ai/fl/ 
once and hujjatun seven times. 

na/j'a u [v. trans.] [jur.] to perform the ritual of hajj 
(rendered as: major pilgrimage, for the want of a better term) 



191 



pilgrimage in the Holy places in Mecca during the prescribed 
period (2:158) ^Ul bli 'J^c\ J ai±A\ gl aJII jjUtli Sj'j^l j t*-^ ci 
U^j 'J aMc Sa/5 a«<i Marwa are among the rites of God, so 
for those who make major or minor pilgrimage to the House it is 
no offence to circulate between the two. 

jrla. hdjja [v. Ill trans.] to argue with one another, to dispute 
with one another (6:80) iSj ^ j*Al3 <J15 a^S ilAlj a«<i to 
people disputed with him, and he said, 'How can you dispute with 
me about God when He has guided me. ' 

gl hajj [n.] [jur.] the annual pilgrimage to the Holy Places in 
Mecca during the prescribed period and carried out in the 
prescribed manner (2:197) c£*j&u* "J^d gUI the Pilgrimage takes 
place during prescribed months; *(9:20) jjSSM gill the Greater/est 
Pilgrimage most probably refers to the last pilgrimage led by the 
Prophet in the year 10 A.H./632 A.D. It is particularly known as 
the 'Farewell Pilgrimage' (^bjll because the Prophet died 
soon after it; * gill name of Sura 22, Medinan sura, so-named 
because of the reference in verse 27 to the call to 'the 
Pilgrimage' '. 

ga. hijj [v. n.] visiting, making the pilgrimage to Mecca during 
the prescribed time (3:97) All] ^lk£J g*. ^Ull JSs. aJTj 

owed to God by all people is making the pilgrimage to the House, 
[a duty incumbent upon one] who can find a way to it. 

gl*. hijaj [pi. of fem. n. aI*. hijjatun] a year (28:27) 'J jjJ 
^la. '^U<u ^jlu 'j p£lA *j±u\ i/jII / to/i to marry you to 
one of these two daughters of mine, on condition that you hire 
yourself to me for eight years. 

511 hujjatun [n.] argument, proof, evidence (42:16) "oa^j 
J^jj '.iic. °4^1 Ai 1. mt.nl d jkj *(^» aJII and [as for] those who 

argue about God after He has been obeyed, their argument is null 
and void with their Lord. 

j/s/C h-j-r stone, to stone; to solidify; enclosure, room; to confine; 
to deny access, to limit, to declare legally incompetent, to freeze; 
cunning person, brains, discerning faculty. Of this root, five 



192 



forms occur 21 times in the Qur'an: J?^ hijr seven times; jjkl 
hujur once; cjl'jkk hujurat once; j?^ /ia/ar twice and s'JW> 
hijaratun 10 times. 

/wj'r I [v. n.] 1 [functioning as a quasi-pass, part.] that 
which is earmarked for a certain purpose, reserved for exclusive 
use (6:138) '^^-ji i> VI r 8 V.i-<j V jk^. d/jkj jLUJ ? i» I j&Zj and 
they [also] say, 'These sacredly reserved cattle and tillage 
[crops], none but those we wish may eat them' -so they claim!; 
*(25:22) \'jJ*aU I'JW- [an interjection] absolutely forbidden!; 
absolutely untouchable! used as an expression in pre-Islamic 
Arabia to gain safe conduct from an enemy during the forbidden 
months: (25:22) IjW^ 'oAs^j ui°jV-^ ls'j^ V aSjXJI jj'jj fji 
IjjkkSi f/ze c?<xy f/zey w?7/ see the angels, [there will be] no good 
tidings that day for the guilty, they [the angels] will say [to them 
'halt'] it is absolutely forbidden [for you to go any further 
towards the Garden] 2 [functioning as a quasi-act. part.] 
controlling power, restrictive power *(89:5) jW Ls'^for a rational 
person, person of discernment, reasonable person [lit. for a 
person with restraint] II [n.] enclosure, stone dwelling, stone city, 
name of the city in which the tribe of Thamud lived *(15:80) 
LAalal the people of ^al-Hijr, the inhabitants of 'al-Hijr, the 
tribe of Thamud (q.v.) who hued for themselves dwellings in the 
rock face; * JWJI name of Sura 15, Meccan sura, so-named 
because of the reference in verse 80 to the 'Stone City' of 
Thamud. 

jjkk hujur [pi. of n./v. n. J^a. hijr or hajr] bosom, lap (front of 
a garment from the waist to the knee); restriction *(4:23) f^jjkk ^ 
in your care, under your guardianship [lit. in your laps]. 

cjljkk hujurat [pi. of n. s'jkk hujratun] enclosures of any type, 
rooms, bedrooms, private quarters (49:4) f Ijj |> jiLi 'jjill °Ji 
'tjJSxj V JJk'J&i pljkkJI those who call you [Prophet] from outside 
your private rooms-most of them lack understanding; * plj^J 
name of Sura 49, Medinan sura, so-named because of the 
reference in verse 4 to the Prophet's 'Private Quarters' . 

j»a hajar [n., pi. i'J^ hijaratun] 1 stone, rock (2:74) ciui p 



193 



SjloS lil 'J s'JkaJlk ^Sli ju '(> 'jijS even after that, your hearts 
became hard, as hard as rocks, or even harder 2 clumps of 
hardened mud (51:33) o£= i> *'JW> d-j^ that We may shower 
upon them clumps of hard clay. 

•j/s/C h~J~ z barrier, dam, to separate, to put a stop to, to deny; to 
knot a belt, to truss up a camel in order to treat body sores. Of this 
root, two forms occur once each in the Qur'an: "_>U». hajiz and 
jjj^La. hajizin. 

hajiz [n.] barrier (27:61) iii'J^ '6a tfej and 

ordained a barrier between the two bodies of water. 

hajizin [pi. of act. part. hajiz] one who keeps back, 
one who prevents, one who shields (69:47) ui>^- i> ^ 

and not one of you could have shielded (or, defended) him. 

Si/j/C h-d-b rocky hill; to be a hunchback; high waves, hardship, 
difficult situation; to dote on, to take care of, care. Of this root, 
Lf.sk hadab occurs once in the Qur'an. 

Luk hadab [n.] high rocky land (21:96) ^ y=^j ^ jaL ^^Sa lij ^ 
'jjLi JS '(> j Mnf/Z w/ien f/ie peoples of Gog and Magog are 
let loose and they stream swiftly out of every highland. 

£/j/C h-d-th new, novel, youth; to originate, to create; to happen, 
incident, occurrence; to tell, to narrate, to speak to, to disclose. Of 
this root, five forms occur 36 times in the Qur'an: tuhaddith 
three times; yuhdith three times; tiukl muhdath twice; liitja. 
hadith 23 times and itujUJ "ahadith five times. 

liuij tuhaddith [imperf. of v. II iuk haddatha] 1 to divulge, to 
disclose, to tell (something) (99:4) U'Jj±J on fto Day, it 

will tell its story 2 [with prep. _j] to acquaint someone with, to 
tell someone something, to inform someone of (2:76) J4 3 
J>£jj ijc. j>£ J*&£ iill /iow can you disclose to them what 
God has revealed to you, so that they may be able to use it to 
argue against you before your Lord? 3 to acknowledge, to show 
gratitude (93:11) ^jj ^<jj tllj and as for the blessings of 
your Lord, so [forever] acknowledge [them]. 



194 



J / J /c 



dijaj yuhdith [imperf. of v. IV "ahdatha] 1 to cause 

something to come about (65:1) IjUl aij 'jkj dipki <iil JkJ ^Js V yow 
can never teow, for God may very well bring about a [new] 
situation 2 to initiate (18:70) ^ J^- 'cjp- ^tuu ^ is^-p* 1 ol* 
I'jSp ij« if you follow me, then, do not ask me about anything till I 
[myself] start to make a mention of it to you. 

di'jal muhdath [pass, part.] something newly created, fresh 
(21:2) oj^4i *f*j tyuLhJ V] tiijkl °qa jSi 'jj* Ja^-yU Us no newly 
revealed reminder comes to them from their Lord, but they listen 
to it as they play. 

£u±± hadlth [n., pi. liijjlk! 3 ahadith] 1 discourse (52:34) I jjlia 
'jAilla I '(jj /ef f/iem produce one discourse like it if 

they are truthful 2 conversation, chat (33:53) Vj I j'j^li J^aL I la 
pi^l ' on then, when you have eaten, disperse, and do not stay 
on desiring a chat 3 statement, tiding, news (53:59) Afc^ 1 
j^J«j Jo yo« [people] marvel at this tiding? 4 topic, subject of 
conversation (6:68) jZ* °<4^ o^J^ <jl uj^=j^ ji^' ^'j 
? jjc. jliija. IjI^j^j w/zen you come across people who speak ill of 
our revelations, turn away from them until they move on to 
another topic 5 piece of information (66:3) iA ^ >»' '4 J 
Ijjpk a^.1 j'J a«<i when the Prophet told something in confidence to 
one of his wives 6 story, account, tale (51:24) U&Ja liyia. ^li J* 
(jj^jklll ij*ljjl /W f/ie 5tory of the honoured guests of Abraham 
reached you? 7 lesson, example, cautionary tale (23:44) ill U 
lIijjU.1 llbkj '^'.^'»; LmjuU o jjiS IjJ jluj aII whenever a 

messenger came to a community, they called him a liar, so We 
destroyed them one after the other and made them into cautionary 
tales 8 events, happenings (in an interpretation of 12:6) '^hfh] '<££&j 
dLlc kL*j ^jjj liijikVI Jjjti 1> «^<jj f/iws, yowr Lonf will choose 
you, teach you to interpret events and perfect His blessing on you 
9 dreams (in an interpretation of 12:6) !> «^4j «4j 4h^h 
ajk iiyikVl JjjG //zms, yowr Lore? w//7 choose you, teach 

you to interpret dreams and perfect His blessing on you. 

j/j/C h-d-d boundary, edge; to limit, to delimit; to sharpen, to hone; 
to define, to distinguish; to become angry; (of sight) to be sharp; 



195 



to be in mourning; to oppose, to act contrary to, iron. Of this root, 
four forms occur 25 times in the Qur'an: s il hadda four times; 
j jik hudud 14 times; SIV hidad once and ijia. /ia<fj<i six times. 

jt» hadda [v. Ill, trans.] to oppose, to act contrary to (9:63) 

that whoever sets himself against God and His Messenger, for 
him will be the Fire of Hell, there to stay. 

jjik hudud [pi. of n. ^ hadd] 1 prescribed limits, boundaries 

(9:97) 4] jLTj ^ aIii jjs! a ijik vl j'iJj ISliij I'jik &l LJ'>Sn the 
desert Arabs are excessive in their disbelief and hypocrisy, and 
more likely not to know the limits of what God has sent down 
upon His Messenger 2 ordinance, decrees, laws (65:1) jVj^ V 

jJJi 'Ssi do not drive them out of their homes-nor should they 
themselves leave-unless they commit a flagrant indecency, these 
are God's decrees-whoever goes against God's decrees wrongs 
himself. 

hadid I [n.] iron (57:25) <_>»4 ^4 Afc^' Ltfjj'j 

and We sent iron, of great strength and many uses for mankind II 
[quasi-act. part., pi. hidad] sharp; *(33: 19) iV aIX J»kjSL they 
lash at you with sharp tongues; *(50:22) i- 1 ^ fj^ '^'J^ so your 
sight is sharp today; * jj.UI name of Sura 57, Medinan sura, 
so-named because of the reference in verse 25 to 'Iron' as a metal 
of great strength. 

<i/ J /c h-d-q pupil of the eye, to gaze; to encircle, to encompass; 
walled garden or cultivated land, large deep ditch for storing 
water. Of this root, hada'iq occurs three times in the Qur'an. 

JjI'Ja hada'iq [pi. of n. %k hadiqatun] garden planted with 
trees, particularly fruit-bearing ones (27:60) J> ^ Jjaj 

fkn lS 31 '-^ ^ ««<5? We sent for you water from the sky with 
which We caused gardens of delight to grow. 

j/j/C h-dh-r rough, stony, difficult-going land; caution, alertness, 
precaution; to beware, to be on one's guard; to warn, to caution. 
Of this root, six forms occur 21 times in the Qur'an: jikj yahdhar 



196 



12 times; yuhadhdhir twice; jik hadhar twice; jia. hidhr 
three times; jjjjta. hadhirun once and mahdhur once. 

jj^j yahdhar [imperf. of j> hadhira, trans.] 1 to beware of, to 
be on one's guard (63:4) '^jikli ji* 51 they are the enemy, 
beware of them 2 to fear (9:64) 'ffcsk Jjjj °j> "o^- 5 -^ 

^ f/ie hypocrites fear that a sura will be revealed 
exposing to them [the believers] what is in their [the hypocrites' ] 
hearts 3 to take precautions, to guard against something (9:122) 
Q/jikj '^5*1 j^jlj I jikj I j] I jj^j a«<i to warn f/ie/r people when 
they return to them, so that they may guard [against evil] 4 to be 
in awe of, to be mindful of, to be conscious of (2:235) aJII 'J I j^Jclj 
sjjikli '.^ii U JJkL remember that God knows what is in your 
souls, so be mindful of Him. 

'Ji^i yuhadhdhir [imperf. of v. II hadhdhara, doubly trans.] 
to warn or caution or make someone aware of (3:30) aIII '^'j^'j 
pU«Jlj Ui ji j j A^ij Go<f warns you to beware of Himself; God is 
compassionate towards His servants. 

jia. hadhar [v. n.] guarding against, avoiding, fearing (2:19) 
cSJA j^k ijcljUl '{J* j^jlili ,^1 ^Tj l ' i rt l put their fingers 

into their ears because of the thunderclaps, fearing death. 

jja hidhr [v. n.] precaution, guard *(4:71) jia. I jia. &e on 
yowr guard. 

^jjjU hadhirun [pi. of act. part. jiU>- hadhir (variant reading 
jjjik hadhirun, pi. of quasi-act. part ji^ hadhir)] one who is on 
his guard, one taking precautions, vigilant, attentive, careful, alert 
(26:56) ojj^- ^jj a«<5? we are a large army, vigilant. 

jjiaui mahdhur [pass, part.] that which is to be reckoned with, 
to be feared (17:57) Ijjik* 'js 'dlj Lslic. 'Jt the punishment of your 
Lord is to be feared. 

"/ -Vc b~ r ~b spear; to extort; war, to wage war; to become angry; 
lion's den; palace; temple, prayer niche, place of honour; studs in 
a coat of armour. Of this root, four forms occur 11 times in the 
Qur'an: haraba twice; Lsj*. harb four times; sJjk* mihrab 
four times and sjjJ^« maharib once. 



197 



LjjU haraba [v. Ill, trans.] to wage war (9:107) I jikjl 'oj&'j 
*1 jlojj <S1I Lsjl^ i>J lilLajl j ^jjiajlll ^jjj lajjijj I j^j I jl J*- 3 owe? those 
who took for themselves [built] a mosque in an attempt to cause 
harm, disbelief and disunity among the believers, and as an 
outpost for those who fought God and His Messenger. 

Lija harb [n.] war (5:64) <M IaUU ^j^JI IjU I jiaj whenever 
they kindle afire of war, God puts it out. 

Li'jaui mihrab [n.; pi. l^J^ maharlb] 1 palace, private 
quarters, sanctuary (38:21) IJ'J^J I jJJ>£ '4 fcj '^ti Ja'j ara<i 

ftas the story of the litigants come to you, when they climbed into 
the private quarters? 2 temple, sanctuary (3:39) p& ja'j iffiO AjjUs 
iJjkJ JL^ so f/ze angels called out to him, while he stood 
praying in the sanctuary. 

'-'/j/C h-r-th plantation, cultivated land; plough, to plough, to sow 
seeds, to till, tillage; earnings, to earn, to work for one's living; to 
study footprints. Of this root, two forms occur 14 times in the 
Qur'an: oJ>J*z tahruthiin once and harth 13 times. 

i^jaj tahruth [imperf. of liijk haratha, trans.] to till, to 
cultivate, to sow seeds, to plant (56:63-4) 'dj>'J^ ^ J^tjaJ 
uj^ t>j ^jc. jjj ^«ve yow considered what you till?, is it you 
who cause it to grow or are We the grower?! 

harth [n.] 1 field, planted land (2:71) jjjj Jjli V »j£ l^sl 
Igja Ali V i^LA dj'jkll (^Auu Vj J>ajVl it is a cow, not broken to 
plough the earth or water the tillage, perfect and unblemished 2 
crops, yields of agricultural land (6:138) V jW- ^ »j* 1 J&j 
iUlj '(> V] r^V,i-.j f/iey [also] say, 'These are sacrosanct 
cattle and tillage [crops]; none but those we wish may eat them'— 
so they claim! 3 reward, recompense, harvest (42:20) jjjj i> 
4$jk <J j jj s ja.VI liijk anyone who desires the harvest of the life 
to come, We shall increase his harvest for him 4 tillage, land 
prepared for sowing seeds (2:223) j>jli fSjj*. I jli '^kl djj^ J^jUij 
your women are fields for you, so go into your fields [whenever, 
however or whichever way] you like. 

d/j/C h-r-j thick tangle of reeds or trees; arbour; to oppress; 



198 



distress, critical situation; to commit an offence; prohibition, to 
impede; to refrain from doing. Of this root, jr jk haraj occurs 15 
times in the Qur' an. 

jrj* haraj I [n.] 1 crime, sin, blame, reproach, censure (48:17) 

blame/censure attaches to the blind, the lame, or the sick [for not 
fighting] 2 hardship, burden (5:6) grj*. '^Ic J*^\ aIII U Gog? 
Joes nof desire to place any hardship on you 3 difficulty, 
constriction, impediment, constraint (4:65) Ji*. 'oy*'y, V <^jjj ^ 
c^laS Cm Ikjk j ^uii ,ji I jiaj V Jo °44h j*" t*£ ^ £>wf wo, Z?y yowr 
Loni, they will not believe until they seek your arbitration in what 
has erupted between them and then will find no constraint in their 
hearts regarding your judgement II [v. n. used adjectivally (also 
read as: ?rj^. harij quasi-pass, part.)] that which is oppressed or 
constricted (6:125) u& ilLay Cuts IVj*. »j'i^> Jxkj <L^j y jjj '^j 
f.X2J\ but whomsoever He wishes to lead astray, He makes narrow 
his breast as if he was ascending into the sky. 

j/j/c h—r-d severance of the tendon of a camel's front leg; to cut, to 
perforate; to deny, to hold back, to stop; to intend, resolution; 
anger; to stay away from a group, to be twisted. Of this root, ij*. 
hard occurs once in the Qur' an. 

ija, hard [v. n.] variously interpreted as: denial (of a share of a 
crop to the poor); cutting off, reaping (a harvest); (carrying out) a 
resolution; or, anger and resentment (towards the needy or 
towards giving the needy their prescribed share of the crop) 
(68:25) 'jjjplS /jk JSe. \'Ja.'j they left early, bent on their purpose 
[depriving the poor]. 

j/j/C h-r-r heat, thirst, to become hot, to intensify; volcanic rocky 
land; free person, to liberate, to set free; the best of anything, to 
dedicate to the service of God; silk, to set right. Of this root, six 
forms occur 15 times in the Qur' an: jjj^j tahrir five times; "JJ^» 
muharrar once; jk hurr twice; j*. harr three times; jjj*. harur 
once and jjj*. harir three times. 

tahrir [v. n.] liberating, setting free *(4:92) XSj 'jiJ^ 



199 



setting a slave free [lit. liberating a neck]. 

"Jj*U muharrar [pass, part.] person dedicated, or consecrated, 
to the service of God (3:35) Ji U» ^11 cljh ^\ Lfj 'cjfj*& sljUl pill ij 
^ jSia IjJ*-* an<f remember when a woman of [the house of] 
c imran said, 'Lord, I vow in dedication what is in my womb 
entirely to you; so accept [this] from me. ' 

hurr [quasi-act. part.] a free man (as opposed to a slave) 
(2:178) jj*1Lj jaJU jaJI (jlfill ,ji J>allaa]l ^Sjt \-Z£. fair retribution 
is prescribed for you in cases of the slain: freeman for freeman, 
slave for a slave. 

"j* harr [n.] heat (9:81) l s > id ffr jb J "yj J Ij^cb V I jlf, 
an<i they said, 'Don't go to war in the heat', say, 'Hellfire is more 
intense in heat. ' 

jjj*. harur [n.] heat of the sun, intense heat (35:21) Yj J^ll Vj 
jjjkll neither the shade, nor the heat [alike]. 

jjja Zianr [n.] silk, silk material (35:33) yy. 1«js J4^UTj and 
their clothes therein will be [of] silk. 

0"/J/C h-r-s guard, to stand guard, to watch, to protect. Of this root, 
yy. haras occurs once in the Qur'an. 

Lhj* haras [coll. n.] guard, watch, garrison (72:8) 'tXZA Ul^l Ul'j 
U^iij IjjAu llujk dull UU'j^ja we probed heaven, but found that it 
had been filled with strong guards and meteors. 

oVj/c '? I_r_ '?' to P ee l to split' to rip open; intense desire, greed, 
to covet; to show concern for, to take great care of. Of this root, 
three forms occur five times in the Qur'an: J>ajk harasa three 
times; tyjj* haris once and o-=j^ J ahras once. 

(joja harasa i [v. intrans.] 1 to take extra care, to be 
meticulously on your guard (4:129) jjj ?Hull yj 1 'J 1 
JJLajk yow w/ZZ never Z?e a/?Ze to JeaZ equally between [your] 
wives, no matter how much care you take 2 [with prep. ^] to 
show concern for, to be anxious about (16:37) '^ja JSe. y=y>j °cj 
t^4 y <^j^ V aIII Jjli even //yew [Prophet] are anxious for their 



200 



guidance, God does not guide those who misguide others. 

t>ajj* haris [intens. act. part.] full of concern, solicitous, 
caring (9:128) ffilr. [j^j*. '^jc d aIIc. jjJc- ^.nVil Jjl-j "Sal a 
Messenger has come to you from among yourselves-distressing to 
him is your suffering; he is deeply concerned for you. 

o*jji °ahras [elat.] more/most covetous, more/most attached 
to (2:96) sUk Jlc ^Ull J>ajkl J^V^j a«<i o/a/Z other people you are 
sure to find them, most attached to life. 

o^/j/z h-r-d base person, corruption, to corrupt; to perish, to be in 
danger of death, to be mentally and physically degenerate; to 
urge, to spur on, to rouse, foolish person. Of this root, two forms 
occur three times in the Qur'an: d^S* harrid twice and o^j^ 
harad once. 

<_£j^ harrid [imper. of v. u^Ip- harrada, trans.] to urge, to spur 
on, to exhort (8:65) Jlatfl JSs. 'di^'J^ o±j^ ^ dfc Prophet, exhort 
the believers to fight. 

'<j*J^ harad [v. n. functioning as a quasi-act/pass, part.] one 
who is mentally and physically degenerate, emaciated (12:85) IjlU 
'jj£lt$JI 't> 'jjSj 'J llajk 'jjSj (jjk t-iluj^ jSii Uaj Ailb f/iey sa/<i, 'By 
GoJ/, yow w/ZZ continue remembering/mentioning Joseph until 
you become extremely emaciated, or become of the dead. ' 

i-i/j/C h-r-f edge, ledge, side; to deviate, to veer, to slant; to distort, 
to pervert; a profession, a craft; to take up a trade; to be hot and 
spicy. Of this root, three forms occur six times in the Qur'an: 
oj2j=4 yuharrifun four times; t-ijki mutaharrif once and <_ijk Ziar/ 
once. 

yuharrif [imperf. of v. II harrafa, trans.] to alter, to 
distort, to twist to pervert (2:75) d £u !> is j2*j=4 pis "oj^y 
'j_dtu j J jSc. f/tey /tear f/ze wonfs o/ Go<i a«<i then pervert them 
after they have understood them. 

uiJ^AA mutaharrif [act. part.] one who approaches from the 
side, one coming sideways *(8: 16) <Jl2il lijki going sideways for 
fighting, manoeuvring for battle. 



201 



JO* harf [n.] side, edge *(22: 1 1) t-ijk ^ <M iikj '<> f/ie one 
who serves God with a shaky faith, sitting on the fence [lit. he 
worships God on the very edge]. 

Jj/j/C h-r-q fire, flame, to burn, to scorch; to eradicate; to erode, to 
file away; to be bad-tempered; to long for; palm-tree pollen. Of 
this root, three forms occur nine times in the Qur'an: jjkj 
nuharriq three times; jjU "ihtaraqa 1 1 times and hariq five 
times. 

JjaJ nuharriq [imperf. of v. II jjk harraqa, trans.] 1 to torch, 
to burn (21:68) IjjLulj JjSjk Ijlll f/iey sa/d, 'fiwra /i/m and 

avenge your gods' 2 (possibly) to abrade, to wear down by 
rubbing, to scrape away, to rub away into powder (20:97) Jft 'j^'j 
Ulaj ^jII VtiinVtl ija'jajl USli. cAk a«<i Zoo/c at your god 

to which you have remained devoted— we will grind it down and 
blow its dust into the sea. 

Jjj^I 'ihtaraqa [v. VIII, intrans.] to burn away (2:266) tylli 
cajpkli jb <4 jllac-j then a fiery whirlwind struck it and it burnt 
away. 

^j^hariq [v. n./n.] the act of burning/fire (85:10) Lsli. 
ijjj^ll and for them is the chastisement of burning. 

^hlZ h-r-k movement, to move, to be agile, to be lively and 
intelligent; the joint between the head and the neck. Of this root, 
^jki tuharrik occurs once in the Qur' an. 

irfjaj tuharrik [imperf. of v. II ^jp- harraka, trans, with prep, j] 
to move, to stir (75:16) <i J*k£ L^LUl <j V [Prophet] do not 
move your tongue with it [Qur'anic verses as they are being 
revealed] in an attempt to hasten it [your memorising of the 
Revelation ]. 

f/j/C h~ r ~ m inviolable place, sanctuary, that which is under one's 
protection; womenfolk, wife; to forbid, forbidden; sinful, 
illegitimate, taboo; to deny someone something, to preclude, 
exclusion; to respect, to honour, to revere, to venerate. Of this 
root, 10 forms occur 83 times in the Qur'an: harrama 33 



202 



times; ^jk hurrima six times; jLjk haram twice; jLjk hurum five 
times; jLI'jk haram 26 times; CiU'jk hurumat twice; £jjk* mahrum 
twice; jj^/Jk* mahrumun twice; jL'jkii muharram four times and 
muharramatun once. 

fjk harrama [v. II, trans.] 1 to make unlawful, to declare as 
sinful (2:275) Ujll ^ jkj £p Aill Jkij Go<f has allowed trade and 
forbidden usury 2 to make or declare sacred, inviolable (27:91) U3l 
l^o'ji. ^ill sjJjJI Lij jjc.1 'J c/jJ / Ziave orc/y commanded to 
serve the Lord of this town, which He has made inviolable 3 [with 
prep, fjc] to deny something to someone (5:72) tiSa 4iSL 'A^Q ty 
aj^JI Ajlc. Aill ^ jk jj anyone associates others with God, God will 
deny/forbid the Garden to him 4 [with prep. to make 

something unacceptable or abhorrent (28:12) '^a\'JA aISc. l£«jkj 
and We had previously made wet-nurses unacceptable to him. 

j»jk hurrima [pass, v.] to be forbidden, made unlawful or 
declared sinful (5:3) J^SjJc Cm'jk forbidden to you are 

un-slaughtered dead animals. 

* fjjailil name of Sura 66, Medinan sura, so-named because of 
the reference in verse 1 to 'Prohibitions' imposed by the Prophet 
upon himself. 

j»jk haram [n.] sanctuary, sacred territory (29:67) Ukk li I 'Jji JJj 
j^Tjk J> ^Ull t-iJaajjj UTjk can f/i<?y nof s<?<? f/zaf We have 
granted [them] a secure sanctuary when all around them people 
are snatched away? 

?'J± hurum I [pi. of quasi-pass. part. ^Ijk haram] forbidden 
(9:36) tiiljlalnll jjli. ^'jj s-itjS ^ ^'Jb^ ^ *^ ^p- jjs sjc. (jj 
jL'jk aj<j'J LpO^'j indeed, the number of months with God is 
twelve months-[ordained] in the Book of God on the Day He 
created the heavens and earth— of them four are forbidden/sacred 
II [pi. of quasi-act. part. fj*. hirm] [jur.] sanctified by being in the 
state of performing the pilgrimage, marked by donning the 
prescribed attire (5:95) jijk '^Ij jjU I jJj£ V I j£J'c 'jjill l*3U you who 
believe, do not kill game while you are in the state of pilgrimage 
sanctity. 

fljk haram [quasi-pass, part.] 1 sanctified, sacred, inviolable 



203 



(5:97) HUS f l>JI illl J»k Go d has made the Ka'ba 

the Sacred House-a rallying point for humankind 2 forbidden 
(sacred) (5:2) ^IjaJ 'JpSlI Vj jjliuS I jkj V I 'jjill I^IU vow who 
believe, do not violate the sanctity of God's rites, or the sacred 
month 3 [jur.] unlawful, sinful (as opposed to J^- halal) (10:59) 
Aia ffiai jjjj '(> J£l Jjjl U j>3' j Ja say, 'Have you 
considered what provision God has sent down for you, of which 
you have made some unlawful and some lawful' 4 prevented, 
banned (21:95) 'oy^Ji V '^i UUS&I Jj'jS ,Je. a ban [is 

imposed] upon townships We have destroyed: they shall return 
(or, that they can not escape returning or, they will not turn away 
from their misdeeds). 

cjU^k hurumat [pi. of n. A^jk hurmatun] 1 either inviolable 
ordinances or all of God's commands, sacred ordinances of God 
(22:30) ajj '^jc AJ jji. j$a 4JII pUjk jJa*j illi f/iaf w 50, and 
whosoever honours the sacred ordinances of God, it will be good 
for him with his Lord 2 forbidden acts generally, personal 
sanctuaries, those people or things under a person's protection 
(2:194) Ijitli ^ 

J^Sjlc. ts'jSil U J1«j Alt a sacred month is for a sacred month: [ and 
violation of] sacred things [is subject to] fair retribution, so 
whosoever commits aggression against you, commit aggression 
against him in the same way as he committed aggression against 
you. 

"?Jja*Amahrum [pass, part.; pi. mahrumiin] 1 one who 

is deprived, disadvantaged (said to mean those who cannot ask 
for alms, either because of personal dignity or because they 
cannot speak, such as animals and birds) (70:25) ? JJ^Aj JjUJl/or 
the beggar and the deprived 2 one who is denied (something); 
desolate, destitute (68:26-7) 'qJaJJsU J>j Jj 'oj^-^ 1 ^ 
but when they saw it [ the garden ], they said, 'We must have lost 
our way!, no-we [have been made[ destitute!' 

"*J±» muharram [pass, part.; fem. aJj^L muharramatun] 1 
sanctified, sacred (14:37) isp. p j'j jjc. J'jj ^ji '(> tiuSlJ Luj 
(.jaUl i^ljjj our Lord, I have settled some of my offspring in an 
uncultivated valley, close to Your Sacred House 2 forbidden, 



204 



denied to (5:26) o^'j^ <J uj<h£ *^ j**?J <*j>^ ^Ji /fe 
said, 7f is forbidden to them for forty years, [they will] wander in 
the land being lost. ' 

j-j/j/Z h-r-w/y nest, den, inviolable place; to take great care, to be 
intent; to be worthy; to be hot. Of this root, \ taharraw occurs 
once in the Qur'an. 

taharra [v. V, trans.] to pursue meticulously, to seek out 
something with intent, to take great care in achieving something 
to the full (72:14) li<5j Ijj^j iiilSjla a£J 'jjkuASlI liaj 'jj^LiJI U« Ulj 
and among us there are the ones who surrendered, and the ones 
who deviate: those who surrendered have sought out guidance. 

"AVc h-z-b rocky hill; hardship, to afflict; group, faction, to divide, 
to partition, to gang up. Of this root, three forms occur in 20 
places in the Qur'an: Li'ja. hizb eight times; u£> hizbayn once 
and Lsl'jk.! J ahzab 11 times. 

L/> /z/zZ? [n. ; dual Ltf!> hizbayn; pi. Lsl 'jpi a ahzab] 1 group, 
party (23:53) 'ujp- Uj t_s°ja. JS I'jj'j 'fVj*' Ij^Ww f/iey 
sp/if f/ie/r affair into sects, each faction rejoicing in what they 
have 2 supporters, faction, partisans (58:22) Ls°>. q\ VI Li'ja. '<M J 
'jjkiiiJI Ji, <S1I f/iese are on Go<f's sz'cfe, and God's side are the 
successful. 

Ij'jJi °ahzab [pi. of n. lj> /i/zZ?] 1 parties, allies, particularly 
those ganging up against the cause of God and His messengers 
(38:13) LJjkSn l£A J, Lil^laij i jl J>'jaj j Thamud, the people 
of Lot and the forest-dwellers, each of these formed opposition 
[against their messenger] 2 (with the definite article) the Allies, 
the Confederates, the Joint Forces, Quraysh and other tribes who 
in the year 5 A.H./627 A.D. attacked the Prophet in Medina in 
what became known as the 'Battle of the Ditch' (j^l s jjc) and 
also 'the battle of the Joint Forces' ( lJ>S/I ijjt) (33:22) J'j tij 

believers saw the joint forces, they said, 'This is what God and 
His Messenger promised us: the promise of God and His 
Messenger is true'; * LJjkS/l name of Sura 33, Medinan sura, so- 



205 



named because of the reference in verses 9-27 to the story of the 
'Joint Forces'' that besieged Medina. 

&/j/C h-z-n rocks, boulders, rocky hard-going terrain; to cause 
hardship, to distress; to afflict; to become sad, to grieve, sadness; 
responsibility. Of this root, four forms occur 42 times in the 
Qur'an: 'j'j^j tahzan 23 times; 'cjj=h yahzun nine times; Jj'jk huzn 
twice and j'jk hazan three times. 

£jaj tahzan [imperf. of v. Cjj*- hazina, intrans.] to become sad, 
to grieve, to worry (9:40) 'j'j^ V Jj£ j) jUll ^ Ua jj (jjiil ^12 

\m <SJI 'Jt the second of two when the two of them were in the cave, 
when he [Muhammad] said to his companion ["abu Bakr], 'Don't 
worry, God is with us. ' 

'ojaJ yahzun [imperf. of v. 'j'jk hazana, trans.] to sadden, to 
cause someone to grieve, to cause unrest (58:10) j> ts'J*^ ^"j 
I jiali 'jjjjll 'o'j*^ jUai^l furtive conversation is the work of Satan, 
designed to cause grief to the believers. 

"dj^huzn [v. n.; n.] sadness, grief, sorrow (12:84) 't> Jl&c. '•'■Kflj 
j'jkJI a«<i to eyes wewf Wind (or, became flooded with tears) out 
of grief. 

Oja /zazaw [v. n./n. used adverbially] sadness; grieving (9:92) 
'jjajjj U. I jiaj vl Ujk ^U'J 't> 'l)^ J4^6.lj f/iey turned away with 
their eyes overflowing with tears, grieving that they had no 
resources to pay [for a mount]. 

S 1 /o»/c h-s-b good lineage, great ancestry; honour and glory; 
sufficiency, to suffice; to submit to; to reckon, to calculate, to 
take to task; to consider, to assume, to presume; to investigate. Of 
this root, nine forms occur 109 times in the Qur'an: Lu»k hasiba 
44 times; Liu.ll hasaba twice; yuhasabu once; f.ynlV) 

yahtasibu three times; Lu»k 11 times; hasibin twice; 

Lilla. toaZ? 39 times; Luuk /iasf& four times and "jl^A husban three 
times. 

tj*^ hasiba a [v. trans.] 1 to fancy, to assume, to think, to 
presume (23:55-6) pl'JiiJI '^1 jU^j jjij JU <j J^lu Ui 



206 



do they think by giving them wealth and sons, We hasten to give 
them good things? 2 [doubly trans.] to take something to be, to 
mistake for, to deem to be (27:44) l^SUa 'jc. cjLiSj ikl aJ'j lite 
w/ie« s/z<? saw /f, she took it to be a deep pool of water, and bared 
her legs. 

L^U hasaba [v. Ill, trans.; pass. LiJ^j yuhasabu] 1 to call to 
account (2:284) 4j '^SjU^ » j*=^ j> ^ U I j'jjj 'J j whether you 
reveal what you have in your heart or conceal it, God will call 
you to account for it 2 to take to task (65:8) !> ^ <ij I> Ijfe 
Gi. IaLujcj IaiAu tjG^ Itlnuilai aJIujj I^jj many a town that 
insolently opposed the command of its Lord and His messengers- 
We have taken it to task and punished them severely. 

iu nlVj yahtasib [imperf. of v. VIII LL&J :, ihtasaba, trans.] to 
expect, to foresee, to surmise, to reckon with (39:47) j> ^ lij 
'jjluSaj I jjjSj 'jJ U« a«<i f/iere w/Z/ appear to them from God what 
they never reckoned with; *(65:3) Luu V dip. '<> from a most 
unexpected source. 

uua hash [v. n. used in construct (AiHiaj) as a quasi-act. part.] 
sufficient, one who/which suffices (8:64) cy>'j ^ ^ 
jjj^jUl "j> &£l Prophet, God is all sufficient for you, and for the 
believers who follow you; *(3:173) <&l U-o. [interjection] we 
our case before God alone, we appeal to God [lit. God is 
sufficient for us]. 

lj^Ia hdsib [act. part.] one who reckons, one who works out an 
account (21:47) Uj I^j lid Jjji J> Jjk JliLa y'j even if 
it be the weight of a mustard seed, We will bring it out-and We 
are reckoners enough. 

ljL-* hisab [v. n.; n.] 1 reckoning, accounting, calculation, 
judgement (14:41) LiluJ J>j£ 'fji '<jnA&£j ^illjlj Ji 'jjc.1 USJ owr 
Lonf, forgive me, and my parents, and the believers on the Day 
when the Reckoning is held 2 reward, retribution (23:117) 
&j juc Ajllua. Uuli <j 'jUjj V jili l^JI aJII '^a whoever prays to 
another deity alongside God-a deity for whose existence he has 
no evidence— his retribution will be with his Lord 3 
[adjectivally/adverbially] sufficient, fitting, plenty/in accordance 



with (78:35-6) ISLaa. iLLc. '<> il'jk a reward from your Lord, a 
fitting gift (or, in accordance with their deeds); *(3:27) L-AIua. 
with no limit, generously [lit. without counting]; *(78:27) 'ojKw ^ 
Uiua. f/iey <fo nof believe in the Day of Judgment [lit. they do not 
fear any reckoning]. 

Luuia hasib [intens. act. part.] a meticulous reckoner (17:14) IjSI 
llu^ liLSc 'fjA\ 'A^sm ^ read your record, today your own soul 
suffices as a meticulous reckoner of your deeds. 

husban I [v. n.] reckoning, calculating (6:96) cPI 
jj jail 'jjjsj aii UIjIA j^illj ^<uill j USL. /fe macfe f/ze night for 
resting; and the sun and the moon for reckoning (or, to a precise 
calculation), that is the design of the Almighty, the All-Knowing 
II [n.] projectile, thunderbolt, force of destruction (18:40) J^jjj 
UTj 1'jja.ia j^ua l^jlc. anii senifs' o« a measured 

thunderbolt from the sky, so that it becomes slippery [barren] 
earth. 

j/oVc h-s-d to peel off, to scrape off; to envy, to grudge. Of this 
root, three forms occur five times in the Qur'an: hasada three 
times; 51«a. hasad once and /las/if once. 

iu^ hasada u [v. trans.] to envy (4:54) Jidi U ^ '^Ull 'jjiLij j»t 
<L^a '(> Jo they envy [other] people for the bounty God has 
granted them? 

hasad [v. n.] the act of envying (2:109) ijtSH JaI 'q& "j^S. 
j^uij °<> I'iuk I jUS ,iu '(> ^jJjj °ji many o/ f/ie People of 
the Book wish they could revert you to disbelief after you have 
believed, out of their own envy. 

a^U. hasid [act. part.] one who envies, one who harms with 
envy (113:5) lij au.11 '^j and from the evil of the envier 
when he envies. 

j/oVc h-s-r to be without headgear, to be without clothes; to peel 
off; to recede, to abate, to regress, to withdraw; to become tired; 
to be penniless; to have great sorrow, to regret, to long for. Of this 
root, five forms occur 12 times in the Qur'an: qjj< ^ < «i 



208 



o"/o"/c 



yastahsirun once; s'jluk hasratun seven times; CjI'j^ hasarat 
twice; Ziasfr once and mahsur once. 

j j "'■>"' . nj yastahsir [imperf . of v. X "istahsara, intrans.] to 

tire, to abate, to collapse with fatigue, to become weary (21:19) 
'jjj,..'-.tinj Yj <i&£- 'jc- jjjjjSjl-j V aiic awj those that are with 
Him are never too proud to worship Him, nor do they grow 
weary. 

SjLa hasratun [n.; pi. clj^. hasarat] deep sorrow, anguish 
(3:156) (ji s'jwa. iill zZzaf Got/ may make that an 
anguish in their hearts *(39:56) tj'Ju^U woe is me!, woe to me!, O 
grief! 

"jiuA haslr [quasi-act/pass, part.] weary, defeated (67:3-4) Lj&j 
"jj^ ja'j liuU. 'j^JI yowr s/g/if w/ZZ come back to you, weak 
and defeated. 

jjIAji mahsur [pass, part.] stripped, bare, destitute, regretful 
(17:29) 11 ikiia h'.nMI l^Jalai V j ^jVr- <1 jJil t*Ti V j 

a«<f <fo «of Zef yoMr hand be chained to your neck, nor outspread 
it in complete spreading, lest you end up blamed and 
overwhelmed with regret. 

o*lo*IZ b—s-s f amt noise, hissing sound, whispering sound, 
concealed gentle sound; to feel, to perceive through the senses, to 
find out, to probe, to spy; to kill, to rout, to strike hard; 
movement; to remove the dust. Of this root, four forms occur five 
times in the Qur'an: oJ^- 1 tahussun once; [y^S 'ahassa three 
times; I J> I tahassasu once and basis once. 

b-^J tahuss [imperf. of v. [y^. hassa, trans.] to slay, to 
eradicate, to destroy, to rout (3:152) '(4jj*«aj '4 ^ '^'^> jSTj 
Ajib and indeed God fulfilled His promise to you when you were 
routing them by His permission. 

^ahassa [v. IV, trans.] 1 to find, to become conscious of, 
to become aware of (3:52) ^JlaS °<y* Jli jkll J4^> ^ 
■Ull w/ie« /gsMs became aware of their disbelief, he said, 'Who will 
be my helpers in God's cause?' 2 to see, to perceive (19:98) 
I jkj J4J ^ali °j ±J 'j^a °4^° uj 5 i> °(4^ Zzow many 



209 



generations We have destroyed before them!, do you perceive a 
single one of them [now], or hear from them as much as a 
whisper? 

'qZjaI tahassasa [v. V, trans, with prep. oA to probe, to gather 
intelligence about, to collect information discreetly about (12:87) 
^ r JJ I> ' Ajilj >— '(> I j i in akia I jjajI ^jjU my sows, go and 
seek news of Joseph and his brother, and do not despair of God's 
mercy. 

hosts [v. n.; n.] sound, hissing sound, churning sound, 
murmur (21:102) 'jjilU. '^ii c^iul U ^ °Jbj l^lou^ 'oj*- -^ V they 
will not hear a murmur from it-and they will stay forever in 
everything their souls desire. 

f/oVc h- s ~ m cauterisation, burning, to cauterise; to cut, to finish, to 
terminate; to be decisive; unlucky, misfortune, evil omen; 
successive. Of this root, \ jlA husum occurs once in the Qur' an. 

husum [pi. of act. part. jLAa. hasim] variously interpreted 
as: successive, consecutive, constant, unabated, evil-bringing, 
unlucky, destructive (69:7) 

mustered it [the soaring wind[ against them for seven nights and 
eight consecutive days. 

6/o"/C h-s-n beauty, to be or become beautiful; to improve, to 
adorn; goodness, charity; to favour, to act properly; to deem 
good, to approve, to appreciate. Of this root, 14 forms occur 195 
times in the Qur' an: hasuna three times; i>»! 'ahsana 21 
times; "jlA hasuna 13 times; hasuna 19 times; <w hasanatun 
28 times; CjLLk hasanat three times; (j&A /iw.ma 17 times; 
husnayayn once; o 1 --?- A wan twice; J>»! 'ahsan 36 times; Jjllkj 
"ihsan 12 times; J>o-° muhsin three times; a/i,"iV« muhsinun 35 
times and cAiA^ muhsinat once. 

(>» hasuna u [v. intrans, used interjectionally] to be or 
become good, fine, beautiful; used in the sense of 'How 
beautiful!', 'How fine!', 'How desirable!', 'How befitting!' 
(4:69) tjApLallj (jyjjJI t>» \i$ r - *^ f**^ ui^ f ^^j^ Jjh^j^j ^ ^5=4 °u-°j 
liij 'iMj 'jlkj '(^jaJllallj fl'ijjillj w/ioever o^eys Got/ ant/ f/ie 



210 



Messenger will be among those God has blessed: the messengers, 
the truthful, the martyrs and the righteous-what excellent 
companions these are! 

i>Ai °ahsan [v. IV, trans.] 1 to do perfectly, to perfect (32:7) 
Aik JS 't>ukl ^ill who gave everything its perfect form 2 to 
make agreeable, to make beautiful (40:64) °£j'J>-*> 't>ili He 
shaped you, and made beautiful your form 3 to do good (17:7) y 
IgJa ^Ui '(jjj j^iiV '^iLki 'flLkl /fyow <io gooJ, yow do good for your 
own souls, and if you do evil it is to yourselves; *(12:23) '<y^ 
'^\'JL he made good my residence [ under his roof] 4 [with prep. 
—j and an elliptical object] to do well by, to treat well (12:100) 
J±&\ '{ja j>£j ilkj jkUl 't> ij ^ 't>^.i a«<i //e /ias gracious 

to me, releasing me from prison and bringing you here from the 
desert. 

2>A husn [v. n./ n.] 1 beauty, charm (33:52) 'iu ]> illasl ^11 V 
"^lA ^jax-i jJj frljjJ i> b*J tJ- 5 ? b' ^ j women are not permitted [in 
marriage] to you [Prophet] thereafter, nor [is it permitted] for 
you to take [other] wives in exchange for them [the ones you 
already have], even if their beauty attracts you 2 goodness 
(27: 1 1) f jlu j*j l£A J± JJJi VI except for those who do wrong, 
and then substitute good for [lit. after] evil 3 kindness, to be kind; 
to treat someone well, with good treatment (29:8) 'jlluVI ULa'Jj 
liA Aj'^l'jj We /iav<? commanded people to treat their parents well. 

"j>^ /lasaw [quasi-act. part.] 1 good (18:2) 'jjill 'jji«>il 
Uuk I'jJ "4 s "J Cjlkllall 'jjLiu an<i [giving] glad news to the 
believers who do good deeds that for them is a good reward 2 
fair, gracious (20:86) bl«a. Ijcj J^jj J^'^u jJ Jli /ie sa/<f, 'My 
people, has your Lord not made you a fair promise? 3 proper, 
goodly (3:37) Uluk tta t$£jtj anc? brought her up with a goodly 
upbringing. 

4lua hasanatun I [n.; pi cjlLk hasanat] 1 a good deed, an act 
of piety, a good work (41:34) HLJ Vj <iukJI ^jjlw Vj fftey are not 
equal— a good deed and an evil one 2 a benefit, a boon, a piece of 
good fortune (9:50) °J*>i <w ?\ !; °J\ if good fortune comes to 
you, it grieves them 3 a good reward (16:30) U&l i^. ^ I ji^i 'jjill 



211 



Ajluk/or those who do good there is a reward in this present world 
II [quasi-act. part.] good (33:21) ^ I'jJ aJSI J jLj J^i ja yow 
/jave /ia<f in f/ie Messenger of God a good model. 

Lr ^A husna I [elat. fern.; dual ujolA husnayayn; masc. J>kl 
3 a/wan] better/best (7:180) ije/ii ^AJI il^ifl aITj to Go J 
belong the names most beautiful; call upon Him by them II [n.: 
<^w*J °al-husna\ 1 the best [of rewards], interpreted as Paradise 
(10:26) siUjj ^sjlAi Ijiukt jjill/or f/ie good-doers is the reward 
most fair and more besides; *(9:52) j ni' . '-J ^'ia.] one o/ f/ie fwo 
outcomes, (said to mean martyrdom and victory) 2 all that is 
good, all that is being ordained by God, the true faith (92:6) ja^j 
(jiAlj a«<i believes in the truth of what God has ordained. 

hisan [pi. of quasi-act. parts, fern. hasanatun and 
tblua. basnet"] beautiful, fine (55:76) Uj&c-j hu*j cs^ lh^" 
jllaa. f/zey w?7/ £>e reclining on green cushions and fine carpets. 

£jUA) "ihsan [v. n./ n.] 1 good work, doing good deeds (55:60) 
'jllkVI V] jllkVI ilja. s7za/Z f&e reward of goodness be 
[anything] but goodness?! 2 uprightness, correctness, piety, 
goodness, doing good (9:100) J^ti\'j 'c^j^A j> 'oJji\ 'jjiiUlj 
jllkb jiiil 'jjillj a«</ the first vanguards of the emigrants (q.v.) 
and ?/ie Helpers (q.v.) a«<i f/iose w/io followed them in 
goodness/in doing good. 

Cy*** muhsin [act. part.; pi. muhsinun; pi. fern. cj liuaJa 

muhsinat] one who does good, who is good, a charitable person, a 
righteous person (33:29) 1^=^ Ijkl s j<i<i pUuilll iel <M s jli fto Gog? 
has prepared for those of you who do good a great reward. 

j/l>VC h-sh-r insects; yield of the land; to gather together, to 
assemble, to rally, to round up (of animals); to hone, to sharpen 
up; to ruin. Of this root, five forms occur 43 times in the Qur'an: 
'jik hashara 19 times; JtL hushira 18 times; hashr twice; 
jjjt^H hashirin three times and t'jjiZ*^ mahshuratun once. 

A hashara u [v. trans.; pass, j^. hushira] 1 to assemble, call 
up for a gathering (79:23) JtVl J^j Ul <Jtfa ^iUi 50, he 
gathered [his people], proclaiming, I am your supreme lord 2 to 



212 



A (jib. 



array, to muster, to bring together (6:111) 4££Uil J^jlj Ufjj Uil 'jlj 
iill e li y N/J l ji^^jl I jjlS Ui !>lia JS ^jfr. ^'j^l J4-^j £vera 

We sent the angels down to them, and the dead spoke to them, 
and We gathered all things right before them, they still would not 
believe, unless God so willed 3 to marshal, to bring for the final 
Judgement (17:97) t<L=j UiSij XLL '^a jVj ^ fjj '^'j^Sj and 
We marshal them, on the Day of Resurrection, lying on their 
faces, blind, dumb and deaf. 

hashr [v. n./ n.] 1 assembly, gathering, raising from the 
dead (50:44) lik illj lil'j^ ' ( 4i fJi ° n the Day 

when the earth is split asunder from about them, [emerging] in 
haste-that is a gathering easy for Us to muster, * _>&J name of 
Sura 59, Medinan sura, so-named because of the reference in 
verse 2 to the 'Gathering of Forces' 2 migration, evacuation, 
exile (59:2) j^JI Jjj I> <-Aj$JI la\ I> I 'o^ ij'^ j* it 
was He who drove out those among the People of the Book who 
disbelieved from their homes at the first exile [also interpreted as: 
the first gathering of forces]. 

lhj^* hashirin [pi. of act. part. _>iU hashir] ones who call for 
assembly, summoners (7:111) "uu^ J^'J'j *+'J ' jte 

they said, 'Delay him and his brother for a while and send, into 
the cities, summoners. ' 

Sj>uika mahshuratun [pass. part, fem.] gathered together, 
assembled (38:19) U'J <S J* Jikllj and the birds, gathered 

together; each to him reverting. 

& hasha li 'llah (see tj>/j/z h-w-sh). 

v/o^/c h-s-b pebbles, to pelt with pebbles; gravel-carrying wind, 
hail- showering clouds; measles; fuel, to fuel, to torment. 
°al-Suyuti reports that ■ , u ^ hasab is said to mean fuel in the 
language of the 'Zanf . Of this root, two forms occur five times in 
the Qur'an: LLak hasab once and L-u^La. hasib four times. 

L;i«aA hasab [n.] fuel (21:98) " ^ uj j i> p^i 

yow [disbelievers] and what you worship instead of God will be 



213 



fuel for Hell. 

LuA*. hasib [act. part.] stone-showering stormy wind (17:68) 
ll^La. '^Sc J^'Ji 'J 'jail Lulk Ouij 'J J^ialil <io yow secure that 
He will not cause a side of the shore to swallow you up, or, He 
will not send upon you a stone-pelting storm? 

<y/zl '<-Wc stones, brisk walking; to (come to) settle, to fit in 

properly; to become manifest, (of the truth) to become clear (as in 
'the truth will out'). Of this root, u *\ hashasa occurs once in 
the Qur'an. 

onVirtt hashasa [v. intrans.] to become manifest, to come out 
(12:51) (Jp>JI jjrtVirtt 'jVI slj^l pill f/ie governor's wife said, 
'Now the truth has come out. ' 

*/o*/z h-s-d to reap, to harvest, yield; to twist a rope tightly, to do 
something with exactitude; to become angry. Of this root, three 
forms occur six times in the Qur'an: jlak hasada once; iliok 
hasad once and % hasid four times. 

.Lea. hasada u [v. trans.] to reap, to harvest (12:47) '^jlok Li 
'jjlSb ILIS VI ,ji s jjia whatever [grain] you reap leave in its 
ears apart from the little you eat. 

"Sua*, hasad [v. n.] the act of reaping, harvesting (6:141) I> I jlS 
spU^. I jjli'j lil sj«j so eat of their fruit, when they bear 

fruit, but pay its dues [the Poor's share] on the day of harvesting 
it. 

'jj^aa. hasid [quasi-pass, part./n.] 1 harvest (50:9) fUUl J> Ufjjlj 
.U 1 M s-^j h 1 -^- ^ ^ We send down /rom f/ie s£y 

blessed water, and with it grow gardens and grain of harvested 
crops 2 cut down, mown down, destroyed, levelled (11:100) !> ^ 
\d rtt j jLla l^ia ^Llc. Aloij (jjill fUil We relate to you [Muhammad] 
such accounts of earlier towns: some of them are still standing; 
some have been mown down. 

j/cWc b- s ~ r to encircle, to blockade, to forbid, to constrict, to 
confine; timid person, abstemious person (particularly concerning 



214 



women), celibate person; miserly person; reed mat. Of this root, 
four forms occur six times: hasira twice; j*-akt 'uhsira twice; 
jjlak once and /ia«r once. 

j^a* hasara I [(imperf. yahsur) v. trans.] to besiege, 

confine, restrict (9:5) i-aj* J£ J4J I j&Sj j>i jj^'j <■* j^-j take them, 
besiege them and ambush them at every post II [(imperf. 'j-^h 
yahsar) v. intrans.] to become constricted, to shrink from, to 
abhor (4:90) °^J> 1 'J °£ °J J»*jj^-a c/^ok J£ jil^. jl or 
[those] who come to you because their hearts shrink from fighting 
against you or against their own people. 

°uhsira [pass, of v. IV] 1 to be prevented, confined, 
besieged, to be made destitute (2:196) bp ^ s'^JJtj «JI IjfJ j 

perform the pilgrimages, major and 
minor, for the sake of God. If you are prevented [from doing so], 
then [send[ whatever offering for sacrifice that is affordable to 
you 2 to be incapacitated; to be straitened; to be destitute (also to 
be devoted to a certain task) (2:273) V Jjj^ <^ lj!>aaJ 
oiajVl 'u j'jK'° - "j [give] to those needy who are wholly 

occupied (or, who are straitened, or, who are incapacitated) in 
God's way and cannot travel [lit. hit the road] in the land [for 
earning a living]. 

jjla* hasur [intens. act. part.] celibate, ascetic, abstemious, 
chaste (3:39) "t> tuij IjjLakj I'ijiuj j'«K.i la'Vi Ja ^J-Q.i ^Sj^jj aJII y 
' jjaJllal l Go<f g/ves vow f/ie goo<f tidings of John, who will confirm 
a word of God, a chief, and chaste, a prophet, one of the 
righteous. 

ji*a* haslr [n.] prison, confinement (17:8) 'jjja^ll Ul^j 
We have made Hell a prison for those who deny God. 

d/o^/c h-?-l residue, yield, crop; result, to come out, reject, waste; 
to collect. Of this root, JLok hussila occurs once in the Qur'an. 

jlA hussila [pass, of v. II] to be collected, to be made 
manifest (100:10) jjo-all U JLokj when what is in the bosoms 
(or, the minds) is brought out (or, gathered/scrutinized). 



215 



O/cWc h-s-n fortress, palace, to be inaccessible, to be immune; to 
fortify, armament, lock; to be chaste, a married person; stallion, 
horse. Of this root, seven forms occur 18 times in the Qur'an: 
<>^>ki J ahsana four times; £><*»J °uhsinna once; jii./iV* muhsinln 
twice; CjI \, ^\ « muhsanat eight times; i>^kj tahassun once; 
husun once and muhassanatun once. 

<>uakS "ahsana [v. IV, trans.] 1 to protect, to shield (21:80) 
'(> akj] '^£1 (_>« jil AldLa sUU^ j ara<i We taught him the making 
of garments [of mail] to fortify you against your violence; 
*(66:12) l^kja ("ii'i akl s/ie guarded her chastity 2 to keep in store, 
to store up (12:48) ^JS V] *j$J J^jS U> 'o^b Stal ^ ^4 I> ^4 ^ 
'uj'v a/fer f/iaf w//Z come seven years o/ hardship which will 
consume all but a little of what you stored up [for them]. 

"CyoaA "uhsinna [pass. v. IV] [jur.] (of a woman) to be protected 
by marriage (4:25) pi V. >iVJ Jk. X* <. alaj j^ii J^lL 'jjjl 'jli *(>^>kf lili 
ljIjjJI '<> Z?wf w/ien f/iey enfer wedlock, if they [slave girls] commit 
indecency, they shall be liable to half the punishment prescribed 
for free women. 

bj&azU muhsinln [pi. of act. part, "a^^ muhsin] [jur.] ones 
who take women in lawful wedlock (4:24) °jl U '^£1 

'jjaill^ jjc. ' jji, akJa J^ll>«u I lawful for you is that which is 
beyond those mentioned, [so long as] you seek [them] with 
[dowries from] your property, taking them in wedlock, not in 
fornication. 

Ci> linVn muhsanat [pi. of pass. part. fem. Vr . ^V* muhsanatun] 
[jur.] chaste woman, woman who is protected (or should be 
protected against unchastity) by being married, married woman; 

(24:4) o ^la ^jjjUaj at j ^ili pi ^ 4j<jjIj IjjU ^ai ^aJ C )1 j ■ ~ " all tjj-a^JJ tj^lj 

1*4 s'i^S ^ IjLSj give those who accuse chaste women of adultery, 
and then fail to provide four witnesses, eighty lashes, and reject 
their testimony ever after. 

"j^uaaj tahassun [v. n.] the state of being chaste, chastity (24:33) 
Ulakj 'jjj y f Uull (^c. J^IjoI I jis jSj V j do not force your slave girls 
into prostitution, if they themselves desire being chaste. 

ijLak husun [pi. of n. <>aa. /iz'sn] fortresses, fortifications 



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(59:2) 't> '^jJ^eL J4^^ Ij^=»j flw<5? ^ey thought their 
fortifications would protect them against God. 

j f i nVn muhassanatun [pass. part, fem.] (59:14) VI ^jlsj V 
Vi' . ^V« c5 jS ,ji f/iey w/Z/ not fight against you together except from 
within fortified townships. 

ig/o^/c b~?-y pebbles, to count; to comprehend; to keep, to stick 
with; mind, discerning faculty; ability to express oneself clearly. 
Of this root, two forms occur 11 times in the Qur'an: (1) 
J ahsa 10 times and <^^J (2) 3 ahsa once. 

Lr -aU (1) "ahsd [v. IV, trans.] 1 to keep a record of, to record 
(36:12) ,ji »bjlakl fJ^Js JSj awe? everything We keep an 

account of in a clear Record 2 to reckon, to calculate, to 
enumerate (14:34) Ia jl^kj V Ail) A^g I jiu y'j //vow cownf Gcxi's 
blessings you will never [be able to[ enumerate them 3 to 
comprehend (19:93-4) fi-tej '^U^kl jtf //e /ms comprehended 
them and counted them exactly 4 to bear; keep count of (73:20) oj 

j^Sj a tjJ^ll (j^ 1 AijUaj Aiiijj 4 si .ojj cs"^ ^ 

jli'jall 't> j-yj U I jijala ffife. LAja » jlakj y y JJe. jl^jllj Jjlil [Prophet] 
your Lord knows that you [sometimes] stay up [praying] nearly 
two thirds of the night, and [sometimes] half the night, and 
[sometimes] a third of the night-as do a party of those with you- 
it is God who determines the [division of[ night and day-He 
knows that you will not bear it [staying up all night[ (or, 
maintains all of it [the hours of the night]) and He has relented 
towards you, so recite as much of the Qur'an as is feasible. 

Lf ^\ (2) :, ahsa [elat.] more/most capable of calculating or 
reckoning or working out (18:12) Ui J>^a u£>^ If <^ JJbliij p 
I'ii I JiA then We woke them that We may know which of the two 
parties was better able to calculate the period they had remained 
[in the cave]. 

j/u^/c h-d-r urban areas, a community settled around a water 
source; to be present, to be at home, adjacency to water; to bring, 
to fetch; to lie down dying, hardship, strife. Of this root, nine 
forms occur 25 times in the Qur'an: hadara seven times; 



217 



'jlikl "ahdara twice; 3 uhdira once; /iaJ/r once; 
hadiri once; s'uill hddiratun twice; muhdar once; qJJ^U 

muhdarun nine times and j. ^'V* muhtadar once. 

>^ hadara u [v. trans.] 1 to attend, to witness, to be present 
at (4:8) <i« J»a jSjjla '{j£L*A' 3 ^tnllj ^jall jiji lijj an<i // 

[other] kinsmen, orphans or the poor attend the distribution, 
make provision for them out of it [the estate] 2 to approach, to 
come to (2:133) ^'j-ll ij il'ijpS ^ JJ were you there to 

hear witness when death came to Jacob? 

'j^aJi ^ahdara [v. IV, trans.] 1 to bring, to cause to be present 
(19:68) Jja. '^4Q,.;-iVil '(jikll^rj '^j^kjl 50 fry yowr 

Lonf We w/Z/ gather them together with the devils, and set them 
around Hell kneeling 2 to put forward, to bring about, to submit 
(81:12-13) ch'j^J d J^ij cirj lilj anc? w/zew Paradise is 
brought near; then every soul will know what it has brought 
about. 

"uhdira [pass, of doubly trans v. IV] to be brought 
*(4:128) ^IS Cjjtsiaklj human souls are ever prone to 

stinginess [lit. stinginess is brought close to souls]. 

j-al* hadir [act. part.; pi. jj'j^ta. hadirun; fem. s'j^li. 
hddiratun] 1 present, there close at hand (18:49) I U IjVjj 
I'j^U. and they will find what they did, there [in front of them] 2 
ready, current, in hand (2:283) '{SS# l^j j'jjjj s'j^U. s'Jki ^jSj 'J V) 
U jiiSj VI j^lA 'fSjlc Z?wf // the merchandise is there and you 
hand it over, there is no blame on you if you do not write it down 
3 residing at, a resident of (2:196) (Jj^J vy i TJ ^ js-Ji. aJaI ^ 
rAw applies to those whose family is not residing near the Sacred 
Mosque 4 adjacent to, bordering on, by (7:163) j£\ ajjSII jc. ^fcJj 
iiijUl (ji 'jj'iu i] s'j^U. cjjl£ an<i as/c f/zem a/?owf the township 
by the sea; how its people used to break the Sabbath. 

muhdar [pass, part.; pi. jj'j^kl muhdarun] 1 that which 
is brought (3:30) '<> i^Lc. U ^ iaj J>'^ on the Day 

when every soul finds all the good it has done brought [before it] 
2 brought there, made ready (36:75) fVjH-" 3 uj'J-^ 1 '' "J ^ 

'qJJ^U they cannot help them although they are for them an 



218 



army made ready 3 to be handed over, to be taken (37:57) XJ*j V'jTj 
tjjj^klll 'qa c±S1 Jij had it not been for the grace of my Lord, I 
would also have been one of those taken to Hell. 

j' ^'Vi muhtadar [pass, part./v. n.] that which is attended, 
witnessed or that which is taken in turns (54:28) «^ b> '^pj 
jm aia^ i-jjjS l£ aw<5? instruct them: the water is to be shared 
between them-each drinking is to be attended [by those whose 
turn it is (or, each drinking side shall come to the water on their 
day in turn) ]. 

o^/o^/Z h-d-d foot of a mountain, depth, bottom of a valley; to 
incite, to encourage, to urge. Of this root, two forms occur three 
times in the Qur'an: 'o^i yahudd twice and tahaddun 
once. 

'o^kj yahudd [imperf. of v. b^ hadda, trans.] to urge, to 
instigate, to encourage (69:34) J^- ^ j he never 

encouraged feeding the poor. 

(•jjiil^j tahaddun [imperf. of v. VI b^^ tahadda, with prefix 
—j elided] to urge one another, to encourage one another (89:18) 
jjSluJ fUi Jic "jjjlbUj V j and you do not urge one another to feed 
the poor. 

Lj/Ja/^ h-t-b firewood, to gather wood for burning, fuel; to gossip. 
Of this root, LJak hatab occurs twice in the Qur'an. 

lJsa hatab [coll. n.] firewood, fuel (72:15) 1 'oJaJH 
llJaa. but for those who are unjust, they are firewood for Hell; 
*(111:4) iJaaJ I interpreted as either a gossip monger, or, one 
who carries thorny wood and throws it in the road frequented by 
the Prophet and his companions [lit. the firewood-carrier]. 

WC h-t-t to take down, to reduce, alleviation, reduction, relief, 
hittatun, classified by philologists under this root, is variously 
described as being of Hebrew, Nabatean, Syriac or of unknown 
origin. Of this root, hittatun occurs once in the Qur'an. 

A^. hittatun [n./v. n.] forgiveness, putting off [of sins], 



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unloading (2:58) I jlijlj lic'j kiii duk I jlSa aj'j^' ' j^-'- 2 ' ^ ^jj 
^ULkk J£l 3Jaa. I jl ja'j I'jali LOI remember when we said, 'Enter 
this town and eat freely there as you will, but enter its gate 
humbly and say, "[We beg] for relief [unload us of our sins["', 
then We shall forgive you your sins. 

f/^/C h-t-m to break, to shatter, to crush; fragment, piece; wreckage, 
debris; a cruel person; a glutton; severe. Of this root, three forms 
occur six times in the Qur'an: J4*n yahtim once; p-Lk hutam three 
times and 4kkk hutamatun twice. 

fJakj yahtim [imperf. v., trans.] to crush, smash up, break into 
small pieces (27: 18) '^aj »j jjkj ^-4^ ^'"K-'J V \ l^jfc 

'jj'jkui V ante/, go into your homes, lest Solomon and his hosts 
crush you while they are unaware. 

jiUak hutam [coll. n.; pi. of. n. '^=^ hutmatun] wreckage, debris, 
smithereens (56:65) 'oJ&&& HU=k iUE^J ildj °jl if We willed, We 
could turn it [your harvest] into debris, and leave you wailing. 

A-jak hutamatun [intens. act. part.] crusher, smasher, an epithet 
of Hellfire (104:4) XAL1\ J* s jjuiJ ^ no indeed!, he will be thrust 
into the Crusher! 

j/^/C h~l~ r enclosure, animal pen, barn, to fence in; to prohibit; ban. 
Of this root, two forms occur once each in the Qur'an: jjkk« 
mahzur and muhtazir. 

jjiak* mahzur [pass, part.] limited, prevented, stopped, 
restricted (17:20) &j iU=o 'rfk U>j &j f Lkc ;> f V>j f V> 2J yk 
Ijjiik^ to Z?of/i, We give of your Lord's bounty, your Lord's bounty 
is not restricted. 

"J^a muhtazir [act. part.] one who has/takes/constructs an 
enclosure for animals; animal fodder (54:31) <*^-*> UL.J Uj 
jkaJal l I jjlSa «Vj We sen? a single cry against them, and they 
became like dry sticks of a pen-builder. 

tytyC b~z-z luck, good fortune, a fortunate person; a share, an 
allocation. Of this root, h-z-z occurs seven times in the 



220 



Qur' an. 

Ja* h-z-z [n.] 1 share, portion (4:11) Jik jL jkill fo f/ie 

male « f/ie Z/Zce o/ f/ie s/iare o/ fwo females 2 luck, good fortune 
(28:79) fJic jii AjJ 'jjj^ ^j 1 ^ Jv> ^ ?/ o«Zy vve ZiaJ f/ie 
Z/Zce of what Qarun has been given: he really has good fortune. 

j/ui/^ h-f-d briskness; to care for, to aid; entourage, household; 
daughters, extended family, grandchildren, in-laws, family 
lineage. Of this root, s"^ hafadatun occurs once in the Qur' an. 

Sjia. hafadatun [pi. of n./act. part. -sat*, hafid] 1 grandchildren, 
offspring, in-laws generally (in an interpretation of 16:72) '^Sl Jkkj 
s'ji-wj jai ^Sa-ljji 1> and //e g/ven you through your spouses 
children and grandchildren 2 daughters (in another interpretation 
of 16:72) 'jji 'f^ljj I> J^l J».j antZ //e /ias given yow 

through your spouses sons and daughters. 

j/ui/^ h-f-r hoof; to dig, to carve, to engrave, hole in the ground, 
pit; to expose; to return to the original state, a former state; to 
emaciate. Of this root, two forms occur once each in the Qur' an: 
s JL hufratun and s'jala. hafiratun. 

Sjik hufratun [n.] pit (3:103) 'fkiaiti jUS 't> s'jsk lli ^ J^kj 
aratZ yow were on f/ie Z?r/«Zc o/ a pit of the Fire and He saved you 
from it. 

SjiU hafiratun [n./act. part, fem.] original state, original or 
former condition (79:10-11) ^Uic US lis! SjiUJI 'qj'iJSJA Uj! 'jjlji 
s'j^j f/iey say, 'What?, shall we be brought back to the original 
state [life], after we have turned into decayed bones?' 

Ja/ui/^ h-f-z to keep, to preserve, to maintain; to remember, to learn, 
to internalise; to guard, to protect; to entrust, custodian; to be 
attentive, to be constant; to anger, grudge, rancour. Of this root, 
10 forms occur 43 times in the Qur' an: hafiza five times; 
jjlial=4 yuhdfizun four times; I jhjVfJ "istuhfizu once; J^i*. hifz three 
times; Ml Zia/Zz twice; cUiiUs. hafizat twice; uj^ 8 - hdfizun 10 
times; ; Uia^ hafazatun once; /iq/z"z 11 times and Jijik^ mahfuz 



221 



twice. 

hafiza a [v. trans.] 1 to guard (15:17) p 11 ^ I> UUJaskj 
aj^j anii We guarded it from every outcast devil; *(24:30) Ij^s 
f*» jj3 to guard their chastity (or, to guard against commiting any 
sin) [lit. guard their private parts, or, to guard all their bodily 
orifices]; *(5:89) '^^4 ' _>kakl either Z?e frwe to your oaths or, tfo 
not be too liberal in taking an oath [lit. guard/keep your oaths] 2 
to take care of (12:65) UU.1 iiikjj \M 'jj^j we will get provisions 
for our household and we will take care of our brother. 

Maj yuhdfiz [imperf. of v. Ill hdfaza, intrans. with prep. 
<Jc-] to be constant at, to be mindful of, to keep up (6:92) Jlc. 'fa 
jjM^j '^P^> and they maintain their prayer. 

fri'->"' at 'istuhfiza [pass, of v. X 1 «\ ^istahfaza] to be 
entrusted to preserve, to be made to guard (5:44) |> I jkgvf.nl 
<lll in accordance with that part of the Book of God which they 
were entrusted to preserve. 

M> hifz [v. n./n.] 1 the act of guarding, keeping watch, 
protecting (37:6-7) jU4« JS UaL^j i-£lj£ll jujjj U&ll iUUl Uj'j Uj 
jjU We Ziave adorned the sky with stars, and with protection 
against every rebellious devil 2 preserving, maintaining 
(2:255) 1V 8 hs-s Jiji Vj o^j^'j Plj^JI //is throne 

embraces the heavens and the earth; preserving them both does 
not weary Him. 

/io/z'z [act. part.; pi. masc. djH^ hafizun; pi. fem. cAMk 
hafizat] 1 one who guards, keeps watch over, keeper (12:64) ilili 
IMj*. jji GoJ w f/ie ^est guardian; *(12:81) 'o^4^- ^4*^ ^ ^ we 
could not guard against the unforeseen; *(4:34) ^4*^ ^M^- true 
to their husbands in their absence, guarding their fidelity [lit. 
guarding during the absence; or, the secrets of her husband] 2 
one who preserves, maintains (15:9) 'qj^X^I *1 Ujj jkiil Ufjj J£j Uj 
We, it is, who have sent down the Remembrance, and We, 
Ourselves, are guarding it. 

haflz [intens. act. part; pi. hafazatun] 1 keeper, 
guardian (6:104) t«jl*i °i>j ^-ijia >-4l I>a '^j I> 1p^-=j j»£*U> jS 
Jki-^j Ul c/ear proo/ /las come to you from your Lord: so 



222 



whoever sees [clearly], it is for his own [gain]; and whoever 
becomes blind [to it], it is to his own [loss-Say[, 'I am not your 
keeper' 2 comprehensive, preserving (50:4) U« "J 

Jijto, LAjS Uiic j °44* Wle feow w/iaf f/ie earth diminishes from them: 
with Us is a record preserving [everything] 3 constant, 
preserving, diligent, attentive, heedful (50:32) <-A'J J£J 'oJ^- jj U Ija 
Jiuak w w/iaf you were promised-this is for every penitent and 
heedful one 4 watchful (42:6) Aiil iUlj '<> I jiijl 'jjillj 

JjSjj J^jlc Cul Lj as for those who take protectors other than Him, 
God is watching over them; you are not responsible for them 5 
protector, guard; recorder (6:61) ISjlc. Jlu.jjj j'js jij 
ULj ^la'jj cIJA ilk I j] jSk //<? « f/ie Supreme Master over His 
subjects, He sends out recorders/protectors to watch over you 
until, when death comes to any of you, Our messengers claim 
him. 

iajik^ mahfuz [pass, part.] 1 guarded, secured (21:32) likj 
Ui jak^ USlu eUaUl a«<i We macfe f/ie sfcy a well-secured canopy 2 
well-kept, maintained (85:22) pjl ^ [written] on a 

protected, or guarded Tablet. 

ui/ui/^ h-f-f sides of a mountain; entourage; to surround, to 
encompass; to clip, to trim, edges; paucity of food. Of this root, 
two forms occur once each in the Qur'an: Uia^ hafafnd and jjala. 
hdffin. 

haffa u [v. trans.] to encircle, to surround (18:32) U&k 
lij'j r^n; Ulikj J^-u Uiljsakj LjUcl Jjjia. /or one o/ f/iem 

We macfe fwo gardens of grape vines, surrounded them with date 
palms and grew between them planted fields. 

hdffin [pi. of act. part. <_ilk hdff] encircling, surrounding 
(39:75) '{*>j l^j* 5 ' Jj* t> CJ^ i/jjj and you see 

the angels encircling the Throne, proclaiming the praise of their 
Lord. 

h-f-w/y condition of chafing, abrading or wearing out of 
feet, particularly of camel hooves, caused by long travel barefoot 
in the hot desert, barefootedness; to strip bare, to scrape off, to 



223 



trim; to welcome, to be gracious; to dispute; to exact, to harass; to 
be knowledgeable. Of this root, two forms occur three times in 
the Qur'an: yuhfi once and ^ hafiyy twice. 

yuhfi [imperf. of v. IV, trans.] to press, to importune, to 
exhort, to put pressure on (47:37) I ffi'^ft & jlSlLy 'J\ Z//ie were 
to ask you for them [your possessions] and put pressure on you, 
you would be niggardly. 

"iji*. hafiyy [quasi-act. part.] 1 kind, caring, welcoming, 
gracious (19:47) ^ 'JS AjJ '<£1 'jii^L / wZZZ Z?eg my Lord to 
forgive you-He is always gracious to me 2 knowledgeable (also 
said to mean solicitous) (7:187) is?. l$ijc. Ujj Ja t^i ^ik diis jlLy 
Aill f/iey asZc you as if you are knowledgeable about it [the Hour] 
[also interpreted as: as if you must be eager to find out] say, 
'Knowledge of it is only with God. ' 

sVd/C h-q-b retention of urine; to store, to collect; saddlebag; long 
space of time, year, span of eighty years. Of this root, two forms 
occur once each in the Qur'an: huqub and CJiki "ahqab. 

ijik huqub [either a variant of sing. n. Liak huqb or its plural] a 
year/years (18:60) ^ 'J tii'J 3 ^ fr«kk J** c J^ ^ ^ W *U not 
desist [from journeying] until I reach the place where the two 
seas meet, even if I go on for ages. 

Lilikl "ahqdb [pi. of n. Lak /rag/?] long period of time, years, 
eighty years (78:23) UtfkJ l^a 'jiuV to stay in Zf/or a Zowg, Zorag 
fZme. 

u 'Ai/C h-<l-f a curved elongated sand dune, to curve, to turn, base of 
a mountain. Of this root, uAikS/l "al-"ahqaf occurs once in the 
Qur' an. 

lJUaVI "al-"ahqdf [proper n.] the region inhabited by the 
people of c ad, said to be located either near Ta 3 if or Hadramawt 
in Arabia and marked by high sand dunes (46:21) ij ie. lit jkilj 
<-'j5 jis! mention the brother of [ the tribe of] °dd-when he 
warned his people among the sand dunes; * i-ilikVl name of Sura 
46, Meccan sura, so-named because of the reference in verse 2 to 



224 



the 'Sand Dunes' where the people of c ad used to live. 

d/ti/C h-q-q the socket into which the head of the thigh bone fits; 
(of camels) to reach maturity; centre; truth, to be sure; to verify, 
to give someone their dues, to deserve; calamity, affliction; to 
dispute, to prove a point, an argument. Of this root, eight forms 
occur 268 times in the Qur'an: haqqa 18 times; ijl huqqa 
twice; &4 yuhiqq four times; jajlal ^istahaqqa twice; 6*. haqq 247 
times; ^ °ahaqq 10 times; haqiq 11 times and aSH haqqatun 
three times. 

haqqa i [v. intrans.] 1 to become just, suitable, applicable 
right, fitting, deserved (17:16) I J^i fei'j" tfjJ ajj 5 'J Uj'J Ijjj 
IjjLa'jj UU'Ja'ja JjSlI l^Jc jj^i t^ji and if We desire to destroy a 
township, We command those of its inhabitants who are living at 
ease, and they commit abominations in it, so the word [ of doom ] 
becomes just [deserved] against it and We destroy it utterly 2 to 
become necessitated, to be realised, to come true (32:13) Jjall 
'(jjA^kl j JUaJI 'cpdi J* My word nas come true-I shall 

fill Hell with jinn and men together 3 to become true of, to take 
firm hold of (16:36) 4l>ll^ll '<> J4Vj <^ is'^ i> some of 

them, God guided; and some were those upon whom error took 
firm hold. 

<jja huqqa [pass, v.] to be made to follow a command, a norm, 
or a system (84:1-2) Cialj tjiji \'4 when the sky is 

ripped apart, and submits to its Lord as it is obliged. 

Jau yuhiqq [imperf. of v. IV, i>J "ahaqqa trans.] to cause to 
manifest, to cause to overcome, to confirm, to establish, to 
ascertain, to attest (8:7) 'jjjalill jjIj jJaSjj ajUKj 6=^ l3?4 'J ^ 4Jij 
and God willed to establish the truth according to His Words and 
cut off the roots of the disbelievers. 

JajLi! "istahaqqa [v. X, trans.] to deserve, to merit, to qualify 
for (5:107) U4^ll« u^°j^ u' j^ li»£J L^J Jic JL but if it is 
discovered that these two have merited [ the accusation of] a sin 
[i.e. perjured themselves], then two others should replace them. 

Ja. haqq I [n.] 1 recognized share, claim, right, privilege 



225 



(70:24) fJJ^Aj " ?J ^ ^ '^W'jJ ^ 'jjillj and those in whose 
possessions is a recognised right for the beggar and the deprived 
2 justification (3:112) Jiij iUjjVl 'jj^j and killed the prophets 
with no justification 3 duty, dues (6:141) I j^I lij \ j£, 

oilok so eaf o/ f/ie/r fruit, when they bear fruit, and pay its 
dues [the poor's share] on the day of harvesting it 4 correct 

a , >a J a t 

argument, just claim (24:49) "oy?-^ 1 >tj l3^' l& °u!'j «J 
they have a just claim, they come to him submissively 5 truth 
(2:42) 'o_y&-> fjjSj ij^J I jIjSjj J^Pj ti^JI I j^Jj tfo nof mix truth 
with falsehood, or hide the truth when you know it 6 liability 
(2:282) ajj aIII JSuTj ^1 ^ ^ill lS^j a«<i /ef f/ie one with the 
liability [ the debtor] dictate, and let him fear God, his Lord 7 
[always with the definite article] an attribute of God (22:6) s j4 ^ 
j^il ji ^zs is /so7 because God is the Truth II [quasi-act. 
part.] 1 true £3:62) ^1 ^alaal l 'J£ lia, Q this is the true account 2 
real (51:23) j^J lPO^'j vjj* Z?y fTie Lonf o/ the heavens 
and earth! It is real, as real as your speaking III [adverbially] 1 
truly (8:4) J^jj is? ^ oj*&& ^ '^j* those are the 

believers truly, for them are degrees with their Lord 2 as it should 
be, as it ought to be (3:102) ajUj ^ <11M jSjM jiJ* 'jjill I^IU yoM w/io 
believe, be mindful of God, as is His due 3 as a duty incumbent 
upon (2:236) mjj*-^ l*t£« aj'-sS jjLoJI cs^-j ^jj^JI ^^Jc. JjAjaiaj 
u Xi 1 (J^ make provision for them, the rich according to his 
means and the poor according to his, in a fair manner; as a duty 
incumbent upon those who do good. 

J^l J ahaqq [elat.] 1 more/most worthy, deserving (5:107) 
Ujj'i^i '(> jkl Is'i^l <11L, jU^La Zef rTiem swear £>y GoJ, 'Owr 
testimony is more worthy [of being accepted] than theirs' 2 [used 
in the sense of act. part.] having more/most right to do, more/most 
worthy of doing (2:228) *o«J J^j ? jjS 4jX Jj^ajL '&J$y± ^^^'j 

lk!>lLa] I jil'j y dlli ^ divorced women must wait for three 

monthly periods [before remarrying], and, if they really believe 
in God and the Last Day, it is not lawful for them to conceal what 
God has created in their wombs [pregnancy [: and their husbands 
are [more] entitled to take them back (or, more worthy of taking 
them back) during this period provided they wish to put things 



226 



right. 

JjS* haqiq [quasi-act/pass, part.] befitting, incumbent upon, 
worthy of (7:105) j^JI V] aIII JSs. J js\ y 'J Jk. I am duty-bound 
(or, / am disposed) to say nothing about God but the truth. 

aSUJI "al-haqqatu [act. part. fern, functioning as a proper noun] 
that which sorts out truth from falsehood; that which is inevitable 
(an epithet of the Day of Judgement) (69:3) U ^llj'J Uj what 
will explain to you what the inevitable Hour is; * ASLaJ name of 
Sura 69, Meccan sura, so-named because of the reference in 
verses 1-3 to the 'Inevitable Hour' . 

<»/^/C h-k-m bit of a bridle; to curb, to restrain; to govern, to control; 
to judge between, to sentence, to express an opinion, to arbitrate; 
wisdom, knowledge; to tighten, to fortify; to recognize. Of this 
root, 14 forms occur 209 times in the Qur'an: ^ hakama 45 
times; oj*^ yuhakkimun twice; yuhkim once; 'uhkima 
once; IjlSl^i yatahakamu once; jL£k hukm 30 times; hakam 
three times; o&&^ hakimin four times; hukkam once; 
hikmatun 20 times; hakim 97 times; ''ahkam twice; *-C£*L 
muhkamatun once and cUSkl muhkamat once. 

^ hakama u [v. intrans.] 1 to pass judgement, to judge 
between, to decide a case (4:58) Ji*llj I ^«Skj 'J <_>Aill J^Sk lilj 
flw<i when you judge between people, judge with justice 2 to 
arbitrate (21:78) Juc. <ji Ciiij i] d/jaJI ^ - 1 ) 
a«<i [remember] David and Solomon, when they arbitrated 
regarding the field into which sheep strayed by night and grazed 
3 to form an opinion, to conclude, to judge (68:36) uj^^ ^ 
w/iaf is f/ie matter with you, how can you reach such a 
conclusion? 4 to decree, to ordain, to command (5:1) U y 
ijji GoJ ordains what He will 5 to find a solution, to decide 
(12:80) 'u^l jji ja'j J V&'^i •} J J JL ^jVl C 'J yi 
never will I leave this land until my father gives me leave or God 
decides for me; He is the best of deciders. 

yuhakkim [imperf. of v. II ^ hakkama, trans.] to make 
someone judge, to choose someone to arbitrate, to entrust 



227 



someone with judgement, to ask someone to judge or arbitrate 
(4:65) kg ^ "ujVjj V ^Ejj tef wo, &y yowr 

Lord, they will not [truly] believe until they make you the judge in 
what has erupted between them. 

yuhkim [imperf. of v. IV j>Skl ^ahkama, trans.] to protect, 
to affirm (22:52) ajUI'* jkski p 'jLLjlill ^ U ^aia GoJ 
annuls what Satan insinuates and then God affirms His 
revelations. 

J uhkima [pass. v. IV] to be perfected, affirmed (11:1) 

' S . } } } s £ 

jjji. ȣk 'jil '(> cJloa ^ AjUli Cxagkl is/ a Scripture whose 

verses are perfected, then set out clearly, from One who is all 
wise, all aware. 

^SIajj yatahakam [imperf. of v VI intrans. with prep. Jl] to 
agree mutually to bring a dispute before a chosen judge (4:60) 
<j ljja£j 'J Ij'j-al jSTj cjjc-Uall J] Ij^lku 'J 'jjijjj f/iey wawf to bring 
their disputes to idols for judgement, although they have been 
ordered to reject them. 

{!* hukm [n.] 1 wisdom, sound judgement (3:79) 'J j^al 'jk U« 
<lll jji y» J I'ijc. I jj jS (jJili Jji 12 s^jjjll j s-ta^' ^ if i-s not 
for any person to whom God gives the Scripture, wisdom and 
prophethood, ever to say to people, 'Be my servants/worshippers 
apart from God' 2 ordinance, constitution (13:37) HSk aUTji l&kj 
tujc in this way We have sent down the Qur'an as an ordinance 
in the Arabic language 3 practices, customs, norms (5:50) ^Skal 
Qyui do they want judgement according to the customs of 

the time of pagan ignorance? 4 verdict, decision (13:41) V aIUj 
A^Skl L&U God judges; none reverse His verdict 5 article of law, 
verdict, legal judgement of a case (5:43) iYJJft ftxe-'j 'AiJ^l UuSj 
■U3I J>Sk l^jj how can they come to you for judgement when they 
have the Torah with God's judgement 6 will, scheme of things, 
wisdom, law (68:48) P_pJI '.y^', ^ ys Vj <ȣaJ jf^i so 
[Prophet] patiently submit to your Lord's will: do not be like the 
fellow of the whale 7 rule, judgement as to what is right or wrong, 
responsibility (12:40) 'j/J ai'i VI \ vl '>! 4il VI J>kkfl y a// 
command belongs only to God, He ordained that you worship 



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none but Him: that is the true faith 8 realm, kingdom, domain, 
government (18:26) I'iJ Yj ^Tj y Ajji y ^ ^ Z/iey 

Ziave wo owe, other than Him, as a protector; and He allows no 
one to share in His realm. 

^ hakam [quasi-pass./act. part.] arbitrator, arbiter, judge 
(4:35) 1*5*1 j> j <k\ y I jjjuU l^jjj jlLS '(jjj if you fear a 
breach between the two, appoint one arbiter from his family and 
one from hers. 

hakimln [pi. of act. part. hakim] 1 judges, arbitrators 
(7:87) y<£LaJI jja. ja'j Uij <M j^kj I jji-ala f/ien Z?e patient till 
God judges between us, He is the best of all judges 2 one who 
decides (12:80) jja. ja'j J <M ^Skj 'J ^1 J 'jit ^ y»jVl ys 
'jj^UJI never w/ZZ / Zeave Zan<i wwf/Z my father gives me leave 
or God judges for me; He is the best of deciders. 

hukkam [pi. of act. part. fSH hakim and hakam] either 
judges or rulers (2:188) f lkil Jj I jtf, JLUL ^ I j& Yj 
'jj^Eu J^j! j ^Vb (jaUll J jll y lijji I jkul (Zo «of consume [ each 
other's] property among yourselves wrongfully, nor use it to 
bribe judges/rulers, intending sinfully and knowingly to usurp 
parts of other people's property. 

4*6*. hikmatun [n.] wisdom, prudence (4:1 13) ^ Jjfrj 

flu (J ^LLj A^SaJI j a«<i Go<i /las sen? <fow« upon you the 
Book and the Wisdom, and taught you that which you did not 
know. 

. ^ > > , 

jtj&i hakim [quasi-act. part.] 1 wise (44:4) jUl JS j'ji t^a [a 
night] when every matter of wisdom is made distinct 2 an 
attribute of God, the Wise (3:6) f^j jj>il ji VI aJ] V f/iere is no 
God but He, the Mighty, the Wise. 

t&l 'ahkam [elat.] more/most wise (95:8) y>£Usj yd 
is God not the wisest of rulers/judges?! 

muhkamatun [pass. part, fem; pi. CiU^kl muhkamat] 1 (as 
opposed to cjl^jUii mutashabihat resembling one another, alike 
(q.v.)) admitting of a single interpretation, free of ambiguity, 
precise (3:7) jaJj lJjSII fj y iiiUSki cjUli <i» LjuSII i^Llc. Jjil ill ji 



229 



cjl^jUii it is He who has sent this Book down to you, in which are 
verses definite in meaning-these are the essence of the Book-and 
others are ambiguous/allegorical 2 it may also mean non- 
abrogated, decisive or clearly worded; such interpretations are 
possible in (47:20) A^Skl s'jjL. cJjii lili s jjl. Cifjj Vjl I 'jjill Jj%j 

p'j^ll f/ie believers say, 'If only a sura were to be revealed! ' Yet 
when a clearly worded sura is revealed, and fighting is mentioned 
in it, you see those in whose hearts is sickness looking at you 
[Prophet] with the look of one fainting because of [the approach 
of] death. 

i-i/J/C h—l—fXo be solid; an oath, to swear, to take an oath; to become 
an ally, to enter into an alliance, an alliance. Of this root, two 
forms occur 13 times in the Qur'an: <_ik halafa 12 times and <-£*k 
hallaf once. 

t-il» halafa i [v. intrans. with <Jc which is often elided] to 
swear, to take an oath (9:56) '^A <Ub 'cx&is and they swear by 
God that they belong with you; *(58:14) ^isil je. 'dj&^i they 
swear to the truthfulness of a falsehood [lit. they swear on the 
lying]. 

utiA hallaf [intens. act. part.] one given to too much swearing, 
one who takes oaths too easily and too often (68:10) l£ 
jj^a and do not yield to any contemptible swearer. 

<i/J/c h-l-q throat; circle, to encircle; to fly, to hover, to circle in the 
air; to peel off, to shave off hair; famine. Of this root, two forms 
occur once each in the Qur'an: tahliq and muhalliqin. 

Ji^j tahliq [imperf. of v. halaqa, trans.] to shave off, to 
shave (2: 196) ^'411 ^ '^SL, Jf. j I jaJki V j Do «of s/iave yowr 
/i<?a<iy wnri/ f/ie offering has reached its place of sacrifice. 

C^^» muhalliqin [pi. of intens. act. part. muhalliq] ones 
having their hair shaved (48:27) 'jjj-li Aill *Cs b] pljp^ V 1 ^ 

5>£1«jp j 'jjaJkii yow s/ia// indeed enter the Sacred Mosque, if 
God wills, secure, having your heads shaven or cropped. 



230 



f/j/J/C h-l-q-m throat, gullet, windpipe; extreme ends, dates ripe at 
one end. Of this root, " ? hulqum occurs once in the Qur' an. 

^jik hulqum [n.] throat, gullet, windpipe (56:83) pi! lil TjSa 
f jikll if only when it [the soul of a dying person] comes up to his 
throat. 

J/J/C locale, residing area, township; stopping place, way 

station; to unpack, to come down, to take up residence, to 
terminate one's travelling; to become permissible, to become free, 
spouse; to untie, to solve; to dissolve; to deserve. Of this root, 
nine forms occur 52 times in the Qur' an: halla 14 times; Jk! 
^ahalla 11 times; <J».i 'uhilla nine times; J?- M/ five times; J^- 
/ia/aZ six times; J2>^ hala'il once; <kj tahillatun once; mahill 
three times and J?^ muhill twice. 

/ia//a I [imperf. cK? yaM/ v. intrans. with —1] 1 [jur.] to be 
or become religiously lawful, permissible, allowable (4:19) I^jIU 
Ia jS illull I jjjj y V I jiali 'jjjJI yow who believe, it is not 

lawful for you to inherit women against their will 2 [with ^] to 
become deserved, to become inevitable; to fall upon (in the main 
reading of the occurrences in verses 11:39; 20:81; 20:86; 39:40) 

(20:86) LSr^J- 6 aJfll^U t— liJaC. ^Sj3& cJrS LJ' f"^J' y -^t"- JUaSl 

die? my presence amongst you become a distant memory to you ? 
or, was my being away too long for you? [lit. did my being 
amongst you seem too distant (for you)?] or did you desire that 
anger from God befall you, so you broke your promise to me? II 
[imperf. l&h yahull] 1 [v. trans.] to untie, to release, to free, to 
undo, to loosen (20:27) JEJ j and loosen a knot from 

my tongue 2 [v. intrans.] a) [jur.] to become free of religious 
obligations of the pilgrimage (5:2) I jAUAi J^ik lilj but when you 
have quitted [ the state of] the pilgrimage sanctity, you may hunt 
b) to alight, to ascend (13:31)*ejla 

'^a J j '(> llja Jkj 'J /or f/iose w/io disbelieve, disaster will not 
cease to strike them, or fall close to their homes, because of what 
they do c) [with (in a variant reading of the occurrences in 
verses 11:39; 20:81; 20:86; 39:40) to come upon, to fall upon 
(20:86) '&/> l_uj=c y °j j^jJI J^SJc JLkal was my 



231 



absence too long for you?, or did you desire that anger from God 
befall you ? 

J^S "ahalla [v. IV] I [trans.] 1 to make something religiously 
permissible, make lawful (7:157) iMiiJI J^ic pt&U £1 Jauj 
who makes lawful to them good things, and makes unlawful to 
them bad things 2 pur.] to violate the sanctity of religious 
obligations -Ull 'jjUJ; Ijkj V Ijiali 'jjjll I^IU yow w/zo believe, do not 
violate God's rites II [doubly trans.] to cause someone to take an 
abode (14:28) Jjill jIj I jkJj I'jiS I jfii 'jjjll J] ji jj have 

you given thought to those who exchange God's favour for 
ingratitude and cause their people to end up in the home of utter 
ruin. 

<jai ''uhilla [v. pass.] to be made religiously allowable (5:5) ijp 
at&U 'j&l Jj toJay a// goo<i f/imgs /?ave been made lawful for 
you. 

hill I [quasi-act. part.] one who is residing in a place, a 
resident (as in one interpretation of verse 90:2) ijJI I^j J?- £">j and 
you [Prophet] are an inhabitant of this city II [quasi-pass, part.] 
[jur.] being religiously lawful, allowable (60:10) pU«> b* jA£4=- oji 
by "oj^j V j (4^ Ja- 0* V jUSII J] b* ^ yow conclude 

that they are believers, do not send them back to the disbelievers: 
they are not lawful [ as wives ] for them, nor do the disbelievers ] 
make lawful [husbands] for them. 

JH* halal [v. n./n. in apposition] [jur.] that which is religiously 
allowable, lawful or permissible (the opposite of jLI'jk haram 
(q.v.)) (16:116) \ jj& JJ'jk i'ja'j I^SLk I& Lj>SJ1 fciJ I ijja Vj 

LsiSlI <M ,Jc. Jo «of describe the falsehood your tongues utter, 
[saying], 'This is lawful and that is forbidden', inventing a lie 
about God. 

hala^il [pi. n./quasi-pass. part. Jj^- halil and 
halilatun] a spouse, a lawful wife or husband (4:23) iSjUji Jj^j 
'(> 'jjill a«<i f/i<* wives o/ yowr begotten sons who are of 
your loins. 

^Kj tahillatun [n.; v. n.] dissolving, annulling, releasing, 
expiating (66:2) °=£jU4i 4kj J>kl <M ^'ja 'J Got/ /las ordained a way 



232 



for you [believers] to release you from [such of] your oaths. 

mahill [n. of place or time] the place and/or the time where 
something becomes lawful, permissible, the correct place/time 
(22:33) oj$J1 l+k^. p then their correct place of sacrifice is 

near the ancient House. 

s 

ii^A muhill [act. part.] [jur.] one who violates what God has 
made as "^'j*. haram, forbidden, religiously unlawful; or one who 
treats something as religiously lawful, or permissible (5:1) 'J*- 
jL'jk 'fjij il^ll LS \*L not considering as permissible killing game 
while you are in the state of the pilgrimage sanctity. 

f/^/C h-l-m dream, to dream, to have wet dreams, to attain puberty; 
to gain wisdom, to be patient, clemency; a sensible person; 
nipple, a young goat. Of this root, three forms occur 24 times in 
the Qur'an: JJk hulum twice; plkl J ahlam four times and jLik halim 
18 times. 

jLik hulum [v. n./n.] dream, wet dream *(24:58) ^Jl Ijilu °J 'jjill 
f/iose w/io /jave wof reached or attained puberty [lit. f/ie owes who 
have not yet attained wet dreams]. 

j&^S 'ahlam I [pi. of n. jik toZm and JJk hulum] dreams (12:44) 
'jj^Uu j^kSfl Jjjtlj cpj ^ we are not knowledgeable in the 
interpretation of dreams; *(12:44) fS^J dAilJ muddled, jumbled 
dreams [lit. sta/fcs of dreams] II [pi. of nominalised v.n. jLk Mm] 
rationality, sensibility, intelligence, reason, mind (52:30-2) 'f\ 
'jjjiLL JL'jS I^j J4^-l fi'JJu does their reason really tell them to 
do this, or are they simply insolent people? 

^ halim [intens. act. part.] 1 forbearing, patient, sensible, 
prudent (11:75) Lui VCj '^3\ U far Abraham was 

forbearing, tender-hearted and devout 2 an attribute of God 
(4:12) jLik jLJc. Aill j God is All-Knowledgeable, All-Forbearing. 

j-j/d/c h-l-w/y ornament, jewellery, to adorn, to grace; dowry, 
gratuity; sweet, to sweeten, to enjoy. Of this root, three forms 
occur nine times in the Qur'an: I jik hullu four times; Q?. hilyatun 
four times and huliyy once. 



233 



'<j* hulliya [pass, of v. II JS*. holla, doubly trans.] to be 
ornamented, decorated, adorned with (76:21) Ji^a °i> jJ^ ' 
and they will be adorned with bracelets of silver. 

Aaia hilyatun [coll. n./n.; pi. ^ hulliyy] adornment, 
ornamentation, jewellery/ piece of jewellery (16:14) ^ j*j 
l^i jlJj ajI^. <ia I jV j^*' "*j yj^=> ! I jlSul jklll //e it is who 
subjected the sea to you that you may eat from it fresh flesh and 
bring out from it ornaments you wear, *(43:18) 4jLj <J tii '<> 
little girls [lit. one who is brought up in/wearing jewellery]. 

^ ha mlm two letters initiating the seven suras from numbers 40 to 
46, known as 'the family of Ha mlm' (^U Jl); they are also more 
commonly known as "al-hawamlm (^1 jaJI), a designation 
described by 3 al-Jawhari, as quoted in Lisan "al- c arab, as 'not 
from the idiom of the Arabs'. For various opinions regarding the 
meaning of such letters in the Qur'an (see J\ 3 alif-lam-ra); * ^ 
and s'jaUl ^ name of Sura 41, Meccan sura. It derives its name 
from a combination of its initial letters together with the kneeling 
referred to in verse 37, also called CjE <- , '<* (see J/<j<V<-« f—s—t) It 
should be distinguished from Sura 32 which is called s'jaUl. 

Vf/C h-m- 3 stinking black mud, (of a well) to accumulate such mud, 
to dredge; to be angry, in-laws. Of this root, two forms occur four 
times in the Our' an: hama" three times and Aiak hami^atun 
once. 

hama J [n.] stinking black mud (15:33) 'AL^ JjSl JIS 
Uk '(> J i al a °qa an<i /ie answered, 'It is not befitting for 
me to bow to a mortal You created from clay formed of stinking 
black mud. ' 

hami'atun (also read as <^ hamiyatun) [quasi-act. part, 
fem.] foul, muddy, murky, stinking mud (18:86) vj« ^ 1i) J^- 
p**. qx. ^ Lj'jii qI^A] until when he reached the 

setting-place/time of the sun, he found it set into a murky pool. 

J /c/C h-m-d praise, praiseworthy, to commend, to find to be 
praiseworthy. Of this root, seven forms occur 68 times in the 



234 



Qur'an: \ yuhmadu once; hamd 43 times; jji^ hamidun 
once; S mahmud once; ijA hamid 17 times; j^J °ahmad once 
and Muhammad four times. 

aAj yuhmad [imperf. of pass. v. 'aA humida] to be praised, to 
be commended (3:188) Ijki I ji^4 'J "uj4nj <z«d they love to 
be praised for what they have not done. 

Xta. hamd [n./v. n.] praise (1:2) 'c&&*& mj ^ Praise 
belongs to God, Lord of the Worlds. 

hamidun [pi. of act. part, lola- hamid] those who praise 
(9:112) 'jjlalaJ 'jjijUJI 'jjjjljll f/zose wfto repent, those who 
worship, those who praise Him. 

mahmud [pass, part.] praised, exalted, praiseworthy 
(17:79) Ij 'duj 'J if way £>e that your Lord may 
elevate you to a [highly] praised status. 

jxo. hamid [quasi-pass./act part.] worthy of great praise, an 
attribute of God (31:12) iA ^jc. aIII s jli Go<f is All-sufficient, 
worthy of all praise. 

'iaki "ahmad [elat.; proper name] most praiseworthy; one of the 
names of the Prophet Muhammad (61:6) 

'iakl a«<f bringing good news of a messenger to follow me 
whose name will be "ahmad. 

"L*Lt Muhammad [intens. pass, part.; proper name] one worthy 
of much and constant praise; name of the Prophet (48:29) 
<M J jloj Muhammad is the Messenger of God\ * name of 
Sura 47, Medinan sura, so-named because of the reference in 
verse 2 to the 'Prophet Muhammad' . 

-Vf/C h-m-r redness, to dye or colour red; (of a person) to be fair in 
colour; to be difficult; donkey; big boulders; to scrape off, to flay. 
Of this root, four forms occur six times in the Qur'an: jU»a. himar 
twice; "_yL humur once; hamir twice and "JA humr once. 

himar [n., pi. humur and hamir] donkey, ass, 
zebra (74:50) iJaLL *J*L '^Jk they are like stampeding zebras. 



235 



humr [pi. of quasi-act. part. jAi "ahmar] red (35:27) 
jjL LauIjc-j l^jl'jll ■ ijWi "JAj "t^jj i'jk JUaJ a«<i [consider as well] 
in the mountains are tracks/layers of white and red of various 
hues, and jet black. 

cl/f/C h-m-l load, burden, to bear, to carry; to bear up, to sustain; 
animals of burden; to take up, to carry off; to become angry, to 
charge; to depart, a camel's litter; to forebear; to conceive a child, 
pregnancy, to fruit; a lamb. Of this root, 12 forms occur 64 times 
in the Qur'an: hamala 37 times; humila four times; 
tuhammil once; J»k hummila four times; J^! "ihtamala three 
times; J«k haml seven times; Jlkkl °ahmal once; J*?. /u'mZ three 
times; 0*5^=- hamilin once; c£LJk hamilat 11 times; 
hammalatun once and <1 hamulatun once. 

J** hamala i I [v. intrans. with prep. ,^c] to attack, to charge, 
to drive away (7:176) ^1>" °J b] J"S <E£»a 50 

likeness is as the likeness of a dog, if you attack him, he pants 
[with his tongue out[ and if you leave him alone, he pants [with 
his tongue out] II [v. trans.] 1 to carry (12:36) Ji\ JlSj 
I'jja. ^Jj j'jj JAI a«<i f/ie of/ier sa/<f, 7 saw myself carrying on my 
head bread' 2 to contain (6:146) V] L^^Li J^c. JA\ J>j 

UijjjJi clak U ant/ of cattle and sheep, We forbade them their fat, 
except what their backs contain 3 to incur, to commit (20:111) 
Vklk J^k °(> LsU. 'jSj « jjill ^kll » jk'jll pi. . j faces will become humbled 
[or downcast] before the Living, Eternal One; and those who 
carry [the burden of having committed] injustice will meet with 
failure 4 to assume responsibility, to undertake, to shoulder 
(33:72) (jaLilj 1 $ j y (J[uli J-f?Jlj (_>-=jVIj Cil j«u n\l j^Jc. AjUVI Ulajc UJ 
'jlluVI ULk, We offered the trust to the heavens, the earth and 
the mountains, yet they refused to carry it and were afraid of it; 
but man shouldered it 5 to provide a mount for (9:92) 'jjill jc Yj 
<$c 'fSlakl L V' V cja ^UkM a'jji U li] «or /7s there blame attached] 
to those who, whenever they came for you [Prophet] to mount 
them, you said, 7 cannot find anything I can mount you on' 6 to 
load upon, to lay upon, to burden (2:286) US I'jlaj LiL J*kj V j Ujj 
ULa '(> 'jjill (Jc. ajL*. o^r Lord, and do not lay upon us a burden 
such as You did lay upon those before us 7 to store (29:60) !> 'c$Zj 



236 



j iill l^Tjj JAj V JjI'j /iow many are f&e creatures who do 
not have their sustenance stored up-God sustains them and He 
will sustain you 8 to conceive (a child) (41:47) Vj I> JAj 
■uliu VI 2-^=j nor doe* a female bear a child or give birth, but with 
His knowledge. 

JA humila [pass, v.] 1 to be carried, to be borne (23:22) %Jc'j 
'jjLki idiiil (jJc'j anJ on them and on the ships you are borne 2 to 
be lifted up, raised high (69:14) sVlj aSj t&ia cfeJIj Lp=jV! plAj 
ara<i f/ie eart/i and the mountains are lifted up and crushed with a 
single crushing 3 to be alleviated, to be lifted off (35:18) goa °Jfj 
V,f* J^4 V W 4 ?- aw/ [even] if a heavily-laden [soul] 

calls for its burden (or, sins) [lit. Zoa<i] /"to carried], not a thing 
of it will be carried. 

JAj tuhammil [imperf. of v. II, doubly trans.] to load upon, to 
burden someone with (2:286) <> Ul ^iU= V U« UEakj Vj lij Lore?, tfo 
nof burden us with more than we have strength to bear. 

jA hummila [pass, of v. II] 1 to be made to carry something 
(20:87) fjsJI Ajjj '(> Ijl jjl ljl«a> VjSTj o^f we were laden with burdens 
of the ornaments of the people 2 to be burdened with, to be placed 
upon (24:54) '^j&k L, JA U. Ajlc. Uuli I'jTjS if you turn away, 
[know that] he is responsible for what is placed upon him and 
you are responsible for what is placed upon you 3 to be charged 
with the responsibility for (62:5) ^ p iYJjfii I jEak 'jjiil 

IjliuJ JAj JAJ those who have been charged with obedience to 
the Torah, but have failed to carry it out, are like asses carrying 
books. 

J«3al "ihtamala [v. VIII, trans.] 1 to bear away, to carry away, 
to bear along (13:17) li'j JjUI Jkikli UjiL ajJj! cJlli iU f UUl J^, Jjjl 
lllj //e senifs water from the sky, so ravines flow, each according 
to its capacity, and the flood carries with it a swelling froth 2 to 
incur (4: 1 12) Lyi j (Jni'tl oaa Ujjj <j JJi UuJ j! <lijaa ' . y j 
iv/io^oever commits an offence or a sin, and then casts it upon the 
innocent, has laid upon himself deceit and flagrant sin. 

JA haml [n./v. n.; pi. JUkl "ahmal] 1 pregnancy (7:189) lUs 
lijik. cjL^. ULlij a«<i w/ien /ie covered her she bore a light 



237 



pregnancy 2 child during pregnancy (65:6) I jifoti J^- pSl J 'u!j 
s jJsI<k 't>laj (^jk jj f/iey are with child, pay their maintenance 
until they are delivered of their child 3 period of pregnancy 
(46:15) IjJh5 iJU^ij ALkj f/ie bearing of him and the weaning 
of him is thirty months. 

himl [n.] 1 load (12:72) cE»a. <j ilk '(>Jj tSlpJI ^I'jla &j I jlli 
f/iey said, 'We are missing the king's cup and for the one who 
returns it there will be a camel-load [of grain]' 2 burden (35:18) 
^Js li 'JS l'^ <i« V J] j-jj 'jjj and [even] if a 
heavily-laden [soul] calls for its burden (or, sins) [lit. load] [to be 
carried], not a thing of it will be carried. 

hamilin [mas. pi. of act. part. J-la. hamil; fern. pi. c£UU. 
hamilat] those who carry, bear (29:12) I> ^Iki °(> jJ-lkj U»j 
yet they will not bear any of their sins. 

hammalatun [intens. act. part, fern.] one who usually 
carries, one whose profession is to carry things (111:4) aJ'jUIj 
s-iJakJ I and [so will be[ his wife, the firewood-carrier. 

* cJaaJt AJll* (in another interpretation of 111:4) <!l^k AjIj^j 
>.iWtll and [so will be[ his wife, the gossip monger [lit. 
firewood-carrier] . 

XiJa*. hamulatun [coll. n.] beasts of burden (6:142) ^uAl "(>j 
U'ja'j and o/ f/ie livestock, [He gave you] beasts of burden 
and [beasts] as [ providers of [ furnishing (Uja is also interpreted 
as: providers of food). 

f/f/C h-m-m death; to become due; hot boiling water, to heat up, a 
bath, to bathe; fever, to develop a fever; coal, black choking 
smoke, intense fire; an intimate friend, family, entourage; pigeon. 
Of this root, two forms occur 21 times in the Qur'an: jLi«k hamim 
20 times and J> j^kj yahmum once. 

hamim [quasi-act./pass. part.; n.] 1 boiling [water] (22:19) 
J^-J <jja I> <U^4 jlj i> pl5 for them are garments of 

fire, scalding water will be poured over their heads 2 intimate 
[friend], close [relative] (69:35) }^ IjaIa <J 'u^Sa so today he 
has no intimate friend here. 



238 



yahmum [n.J thick, black smoke; hot fire; canopy of hot 
fire (56:43) !> d^j awe? a shadow of black smoke. 

<£ - j/?/C ^-'w-w/y sanctuary, protection, to protect, to rebel, to avoid; 
in-laws; to heat up, to become angry, hot-headedness, zeal, 
fervour, impetuosity. Of this root, four forms occur six times in 
the Qur'an: ^^^4 yuhma once; harm once; a1«U>. hamiyatun 
twice and hamiyyatun twice. 

(^a^j yuhma [imperf. of pass. v. humiya, with prep. to 
be heated, to be burnt, to be brought to a hot condition (9:35) 'fJi 
JJk jj^i'j J44j4-j J4*Ij?- ^ ^4?- J-> ^ on the day when 

they will be heated in the fire of Hell, and their foreheads, sides 
and backs will be branded by them. 

<j^U haml [nominalised act. part.] an old stud-camel left by 
pagan Arabs to spend the rest of its life in peace and tranquillity 
(5:103) I Jj& 'jjill "(jSTj fla. Yj jlu-oj Vj <^ Vj s'j^j °c#> J*^ 

Aill (^Jc. 'jjjSsu GoJ «of institute the dedication of such as 
bahiratun, sa 'ibatun, wasilatun (q.v.) or ham [to idols]; but the 
disbelievers invent lies about God. 

hamiyatun [act. part, fem.] burning hot, blazing (88:4) 
IjU ^jLaj scorched by a blazing fire. 

hamiyyatun [v. n./n.] fiery fervour, high spirits, eagerness, 
passion, rashness, zeal, impetuousness (48:26) ^ I 'jjjll J*V jj 
^jJaI^JI AlaaJ w/iz'/e f/ie disbelievers had excited fervour in 
their hearts-the fervour of ignorance. 

i^jolz h-n-th manhood, maturity; sin, blasphemy, denial of God, 
wickedness; breaking an oath, perjury; to purify oneself, to 
worship, responsibility. Of this root, two forms occur once each 
in the Qur'an: ilukj tahnath and hinth. 

(iukj tahnath [imperf. of v. ^4* hanitha, intrans. with prep. <^a ] 
to break one's oath, to fail to honour one's oath (38:44) 
ilukj V j ^ Lj J-flli and take in your hand a small bunch of 
grass, and strike with it, so as not to break your oath. 

du* hinth [v. n.; n.] abomination, sinning, breaking one's oath, 



239 



denial of God (56:46) <Jc 0jj^4 1 j^j and they always 

persisted in great sin. 

j/^/lj/C h—n—j-r larynx, throat, windpipe; to slay. Of this root, ja.Ua. 
hanajir occurs twice in the Qur'an. 

ja.Ua hanajir [pi. of s'j?-^ hanjaratun] larynx, throat *(33:10) 
j^liJI LjjJill chkLjfear gripped everyone [lit. and hearts rose into 
the throats]. 

V<Vc h-n-dh to cause slimming of a horse by inducing sweating; to 
mix wine with water, to roast meat by sealing it up inside a fire, 
roasted meat, hot water. Of this root, iya. hanldh occurs once in 
the Qur'an. 

jjja hanldh [quasi-pass, part.] roasted (11:69) 'J ^ &i Jli 
jjj*. Jkju iU> he answered, 'Peace, ' and without delay he brought 
in a roasted calf. 

h-n-f inclination of the toes to one side, to incline, to deviate, 
to abandon common practices and beliefs, to incline towards the 
right religion, the true religion. Of this root, two forms occur 12 
times in the Qur'an: t-ijja hanif 10 times and *Uja hunafa 3 twice. 

i-Lla hanif [quasi-act. part.; pi. eUi. hunafa 1 ] inclined towards 
[God], inclined away [from false deities] and so considered 
upright (6:161) jjSj^II "t> jl£ Uj Uj*. '^\'J*\ 4l« Ujp an upright 
religion, the faith of Abraham, an upright man, he was not one of 
the polytheists. ' 

Hanif is also used to describe the ascetic monotheists of 
Mecca who refused idolatry and its practices. One of their 
practices, followed by Muhammad was tahannuf to retreat 
during Ramadan and it was during one such retreat that he 
received the first revelation of the Qur' an. 

^AVc h-n-k roof of the mouth, to massage the roof of the mouth 
with soft dates; to train in ways of the world, wisdom, experience; 
a mouth halter, to control, to overpower. Of this root, 
"ahtanik occurs once in the Qur' an. 



240 



&2kS 3 ahtanik [imperf. of v. VIII ^jjkl "ihtanaka, trans.] to 
devour by the mouth, to devour; to eradicate, to have full control 
over, to lead by the mouth/nose (17:62) juGffl fJi <Jj Cfi'j^ 'cfl 

!>UB V] ajjjj if You defer me until the Day of Resurrection, I will 
have complete control over them (or, lead all of his descendants 
by the nose) [I will have full control over them] except for a few. 

ci/ci/c h-n-n moaning sound of a she-camel longing for her young, 
yearning, mercy, kindness, compassion, wife. Of this root, two 
forms occur once each in the Qur'an: "J^- hanan; and Jjuk hunayn. 

^jUa hanan [v. n./n.] mercy, compassion, tenderness (19:12— 
13) slSjj UjJ '(> UUkj ll^=> j^kJI ilijlij wMe he was still a 

boy, We granted him wisdom, tenderness from Us, and purity, he 
was devout. 

Hunayn [proper name] name of a valley nearly three miles 
from Mecca where the Muslims fought a battle in 
8 A.H./630 A.D. with their opponents (9:25) °<£^ ij ^ 
U^i '^c (jiu JJa '(^Sj'JIS an<f on f/jg Jay o/ f/ie &a»Ze of Hunayn, when 
you were well pleased with your multitude, but they availed you 
nothing. 

"/j/C h-w-b relatives on the mother's side, parents and brothers and 
sisters; mercy, worship; hardship, sorrow; sinning, wrongdoings. 
Of this root, i-s hub occurs once in the Qur' an. 

tjjk hiib [v. n./n.] abomination, great sin, crime (4:2) I JAVj 

I'jajS give orphans their property, do not exchange [their] good 
things for bad, and do not consume their property with your own- 
truly, this is a great sin. 

'-'/j/C h-w-t fish, great fish, whale; to hover, to circulate in the air, 
to dodge. Of this root, two forms occur five times in the Qur'an: 
Cj jk hut four times and cp^. hitan once. 

cjjk hut [n.; pi. yiia. hitan] fish, whale, large fish (37:142) '■C^Ai 
ja'j CjjkJI 5o f/re grea? /zs/i swallowed him while he was 



241 



blameworthy; an epithet of Prophet Jonah *(68:48) Pj^JI i _u>AIaS 
the fellow of the whale. 

S/j/C b~ w ~J nee d, wish, errand; poverty; resentment, objection; to 
need, to require, the needy. Of this root, Aklk hajatun occurs three 
times in the Qur' an. 

AaIa hajatun [n.] desire, wish, need, something necessary, 

A * f A . - .« . 

errand (40:80) '^jJLa Aklk l^Jc I jiMj ^sli* l*ja '^j a«<f in f/iem 
[cattle] you have benefits; and that you may attain, on them, a 
need/errand in your breasts; *(59:9) Cm <^ uj^h ^ j 

IjjjI an<i fftey Jo not [find a need in their bosoms for] harbour 
resentment on account of what they [the others] have been given. 

Wc h-w-dh the back of an animal's thighs where the tail begins; to 
contain, to take possession, property; to seize; to urge, agility. Of 
this root, ijklJ 'istahwadha occurs twice in the Qur' an. 

jjkiL! "istahwadha [v. X, intrans. with prep. <Jc] to seize, to 
prevail over, to gain mastery over, to take complete control 
(58:19) aIII jki 'pillii 'jlLi-ll i^kiJ Safan has gained control 
over them and made them forget God. 

j/j/C h~ w ~ r circle, to encircle, to return to, to go away from; to have 
a dialogue, entourage, disciples; discerning power; to decrease; 
marked contrast between black and white in a woman's eye, fair 
skin; oyster shell. Of this root, five forms occur 13 times in the 
Qur' an: jjpj yahur once; jjIIj yuhawir twice; jjIIj tahawur once; 
jjk Mr four times and jjjjjk hawariyyun five times. 

jjIj yahur [imperf. of v. jlk Ziara, intrans.] to return, to go 
back (84:14) jjkj y 'J 'JSa '<& and he thinks that he would not 
return [to his Lord[. 

jjUj yuhawir [imperf. of v. Ill jjlk hawara, trans.] to debate 
with, to have a dialogue with (18:34) 'J&\ Ul Jjjtkj ja'j <j?.U^1 Jlia 
I'jaj jc-lj VU ^La so, /ie sa/<i to his friend, while disputing with him, 
'I am more than you in wealth, and mightier in respect of 
supporters. ' 



242 



jjUj tahawur [v. n.] debating, engaging in a dialogue, 
disputing (58:1) *k Jj Jz&j Wjj J 'A&i J J ^ "i 
UiS'jjlki Got/ Zieanf f/ie words of her who disputes with 
you [Prophet] concerning her husband and complains to God 
and God hears your dispute. 

jjl hur [pi. of quasi-act. part. fern, eljj^ hawra '] pure, 
fair-skinned (also said to mean: having eyes marked by contrast 
between the deep black and the pure white in them), pleasant 
(44:54) jjp^ '^^-jjj so it will be, and We will wed them 
to wide-eyed houris. 

^jjjIjaJI "al-hawdriyyun [pi. of n./quasi-act. part. IsJ'j*- 
hawariyy] the disciples of Christ (61:14) '£J* 'JjI <Jla US 

<S3I jLajl 'dJiJ'j^ <UI l? jUojI 't> '^jljkJl as Jesus, son of 
Mary, said to the disciples, 'Who will come with me to help 
God?', the disciples said, 'We shall be God's helpers. ' 

j/j/C h-w-z area, domain, holding; to incline, to side with, to press 
together. Of this root, jj^i mutahayyiz occurs once in the Qur'an. 

mutahayyiz [act. part.] one siding with a faction, one who 
abandons his position for another (8:16) lijkw V) Jjii '^Ji °(>j 
't> m'iwi iU !iaa Zji Jl\ I'jjai °j Jljil and whoever on that day 
turns his back on them— unless manoeuvring for battle or to side 
with a [fighting] group-he incurs wrath from God. 

ij'/j/c h-w-sh an enclosure; unfamiliar; to exclude, to avoid, to turn 
away from; to hold off. Of this root, only Ulk hasha occurs twice 
in the Qur' an. 

h fj^a^ia hasha li 'llahlhasha li 'llah (also read as UiU. 
ha shan with tanwln) [consisting of hasha, {denoting 

exception and classified as a noun, also said to be a verb} + 
redundant prep, li (J jjljil jaJI i-i ja.) {denoting emphasis} + Allah 
(^1). Interjection generally expressing dissociation by the speakers 
from their having unworthy thoughts of, or commiting certain 
actions towards, someone by invoking God as witness and 
ascribing to Him remoteness from ever allowing a certain thing] . 



243 



'God forbid!', Good gracious [lit. God stops one from ever 
contemplating shuch-and-such (unworthy thoughts)] (12:31) Ula 
jLij£ t*lL V) li» Ijj^j Ija U Ail (jilk 'jkj y^iil ijatLaj Aj'jjkl AjjSj vv/ien 
f/iey saw /i/m, f/zey exalted him and slashed their hands, and said, 
'God forbid! This is not a human being, this is but a gracious 
angel! ' 

■k/j/C h-w-t wall, fence, to encircle, to encompass, to protect; to 
comprehend; to be careful, to guard against; to overwhelm, to 
overtake. Of this root, four forms occur 28 times in the Qur'an: 
JaUJ ''ahata 14 times, .UjJ °uhita three times; J=u?l muhit nine times 
and AJajaJa muhltatun twice. 

Jal^S °ahata [v. IV, intrans. with prep. — j] 1 to surround, to 
enclose, to envelop from all sides (18:29) Uk! IjU ^jJualUil] Ujjc.1 Ul 
l^iijlu We /lave prepared for the wrongdoers a Fire whose 
pavilion will surround them on all sides 2 to learn, to 
comprehend, to gain full knowledge of (27:22) aj Jaaj °j Uj cJakl 

Jo 

jj£ Jlu llu. J> ^Sjj».j / Ziave learned something you did not know, 
and I have brought to you from Sheba a sure item of news 3 to 
overwhelm, to engulf, to take control (2:81) cJalkfj ajL, Liu£ y Jl 
Ajjjjaa aj frw/y f/iose w/io <io ev/Z an<f whose sins have overwhelmed 
them. 

ia^Ji J uhita [pass, of v. IV, with prep. _ j] 1 to be encircled from 
all directions, to become trapped, to be in mortal danger (10:22) 

Jajaj J4jl IjjJaj °qa £°j^1I fie^-j t-iu^li. j*tjj l$ilj> f/ierg COmeS 

upon them a stormy wind, and waves come at them from every 
side, and they think they are encompassed 2 to be prevented, to be 

f ft > Si > I , , , 

incapacitated, to be besieged (12:66) p_A£ Jx*. '^U aLo'J y Jla 
Lllj 'J VI aj ^Iji aJII y he said, 'Never will I send him with you 
until you have given me a pledge by God that you will bring him 
back to me unless you are prevented. ' 

muhit [quasi-act. part.; fem. muhltatun] 1 that 

which/who encompasses or overtakes from all directions (29:54) 
'jjjal£lb a kail 'Jfj Ljliklb ajj U'.u n j they challenge you to hasten 
the punishment: Hell will encompass all those who deny the truth 
2 one who collects and gathers together (in an interpretation of 



244 



verse 2:19) 'jjjil^lj Ja#^« but God will collect together the 
disbelievers [on the Day of Resurrection] (or, He will surround 
them) 3 [an attribute of God] All-Encompassing, All- 
Comprehending (41:54) ■kpJa jL ii] vl truly He is 
encompassing everything. 

<J/j/C h-w-l year, to complete a year; to change, to alter, to shift, to 
deviate; to prevent, to screen off, to interpose, to bar; to try; to 
refer; around, about, circa; power; to plan, to contrive, to beguile; 
method; circumstance, conditions. Of this root, seven forms occur 
26 times in the Qur'an: hala twice; Jj?. Tula once; Jjk hawl 17 
times; jjTjp. hawlayn once; Jja. hiwal once; hilatun once and 
Jjjkj tahwil three times. 

/ia/a u [v. intrans., pass. Jj?. Ma] 1 to separate between, to 
come between, to cut off from (11:43) J> "o^ ^ J 
"jjja'jilll a«<i f/ze waves came between them and he was among the 
drowned 2 to interpose, to intervene, to come between (8:24) 
'qj'jSz! <A\ 43'j ajSj 'Ji Jjkj aIII y I jltlj an<f inotv that God 
stands between a person and his heart (or, his secret thoughts) 
and that you shall be gathered to Him. 

Jja hawl I [n.; dual jjTjk hawlayn] year (2:233) ij^Ji d&\'Jh'j 
4^L±Jl\ 'jL °J\ 'i'j jjLl£ jjlj^. mothers shall suckle their 

children for two whole years, for those who wish to complete the 
period of nursing II [adverb of place] 1 around (6:92) csjall \\ jinTj 
l^l'j-w a«<i to warn the Mother of Cities and [those who are] 
around it 2 [preceded by prep. <>] all around, about (39:75) lsjjj 
(ji'jkJI Jja. '(> 'jjali. *£SXA and you see the angels circling around 
the Throne. 

Jja. hiwal [v. n./n.] turning away, removal from one place to 
another (18:108) V'ja. t*i- "oj*^ V 1^1 there they will remain, 
never wishing to turn away from it. 

hilatun [n.] a method, means, way out, solution (4:98) VI 

!>Luj_u ^jjju^j Vj V (jl^lljllj fUuiiilj Jlk.^)ll (ja ^jjq-t i Wim^ll Z?Zi? 

no? so f/ze fra/y helpless men, women and children who cannot 
find a solution nor any way to leave. 



245 



Jjjaj tahwil [v. n.] deviating, turning away, shifting (35:43) ya 
Xjkj aJSI <jU 'jaj y'j Xii <S1I <jU you will never find any 
changing in God's way and you will never find any deviating in 
God's way. 

t?/j/C h-w-y dark colours, particularly reddish black and greenish 
black; colour of dead vegetation; container, to collect; coil, to 
coil, intestines. Of this root, two forms occur once each in the 
Qur'an: Ul'ja. hawaya and cs'jkl "ahwa. 

Ijlja hawaya [pi. of n. ajjp. hawiyyatun, -s>jla. hawiyatun; and 
cUjU. hawiya ] intestines, entrails (6:146) '^c. piJIj Jull y'j 
U'jaJ J UaAjj^k cjL^ U VI U^jU; and 0/ cafffe and sheep, We 
forbade to them their fat, except what their backs carry, and the 
entrails. 

jjsii °ahwa [quasi-act. part.] that which has lost its colour, 
stale, faded, ashen, wan (87:5) is'y^ then turned it into 

dark debris. 

£ya haythu [adverb of place, always in construct (2iU^I) with a 
following sentence, occurring 31 times in the Qur'an] 1 wherever 
(2:35) liya. lic-'j ^Sj AjaJI ^jjj ^ b^"' f Adam, dwell 
you and your wife in the Garden and both of you eat freely from 
its yield wherever you will 2 [with a preceding prep. <>] from 
where, from the place where, from the direction where (7:27) Ajj 
°4-jjjj V cjuk '(> Aiufj ja J^r^ he and his forces can see you from 
where you do not see them 3 [with a following U] wherever 
(2:150) JjJaiS 'f^AjV'j Ijljs ^ w/ierever yow a// may be, turn 
your faces towards it. 

J /cs/C h—y-d protrusions, to project; sides; to twist, to bend, to 
deviate from, to stray, to swerve, to avoid. Of this root, jj^j tabid 
occurs once in the Qur'an. 

jjaj tabid [imperf. of v. ill hada, intrans.] to swerve, to turn 
away, to avoid (50:19) jj^j 4i» cjjS U dili jklL c/^l cilkj the 
throes of death will bring the truth with them (or, they come in 
truth), 'This is what you have been trying to evade. ' 



246 



j/<#/C h-y-r (there is a degree of overlapping between this root and 
root j/ j/^ h-w-r) a ditch into which flood water is trapped, to go 
from one side to the other; to be confused, to be puzzled, to be 
distracted. Of this root, jl j£. hayran occurs once in the Qur' an. 

hayran [quasi-act. part.] bewildered, confused (6:71) ijij 

turned on our heels, bewildered, after God has guided us, like 
someone whom devils have lured into the earth. 

t-Wts/c b~y-? to veer away, to swerve, to dodge; confusion; an 
escape. Of this root, "o^U mahls occurs five times in the Qur' an. 

i^ojaji mahls [v. n./n. of place] escaping/a place of escape 
(50:36) i> Ji so they searched throughout the 

land: is there any escape/place to escape to ? 

o^/ts/c h-y-d flooding, to flood; to menstruate, menstruation. Of 
this root, two forms occur four times in the Qur' an: <y^Hyahidn 
once and mahid three times. 

oijau tahld [imperf. of v. c^l^ hadat, intrans.] to menstruate 
(65:4) 'cy^i J^j and for those who have not [yet] 
menstruated. 

mahid [v. n.;n. of time] menstruating/period of 
menstruating (2:222) u>»r»'«fl J* iU«jJI I jljicla so keep away from 
[do not have intercourse with] women during menstruation. 

ui/ts/^ h-y-f deviation, to veer away; to be unjust, to wrong; to 
curtail, to impair. Of this root, Odj yahlf occurs once in the 
Qur' an. 

uLau yahlf [imperf. of v. t-ilk hafa, intrans. with prep. l Jc] to 
make incursions into, to deal unjustly with, to lean heavily on 
(24:50) aJjjo. jj °p£Sc. Uu=J °J "ojsUj J.I or do they fear that God 
and His Messenger might deal with them unjustly? 

<J/<#/C b-y-q to surround, to encompass; to come back against, 
hardship; retribution, befitting punishment. Of this root, jlk haqa 



247 



occurs 10 times in the Qur'an. 

haqa [v. intrans.] to befall, to return upon, to overwhelm, 
to rebound (35:43) aJaL j£J Vj evil plotting only 

rebounds on those who plot. 

ci/t?/c h-y-n time, period, a certain time; to approach, to draw near, 
to watch out for, to await the opportunity, to fix a regular time. Of 
this root, two forms occur 35 times in the Qur'an: hin 34 
times and hina'idhin once. 

hin a nominal used in the Qur' an as either a free unit or the 
first or second part in construct (AiLil): I [as a free unit] time, 
point in time, period of time (76:1) JJ Jikill t> ^ jlluVI JSe. j$ J* 
IjjSju Uli 'jSj f/iere ever come a pomf in time w/ien man was 
not something insignificant, non-existent [lit. worthy of being 
mentioned/remembered]; (2:36) jj?. jiili o^j^ tsi f^j on 

earth you will have a place to settle in and livelihood for a time II 
[in construct (AiL^at)] 1 [as the first part] 'at the time of, 'when', 
'while' with the second part a) as a noun (28:15) JSc- J&j 
V^JaI '(> jiac jja. arc<f he entered the city at a moment of 
heedlessness from its people b) as a clause (5:101) lli IjSls 'Jj 
j>£] jli'jaJI Jjjj 'jj?. owf if you ask about them while the Qur'an is 
being revealed they will be made known to you 2 [as the second 
part of a construct] a while, span of time, regular period of time 
(14:25) lio jib us>. l£ yielding its fruit every season by 

its Lord's leave. 

isjislc h-y-y life, living, to live, to bring to life, to keep alive; 
livelihood; animal kingdom; fertility, rain; living quarters, 
district; to keep vigil, to occupy with activity, to celebrate the 
memory of; to greet, greeting; to be modest, to be shy, 
bashfulness; adder, serpent. Of this root, 15 forms occur 189 
times in the Qur'an: hayya seven times; 12k hayya three times; 
'JL huyyiya once; Okl °ahya five times; ,J±S>*i yastahyl nine times; 
^k hayy 19 times; *l#J "ahya^ five times; sUk hayatun 76 times; 
y'jjk hayawan once; <kj tahiyyatun six times; etklJ °istihya : ' 
once; mahya twice; ^^Al muhyl twice; (^jkj yahya five times 



248 



and Aaa. hayyatun once. 

Ziayya a [an assimilated form of the verb ^ hayiya, 
intrans.] 1 to live (7:25) 'ujVj^ ujj >" uj*^ W /fe 
sazJ, 'There you will live; there you will die; from there you will 
be brought out' 2 to survive, to remain alive (8:42) 'jc. °<> 
*£i 'jc- ^ i> J4; ^£ vv/io perished might perish by a clear 
proof, and that he who survived might survive by a clear proof. 

Ija. hayy a [v. II, trans.; pass. huyyiya] to greet, to salute 
(58:8) <M <j ^ ^jsP- l^jj w/zen f/iey come to yow f/iey 

greef yow w/f/i words God never used to greet you. 

yj^i 'a/iya [v. IV, trans.] 1 to bring to life, to give life to 
(45:26) p ^ say, 'It is God who gives you life, then 
causes you to die' 2 to restore to life (2: 164) I> J> Jja U'j 
t^j'j^ jkj [>ajSll <j Ukla f U« in ffte wafer which God sends down 
from the sky to restore life to the earth after it had been lifeless 3 
to help to live, to preserve someone's life (16:97) UJU^. '(> 
<gJa sUk. VinVito J>>« jij (jia j! jSi whosoever does right, whether 
male or female, and has faith-We will make them live a good life. 

Jjtft A ^istahya [v. X] I [intrans. with prep. <> or particle J] to 
feel shy, to be embarrassed, to be ashamed (33:53) I jjySjli ^luL Ijji 

* - ° 'a - ' * * - o ' ° 'a '1 S ^ .° * - ' a ' i . - - l ' * > ' ' 

f/i<?«, w/i<?« yow /iav<? eaten, disperse, and do not stay on desiring 
a chat, for that used to inconvenience the Prophet, but he felt 
embarrassed [to ask] you [to go], but God is not embarrassed by 
the truth II [trans.] to spare from killing, to retrieve from death, 
to save from death (28:4) J^illuj ^jVi' . nj j ^ilil £>'4 slaughtering 
their sons and sparing the lives of their women. 

hayy [quasi-act. part., pi luJ ^ahya ] 1 living (21:30) Uka-j 
f'^Zi JS fUJI t> aw<f We fashioned from water every living thing 
2 [^11 "al-hayy an attribute of God], the Living (25:58) cX£ j 
^aJI /?wf yowr trust in the Living [God[ 3 living things (6:95) <M Ijj 
^kil (Jiukll ^ cll*\\ 'q* ^kll csjjilj ,_3ila God who 
splits open the seed and the fruit-stone: He brings out the living 
from the dead and the dead from the living 4 [adverbially] alive 
(19:15) tlajj 'fjjj ^j^j 'fji'j 'jIj 'fji peace be on him the 



249 



day he was born, the day he dies, and the day he is raised alive. 

SIja hayatun [n.] 1 state of being alive, life as opposed to death 
(67:2) X«c J>«>.1 j>£jl J^SjO s\j=JIj Cj^I t^k. ^ill w/zo created death 
and life to test you [people and reveal] which of you is best in 
deeds 2 this life (as opposed to the next) (20:97) Jjli LsAili JIS 
<ikj y lie. tdi *j] j '^L^ V Jjjjj y sUkJI /ie said, 'Go! It is for you, in 
[this] life, to say, "I shall not touch nor will I be touched [lit. No 
touching!] ", but you have an appointment that will not be broken ' 
3 life span (17:75) sGkll ■ '^'■h lij then We should 

have made you taste double [the punishment] of life and double 
[the punishment] of death 4 living (16:97) 'J j£i y« U»JU^> J^c. y> 
ajIL sli. 4 ku> jla "t>> ja'j (^jjl whosoever does right, whether male or 
female, and has faith-We shall make him live a good life 5 
survival (2:179) l_jU1VI ^jUj sli. ^llaSil ^ in [the law of just] 
retribution there is survival for you, you who are endowed with 
insight; *(2:86) Ij&ll sl^JI life of this world as opposed to the life 
Hereafter. 

yjjaJI "al-hayawan [n.] the real life, the perfect life (29:64) 'Jfj 
'jj^Eu I y '^1 jlill f/ie Hereafter is the [true] life, if 

only they knew. 

tahiyyatun [v. n./n.] greeting, saluting, salutation (33:44) 
jpll, <j°jSL °44?^ tfte/r greeting when they meet Him will be; 
'Peace. ' 

f 1 ftj'i »1 ^istihya^ [v. n.] being shy, bashfulness (28:25) Aitai 
? UklJ y^. (jJmj one o/ f/ie fwo came to him, walking 

shyly. 

"G^mahya [n./v. n.] life/being alive (6:162) ,J^j JP<^= hi 
'jjJUJI Li'j All (^Uwj say, 'My prayers, all my acts of 

worship, my life/living and my death/dying are for God, Lord of 
all Being. ' 

muhyi [act. part.] one who restores to life (41:39) ^ h\ 
"jjpa JS AjJ ji'JA UUk! //e who gives it life will 

certainly restore life to the dead. He is able to do everything. 

fj^i Yahya [proper name] John the Baptist (Mat., III. 1—12) 



250 



(19:7) 1> J«j i^lj»2uj Zachariah, 

We bring you good news of a son whose name [will] be John-We 
have chosen for him no namesake before. John the Baptist is the 
cousin of Jesus, most of his story in the Qur'an appears in Sura 3. 

Aja hayyatun [n.] serpent, adder (20:20) lili UUiis 

He threw it down and-lo and behold-it is a moving snake. 



£ / kha D 



fUJI 'al-kha 3 the seventh letter of the alphabet, it represents a 
voiceless uvular fricative sound. 

S/lj/£ kh-b- 3 (there is a degree of overlap between this root and the 
root j/^/t kh-b-w) to hide, to keep in safety, to treasure; secrets, 
treasure; woollen tents for living in, shelter. Of this root, Ji-ji 
khab 3 occurs once in the Qur'an. 

f'uii khab 3 [n./v. n.] that which is hidden, that which is kept 
safe (27:25) lPO^'j ^ ii-jill Jrjij ^iil ^ VI should 

they not worship God, who brings forth what is hidden in the 
heavens and earth? 

d/<_j/£ kh-b-t wide low land, deep valley covered with herbage; to 
subside, to abate, to lie low; to become humble, to show humility, 
to feel tenderness in one's heart. Of this root, two forms occur 
three times in the Qur'an: CuaJ 3 akhbata twice and c^iL mukhbit 
once. 

Cuii 3 akhbata [v. IV, intrans.] to become humble, to have a 
tender and humble heart, (of one's heart) to soften; to become 
submissive, to become obedient (22:54) jkll -d ^kil I 'jjill ^EuTj 
"44^53 iJ t -iiVi^ <j J> a«<f f/iaf those endowed with 

knowledge realise that it [ the Revelation ] is the truth from your 
Lord and believe in it/Him, that their hearts may be humbled 
before it/Him. 

CuiU mukhbit [act. part.] one who humbles himself, one who 
has a tender and humble heart; one who submits in obedience and 
humility (22:34) jjjiiV«l j&'j I _££j AJa iajj 11 J^lli your God is 



252 



One, so devote yourselves to Him, and [Prophet] give good news 
to those humbling themselves [before Him]. 

Jj/<_j/£ kh-b-th impurities, to be impure; to be bad, to be wicked, to 
be corrupt, to be vicious; to be nauseated; bad deeds, crimes, sins, 
evil, adultery. Of this root, six forms occur 16 times in the 
Qur'an: lim* khabutha once; diua. khablth six times; 
khablthun twice; Alui khablthatun twice; cjliui khabithdt twice 
and iMia. khaba'ith twice. 

dui khabutha u [v. intrans.] to be or become bad, to be or 
become corrupt (7:58) V £4*- ls^j &j u'^h *-^i > k'->^ 
I jSi V] as /or f/ie goo<f Za«<f, to vegetation comes up by the will of 
its Lord, but [in[ that [land[ which has become corrupt it comes 
up only sparsely [stunted]. 

£uji khablth [quasi-act. part.; pi. ujA^ khablthun; fem. 
khablthatun; pi. Cjliua. khabithdt] bad, vicious, wicked, sinful, evil 
(3:179) l^I 

Go<f w/ZZ not leave the believers in the state you are in until He 
distinguishes the bad from the good. 

liulji khaba'ith [pi. of n. Aiua. khablthatun] abominations, 
obscenities, wickedness, sins, evil deeds (21:74) U£l JLisli Lkjlj 
duUai J*ki £x$& Aj'jall 'q* sl^jj llkj We gave Lot sound 
judgement and knowledge and saved him from the township that 
practised obscenities. 

kh-b-r experience, to experience, expert, to be informed; to 
inform, news, to seek information; to test; sense, intrinsic, the 
inner self. Of this root, four forms occur 52 times in the Qur'an: 
"Jii. khubr twice; jji khabar twice; "akhbar three times and 
"jjji. khabir 45 times. 

joi khubr [v. n., adverbially used] knowledge of the internal 
secret state, understanding, comprehension *(18:91) Aj'i li^l 
I'^k We encompassed all that he has in [Our] knowledge, We 
knew every thing about him. 

jja khabar [n., pi :, akhbar] 1 item of news, tidings, report 



253 



(28:29) jiij l J*l IjU ciuuli IjS&l Jli /ie sa/<f to his 

household, 'Wait! I have caught sight of afire, maybe I will bring 
you news from there' 2 record of affairs (47:31) jJkj jZ*. '^jMj 
j>£jLia.l 'Jkij 'jjjjllallj °^±« ^jjpAl^llI We w//Z fry yow ft'// We know who 
strive hard among you, and are steadfast; and We examine your 
record. 

jjja khablr [intens. act. part.] 1 one who knows well, one in 
the know (in an interpretation of 35:14) Vj °t££j&} iiJj&i 5-«^ Kay 
jjj^ Ju an<f o« ftie Day of Judgement they will deny your 
associating [them with God], and none can inform you like 
someone in the know 2 [an attribute of God] the All-Knowing, 
All- Aw are (31:16) j^i LiuU <M b] for God is All-Subtle and 
All-Aware . 

j/<_j/£ kh-b-z to beat with two hands, to drive hard; to subside, to be 
beaten low; to knead, to bake, a baker, bread. Of this root, "j^ 
khubz, occurs once in the Qur'an. 

joi khubz [n.] bread (12:36) 'JJall jkG I'jji j'ja JAi ^I'J 
Ai« / see myself carrying on my head bread from which the birds 
are eating. 

kh-b-t to beat, to beat about, to strike with two feet, to beat 
off leaves for animals; to go about aimlessly; to be confused, to 
be insane; to brand. Of this root, Jak^ yatakhabbat occurs once in 
the Qur'an. 

Ja^i yatakhabbat [imperf. of v. V takhabbata, trans.] to 
confound, to drive insane, to confuse, to craze, to madden (2:275) 
'qaA ^jl Wu%\\ 4-5=4=4i is'^ f jf? ^ cjj-°j% y ^j^' those 
who take usury will not rise [up on the Day of Resurrection] 
except like those who Satan confounds by [his] touch. 

J/lj/£ kh-b-l corruption; loss of limbs, wounds; a type of jinn, to be 
touched by jinn, to be insane, to be confounded, degeneration; to 
decrease, to cheat on an agreement, the Devil. Of this root, JUi 
khabal occurs twice in the Qur'an. 



254 



JIja khabal [n./v. n.] 1 corruption, ruination (3:118) 'di^\ l^fc 
J^i. U I jjj VUa. J^j jlu V ji t> AjU=u I V I jiali yoK vv/io believe, 
do not take for your intimates such outsiders [of your group] as 
spare no effort to bring you ruin; they love what causes you 
distress 2 trouble, confusion (9:47) VUa. V] ^ 1 jl 

J>Sj>^ J»SE>U. IjilajVj /ia<f f/iey gone forth with you, they would 
only have given you trouble, scurrying around in your midst, 
trying to sow discord among you. 

kh-b-w (there is a degree of overlap between this root and 
root \/±>/t kh-b-°) a small bedouin woollen tent, a house; the 
encasing of grains inside the ear of corn; (of fire) to abate, to die 
out, to become extinct. Of this root, ^iu^ khabat occurs once in the 
Qur' an. 

khaba u [v. intrans.] to become extinct, to abate (17:97) 
I'jj*^ 'filftj cjja. LJS (^a. ^IjU Hell is their Home, whenever it 
abates, We increase the blaze for them. 

j/cj/^ kh-t-r numbness, relaxation, corruption; treachery, to betray, 
to corrupt. Of this root, Jli. khattar occurs once in the Qur' an. 

jlii khattar [intens. act. part.] very treacherous, one given to 
treachery, perfidious (31:32) jjiS Jzl JS V) UjUL l>j only a 
treacherous, thankless person rejects Our signs. 

kh-t-m a seal, sealing material, to seal up, to enclose, to block, 
to secure, to cover up, to brand, to mark, a ring, to wear a ring; to 
complete, to conclude, the end part, the concluding one, 
conclusion. Of this root, four forms occur eight times in the 
Qur' an: khatama five times; JoU. khatam once; jLlli. khitam once 
and " ? j&U makhtum once. 

khatama i [v. trans, with prep. to seal up (36:65) 'fJA\ 
J^jjjl liHSj '^Ija! Jic Jikj on this day We will seal up their mouths, 
but their hands will speak to Us. 

^jU khatam [act. part./n.] concluding one, final seal (33:40) U 
'jju^ll j^U.j J jlo'j 'jSTj J^llk j '(> jkl d Muhammad is not 



255 



the father of any one of your men; he is God's Messenger and the 
seal of the prophets. 

ftia. khitam [v. n./n.] concluding/conclusion, end part, seal/ 
sealing; crowning touch (83:26) whose seal (or, end 

part, conclusion) is musk. 

makhtum [pass, part.] that which is sealed, concluded, 
ended (83:25) ? I> 'jjSl4 they are given to drink of pure 
wine, sealed. 

J / J /C kh-d-d cheek, pillow, lateral side; furrow, groove, ditch, 

trench, to furrow, (of a flood) to cut a channel, to become divided 

into factions. Of this root, two forms occur once each in the 

a" ° .* 

Qur'an: ^i. khadd and j "ukhdud. 

khadd [n.] cheek *(31:18) 3k to be arrogant, to treat 
arrogantly [lit. to turn your cheek towards someone/away]. 

jjiaj 'ukhdud [n.] a trench, ditch, furrow (85:4) j jiiVI LAalJ Jja 
perish the people of the trench!; * jjkVl i-slk^t people of the 
trench, said by 3 ibn 3 ishaq to refer to Jewish convert, King Dhu 
Nuwas, and some people of Najran who persecuted Christians 
there by burning them in a trench (see j/j/y b-r-j). This 
provoked the Christian Abyssinians to conquer southern Arabia, 
and to attack the Ka c ba in the 'Year of the Elephant' when the 
Prophet Muhammad was born (see y/c/t>° s-h-b). 

£/ J /C kh-d- c to cover up, to cover, to hide; an inner room, bed 
chamber; to cheat, to deceive, to delude; to take precautions; to 
become bad, to become stagnant; the jugular veins. Of this root, 
three forms occur five times in the Qur'an: j-'^j yakhda twice; 
'^Miyukhadi 1 ' twice and jj- khadi c once. 

gjij yakhda c [imperf. of v. £Ji khada c a, trans.] to cheat, to 
deceive (8:62) '<£J-'^ j I jIjj Ijjj */ they intend to 

deceive you, surely God is sufficient [as protector] for you. 

cjj&jUj yukhadi c un [imperf. of v. Ill £jU. khada c a, trans.] to 
seek to deceive, to engage in deception, to try to double-cross 
(2:9) V) 'uj^n 1 j^ 1 * ust^'j ^ 'luM^S tftey seefc to deceive 



256 



God and the believers but they only deceive themselves. 

j? jU khddi € [act. part.] one who deceives, one who causes 
others to be deceived (4:142) '^M- j*j ^ 'tlF-Mj 'oM^ bj the 
hypocrites try to deceive God, but it is He who causes them to be 
deceived. 

<V J /C kh-d-n friend, companion, confidant; to take a friend; lover. 
Of this root, y ^akhdan, occurs twice in the Qur' an. 

bt'.Ji) "akhdan [pi. of quasi-act. part./n. y^ khidn] friend, 
companion, lover (4:25) pHilli "Jjc- cAl, i_i jj^IIj cAjjai b* 
jl'^kl pliii Vj g/ve f/iem their dowries according to the norms 
[governing marriage practices, taking them] as married women, 
but not [as] adulteresses or those taking lovers. 

J/j/C kh-dh-l straggler; to stay behind, to be left behind; to fail to 
support; to weaken, to stay put. Of this root, three forms occur 
once each in the Qur' an: Ji^ yakhdhul; Jjii khadhul and <Jji^» 
makhdhul. 

Jiij yakhdhul [imperf. of v. Jii khadhala, trans.] to let down, 
to deny one's assistance to, to forsake (3:160) ^ <1SI ^jLai y 
»ju '(> '^jlai (^ill lj I>3 b)j Go<f /le/ps yow, «o one can 
overcome you; if He forsakes you, who is it that will help you 
other than [lit. after] Him? 

Jjii khadhul [intens. act. part.] one given to letting others 
down, one characterised by forsaking friends, a deserter in the 
time of need (25:29) V jii yiisU 'JSj Satan has always let 

humankind down. 

Jjii^ makhdhul [pass, part.] one who is let down, forsaken, 
deserted, abandoned (17:22) V U "iija 'jili 1*31 <UI ^ J*^ 
Jo «of sef w/f/i Go<i another god, lest you end up reproved and 
forsaken. 

Si/j/C kh-r-b to pull down, to lay waste, to level, to destroy, to ruin; 
ruins; to desert, to neglect; to pierce. Of this root, two forms 
occur once each in the Qur' an: Ljj^j yukhrib (also read as L/>4 



257 



yukharrib) and £J ji kharab. 

Lijii yukhrib [imperf. of v. IV L/jil 'akhraba, trans (variant 
reading L/p4 yukharrib, imperf. of v. II Lsji. kharraba, trans.] to 
lay waste, to ruin, to destroy (variant to desert, to abandon) (59:2) 
(^jjIj ^jJjL '(4j^j destroying their homes with their 

own hands and the hands of the believers. 

Lil'ji kharab [v. n.] laying to waste, destruction, demolition, 
desertion, abandonment (2:114) l^g jSjj 'J aIII j^U^ 
l^jlji ,ji <^*->j w/io comW &e more wicked than those who 
prohibit the mention of God's name in His places of worship and 
strive for their destruction (or, desertion)?! 

jr/j/C kh-r-j to exit, to issue, to emerge, to come out, to leave, to 
eject; to explain, to deduce; to cultivate; to show ability, to 
blossom, to yield, a yield, land taxation; to gain experience; taste, 
(of colour of herbage) to be patchy. Of this root, 14 forms occur 
192 times in the Qur'an: kharaja 53 times; ^jaJ "akhraja 86 
times; ^ jai "ukhrija 13 times; £ji£J "istakhraja four times; jr jj^ 
khuruj five times; jrljij "ikhraj six times; jr jU- Man/ once; 
kharijun twice; jr'ji^ makhraj 11 times; j-r mukhrij three times; 
jr'ja^ mukhraj once; jjkjaJa mukhrajun four times; jrji Mar/' 
twice and jrlji. kharaj once. 

jji kharaja u [v. intrans.] 1 to go out, to exit, to go forth, to 
leave (5:22) l^ia 4^ y Lsj'j 'lmJS* ^j 5 fel b) fftere w a 

fearsome people in this land, and we will not enter it until they 
leave 2 to come out (16:69) '<A'Ji t i\n\ Lsiys t$j jLj y Jr'>j owf o/ 
f/ie/r bellies comes a drink of diverse hues 3 to grow out of, to 
spring from (23:20) yj0U jj^j yulb ci" il£i» jjL y ^jij 
awa* a free, springing out from Mount Sinai, that produces oil and 
relish for those who would eat 4 to issue (86:7) jLall jju "t> 
Ljjl'jillj /f issues from between the loins and breast-bones 5 to 
burst forth (41:47) <j-^=j Vj Jul y l^«UoSi y cXJ& y jr j^j 

V] awa* wo /rw/f burst forth from their sheaths, nor does a 
female conceive or give birth, but with His knowledge 6 to 
emerge, to rise (from the grave) (30:25) '^d lij o^j^ I> s j=- j f^'- 2 ^] 
'ojV_>j w/iera He calls you once, out of the earth, you [will all] 



258 



emerge. 

jjiS "akhraja [v. IV, trans.; pass, £ jii D ukhrijd\ 1 to drive out, 
to eject, to expel (27:56) I> J* I j*. ja.1 I jils 'J VI Lsl'jk jjlS Ua 
J>£jjj3 £>wf answer of his people was only to say, 'Expel the 
household of Lot from your town!' 2 to produce (20:88) ^ e'j*^ 
jl'ji. <J I'iuk !>lk^ 50 he produced for them a calf in body with 
lowing sound 3 to bring forth (48:29) »Uau5 ^-j'jk //fce seeds 
that put forth their shoots 4 to cast out, to cast forth (6:93) Jji jij 
J^Liii I J^jJjI j aU ^£jSl«]Ij p^all pi 'Jac. (ji 'jjiJUall ij on/y yow 
cow/ii see f/ie wicked in the throes of death, as the angels 
stretching out their hands [to them, say], 'Cast out your souls' 5 
to take out, to rescue from, to bring out, to deliver (4:75) o^j^ oi^ 
I^JaI (JUill ajjSII '(> Ua.ji.1 Ujj f/iose w/io say, 'Our Lord, deliver 
us from this town whose people are oppressors! ' 6 to expose 

- - g * » - g Jo * g 

(47:29) jiViU'irti <M y °J o^j- °f*i>^ ^ 'jjill LbA jj Jo f/ie 
corrupt at heart [lit. f/iose in whose hearts is sickness] assume 
that God will not expose their malice? 

pJiU "istakhraja [v. X, trans.] 1 to extract, to bring out with 
effort (35:12) l*j jLJj 4jk 'Qjkjiijuj GjL llkJ 'jjlSb JS 'j/j yet from 
each you eat succulent meat and extract ornaments which you 
wear 2 to dig out, to excavate (18:82) X^jz^j UaIs UIu 'J ^fi'j 'i'Ji 
UA jiS so yowr Loro* intended that they reach maturity and then dig 
up their treasure. 

jr jl>i khuruj [v. n.] 1 coming or getting out, exiting, escaping, 
way out (40:11) lW-> I> £ jji <_ks f/ierc, is f&ere any way to gef 
owf? 2 going out, joining the fighting company (9:46) I j'i'j jjj 
Sjc. I jjc-V jr jjai /ia<i f/iey desired to go forth [ on the expedition ], 
they would have made preparations for it; *(50:11) 
Resurrection [lit. emergence [from graves]]; *(50:42) £ Jj*l\ '{j> 
the Day of Resurrection [lit. Day of Emergence]. 

^Ijij "ikhraj [v. n.] 1 driving out, expelling, turning out 
(2:217) *M 'xif. <k\ Q'jiSj and expelling its people from it, 

are still greater offences in God's eyes 2 bringing forth, 
resurrection (71:18) p^>4 j fe? °fAs4 ^en //e returns you 
into it, then He will bring you forth a [new] bringing forth. 



259 



jr jU kharij [act. part. ; pi. jja-jU. kharijun] one coming out, 
coming forth (6:122) f j^h 04 1 P^ill ^ ^ 1>£ Z/fe 
someone in [deep] darkness, out of which he is not emerging. 

jrji-« makhraj [v. n./n. of place] solution/way out (65:2) & J>j 
y J*^n ^ and whoever is mindful of God, God will find a 
way out for him. 

£j*!*mukhrij [act. part.] 1 one who brings forth (6:95) Jtj^j 
'^11 "i> CjxJ an<i //e is f/ie one w/io brings out the dead from the 
living 2 one who exposes, shows up, brings to light (9:64) 
'tjjjikj U jr j^i <13l "dl 1 jhJ^ say, 'Carry on mocking: God will 
bring to light what you fear. ' 

jrjil mukhraj [v. n./n. of place/pass, part.; pi. ojV>-* 
mukhrajiin] coming out, way out, one who is brought out (17:80) 
cs^- j^'j o- 5 ^ 1 J-*" 5 -" cs^?-'- 2 ' Mj a«<f say, 'My Lord, lead 
me in with a true incoming and lead me out with a true outgoing. ' 

jrji kharj [n.] regular payment, tribute, dues, toll, duty 
(18:94) '3 ^Vj=- ^ l&^j (>ajS/l (ji "o] 
lilu J4^j Gog a«<f Magog are causing destruction in the land, 
so may we assign to you a tribute in return for you setting up a 
barrier between us and them? 

jrtji kharaj [n.] regular payment, dues, tribute, toll, duty 
(23:72) joi. 'dlj ^Ijii IV_>- °f> yow [Prophet] ask them for 
dues?, dues from Your Lord are best. 

J/j/j/c kh-r-d-l mustard seeds; a large chunk of meat, to cut into 
small pieces; (of a palm tree) to shed its fruits before they are 
ripe. Of this root, Ji>. khardal occurs twice in the Qur'an. 

Jj> khardal [coll. n.] mustard seed (21:47) I> Jlaia 'Jfj 
l^j lis! Jija. awj /f f/iere be even the weight of a mustard seed, We 
will produce it. 

kh-r-r sound of blowing wind, falling water or falling stones; 
rumbling, snoring, purring; to enjoy affluence; to surprise; to fall, 
to crumble, to collapse; to die. Of this root, '"_p. kharra occurs 12 
times in the Qur' an. 



260 



ji kharra i [v. intrans.] to collapse, to fall down (7:143) jij 
li<lfl ara<i Moses collapsed unconscious; *(17:109) 'oJj& 

jliii! they fall down on their faces, they prostrate themselves [lit. 
they fall to the chins]. 

o^/j/t kh-r-s palm tree branch; to estimate the amount of fruit 
carried by a palm tree; guessing, conjecturing, approximation; 
lying; a large water basin, estuary. Of this root, two forms occur 
five times in the Qur'an: takhris four times; and QjLalji 

kharrasun once. 

J>a jij takhris [imperf. of v. o^>- kharasa, trans.] to guess, to 
speculate, to conjecture (also said to mean to lie) (43:20) jl I jlSj 
'^J^Jji^, VJ '^i '(jj (Jc. '(> ^Mij J4J U> JiUjjc. U 't>k 4 j]l f/iey say, 'If the 
Lord of Mercy had willed it we would not have worshipped them, 
but they do not know that-they are only conjecturing. ' 

^jLafji kharrasun [pi. of intens. act. part, u^lja. kharras ] ones 
given to guessing, conjecturing (also said to mean liars) (51:10) JjS 
'jjlaljaJI perish the conjecturers/the liars. 

kh-r-t-m nose, trunk (of an elephant), to hit on the nose, to 
bottle up one's anger; notables. Of this root, fjJaji. khurtum 
occurs once in the Qur'an. 

"^jSa'jL khurtiim [n.] nose, snout (also said to mean face, in 
general) (68: 16) > jL'jiJI ^ '-C^L> We will brand him on the snout! 

<i/j/c kh-r-q gap, hole, perforation; rag; to pierce; to invent, to 
feign; to lie; to be foolish, to be ignorant, to be confused. Of this 
root, jji. kharaqa occurs four times in the Qur'an. 

Jji kharaqa i [v. trans.] 1 to pierce, to make a hole in (18:71) 
Igjji ^ US j li] jZ*. Uikjla so they proceeded until, when they 
boarded a boat, he made a hole in it 2 to falsely attribute, to 
invent (6:100) <Je clhj 'cm ^ I jsj^j '(4^j W »l£>5 aJI I j^Vj 
an<i f/iey ascribe as partners to God, the jinn, though He created 
them, and they invent sons and daughters for Him without any 
true knowledge. 



261 



Ci/j/t kh-z-n store, storing place, treasury; to store up; to hide, to 
keep secret, a storekeeper; to take a shortcut. Of this root, three 
forms occur 13 times in the Qur'an: dy3^ khazinun once; fcji 
khazanatun four times; cjSlja. khaza^in eight times. 

^jjjU khazinun [pi. of act. part. ojU. khazin] one who stores 
up, one who keeps control, storekeepers (15:22) iU> ?UUl 't> UTjii 
ijjjjUj <! 'fui Uj e j^ l ffl i n li a«J We bring down out of the sky water 
and we give it to you to drink-and you are not its keepers. 

khazanatun [pi. of n. JjjU. khazin] keeper, warden (67:8) 
^jjjj 'jskj, jJ l^j'ji '£L* jr'jj l^J Ljk every time a group is cast into 
it, its keepers ask them, 'Did no warner come to you ? ' 

'£y\'j* khaza'in [pi. of n. fcl'ji khizanatun] 1 treasure house, 
storehouse, treasury (12:55) o^j^ Cfi'j*- J^- lJ^ 1 J* he said, 'Put 
me in charge of the nation 's storehouses ' 2 knowledge, control, 
resources, storehouses (15:21) VI iJjjj k&jL tfase. VI ?^ 'Jij 
? jk* jjiaj f/iere w nothing of which We do not have control, only 
sending it down according to a well-defined measure. 

j-jjj/t, kh-z-w/y to compel, to manipulate, to exercise self-control, 
to humiliate, to humble, to abase, to shame, to disgrace; 
abasement, a disgraceful act. Of this root, five forms occur 26 
times in the Qur'an: i/jaj nakhza once; i/ja.1 ^akhza (1) 12 times; 
Ig'jL khizy 1 1 times; ts'j*J 3 akhza (2) once and mukhzT once. 

jjLj nakhza [1 st pers. pi. imperf. of v. ^ji khaziya, intrans.] 
to be disgraced, to be shamed, to suffer humiliation (20:134) l£j 

had sent us a messenger, so that we might have followed Your 
revelations, before we suffered humiliation and disgrace! 

isjil "akhzd (1) [v. IV, trans.] 1 to disgrace, to humble, to 
humiliate (3:192) iyji! Jiia Jill <^jj '(> &l Uij Lord/ Fow frw/y 
humiliate those You commit to the Fire 2 to embarrass, to shame 
(1 1 ;78) (jiyuJa J* jjjij V j <ill I jajli so /iav<? some fear of God and do 
not disgrace me with my guests. 

*cSja khizy [n.] disgrace, humiliation (5:33) tj&ll ^ J4 1 ^ 
jLJic. Lilic s'ji.VI ^ J4*j smc/i [punishment] will be a disgrace for 



262 



them in this world, and in the Hereafter a terrible punishment. 

tSjiS "akhzd (2) [elat.] more/most humiliating, disgracing 
(41:16) 'qj'S-^u V Jij ts'jil s'jiVl LJjjJj f/ie chastisement of the 
life to come is more humiliating, and they will not be helped. 

$ mukhzf [act. part.] one who causes disgrace, humiliation 
(9:2) 'cjjjalkll lsJp^ *^ "3'j and that God will disgrace the 
disbelievers. 

i/o»/C kh-s-° to drive away, to chase out; to cast out; to humble; 
rejected, spurned; to defeat, to impair; to confuse, to dull, to 
frustrate. Of this root, three forms occur four times in the Qur'an: 
\ 3 ikhsa"u once; ^U. khasi 3 once and ojM^- khasi^un twice. 

\jLuiA 3 ikhsa 3 u [imper. of v. khasa'a, intrans.] to chase, to 
shame, to scorn (23:108) Yj W 1 j^- 1 He will say, 'Away 
with you!, in you go!, do not speak to Me! ' 

khasi' [act. part.; pi. khasi J un\ 1 chased away, driven 
away, rejected, cut off, forsaken, outcasts (7:166) Ilia 
"jjjl^U. s'jji I jj °4J Ula <i £>m? f/iey became too proud to 

abandon that which they were forbidden [to do], We said to them, 
'Be [like] apes!, outcasts!' 2 unsuccessful, in vain, frustrated, 
unable (67:4) ja'j jI^jII '<£A LJai jjjjS jI^jII jVJ j£ Look 
again and again! Your sight will return to you frustrated and 
dimmed. 

j/o"/t kh-s-r to go astray, to lose one's way, to perish; to incur a 
loss, to lose, a loss; to decrease, to give less than what is right, to 
give short measure; to misguide. Of this root, 10 forms occur 65 
times in the Qur'an: 'j^. khasira 16 times; qjj^4 yukhsirun 
twice; "J^. khusr twice; jj>»U. khasirun 32 times; s'j^U. 
khasiratun once; jL«i khasar three times; y'jlua. khusran three 
times; jjjlaa.1 J akhsarun four times; j^-Aj takhsir once and ojj*^ 
mukhsirun once. 

j«i khasira a [v. trans.] 1 [with no obj.] to suffer a loss, to 
lose [as in a race] (10:45) ?UL I JjS 'jjill 'jui ja f/zose w/io denied 
the meeting with God have indeed lost 2 to lose something (7:9) 



j/oVt 263 

an<f f/iose w/iose scales [good 
deeds] are light will be the ones who have lost their souls. 

yukhsir [imperf. of v. IV j^l "akhsara, trans.] to give 
less than the correct amount, to shortchange, to give short 
measure/weight (55:9) 'jl 'j±J I V j il^lU jjjll I j^ualj s<?f up the 
balance with justice, and do not give short measure [lit. cause the 
balance to lose/be lost]. 

khusr [v. n./n.] loss, failure, ruin (65:9) jjlSj Ia J»l JUj cilia 
I'jjjii Ia jUl a«<f tasted the ill effect of their conduct-the 
result of their conduct was ruin. 

£x±&M khasirun [pi. of act. part. j^U. khasir, fern. s'j^U. 
khasiratun] one who loses the right way, a loser, a sinner (10:95) 
jjjj^UJI 'qa '(jjSja CjUL I jjjS "tjjill "j> Jjj jSj V j awe? Jo not be one of 
those who deny the revelations of God for then you will become 
one of the losers. 

jL*i khasar [v. n.] loss, losing (71:21) iiTjj <JU £jJj 
I'jUai V) a«<f followed those whose riches and children only 
increased their losses. 

^IjLii khusran [v. n.] loss, losing (4:119) !> VjTj 'jlL^I jaij 
Uoi Ul'jlua. 'jtutk isa aIII jji w/ioever ta/ces Satan as a patron instead 
of God, has surely suffered a clear loss. 

(•jj^uiiS "akhsarun [pi. of elat. >«i.l "akhsar] most losing, 
greatest losers, farthest astray from the right path (18:103) J* Ja 
VUil jjjj^kS/lj say '[Prophet] shall I tell you who lose most by 
their actions?' 

takhslr [v. n.] loss, losing (11:63) °Ji aIII j> J^J^i i>a 
'jjc. ^ jjj jj AjI^c w/io cowta protect me from God if I 
disobeyed Him?, you would only make my loss greater [lit. you 
would not increase me other than in loss]. 

(^jjAiiii mukhsirun [pi. of act. part. mukhsir] one who 
gives less than due, one who gives short measure, one who cheats 
in dealing with others (26:181) 'jj_>*LJI "t> 'jhjSj Yj Ja^M I jijl give 
/w/Z measure: do not be among those who give others less than 
their due. 



264 



l -*/o"/c kh-s-f to cave in, to subside, to be swallowed by the earth; to 
eclipse, to have an eclipse; to disappear into the earth (of water); 
to humiliate; to decrease; to be hungry, to become emaciated. Of 
this root, khasafa occurs eight times in the Qur' an. 

<-»*-». khasafa i I [v. intrans.] to go into an eclipse (75:8) uLtkj 
'j^II and the moon goes into eclipse II [v. trans.] to cause the earth 
to swallow up, to cause the earth to subside or to cave in (28:81) 
J>ajVI sjIVj <j Ui^ii We caused the earth to cave in over him and 
his dwelling. 

v/oVc kh-sh-b wood, timber; to stiffen up, to be dim-witted, to be 
scrawny; to mix together, to be untamed. Of this root, Luia. 
khushub occurs once in the Qur' an. 

Lui* khushub [pi. of coll. n. Luia. khashab] lumps of wood, 
pieces of timber (63:4) '^'JA I jIjSj 'Jfj (430 ^jj 

sijli Luii. J4j'l£ when you see them, their outward appearance 
pleases you; when they speak, you listen to what they say, but 
they are [as useless] as propped-up timbers. 

t/^/t kh-sh- c barren dead land, low land with dry vegetation, a low 
hillock; to be eclipsed; to be humble, to humble oneself, to show 
respect, to be quiet, to be submissive. Of this root, seven forms 
occur 17 times in the Qur' an: j-ia. khasha c a twice; £ khushu" 
once; jLiU. khashi" once; jj**^ khashi c un six times; £-ia. 
khushsha c once; khashi c atun five times and cl^U. khashi c at 
once. 

khasha c a a [v. intrans.] 1 to hush, to become low (20:108) 
II^a V] <*-«lii o^-jil cJ'J^Jj] fviiV.j anJ vo/ces w/ZZ Z?e hushed for 
the Lord of Mercy, so you will hear nought but whispering 2 to 
feel humble, to be seized with awe (57:16) ^aj °j I j^'e 'oj& jt $ 
l5=^ t> Jjj ^ J44j^ w it not time for the believers that their 
hearts become humble at the remembrance of God and the truth 
that has come down? 

khushu c [v. n.] humility, awe (17:109) 'uj£y j^^U "ojj?4j 
ti-^ia. '^i; jjj they fall down on their faces, weeping, and it [ the 



265 



Qur'an] adds to their humility. 

jj-Sli khdshi c [act. part., pi. khashi c un and 

khushsha c \ fern. a^U. khdshi c atun pi. CjU^U. khdshi c at] 1 one 
who is full of humility, one who is seized with awe (59:21) Ulji 'ji 

Jiii. ^ i^V, „j n lij;U. ajuI'jI Jjk ^^Jc 'Ji't-'J^ V^a had We sent this 
Qur'an down to a mountain, you would have seen it humbled and 
split apart in awe of God 2 dead, barren, desolate (41:39) ajUI* 'j^j 
ciujj cjj&l iUJI l^i Ul'jj! lili ^JiU. '^jS/l cs'jj ^1 and of His signs is 
that you see the earth desolate, but when We send water down 
upon it, it stirs and swells. 

jjiJ'/t kh-sh-y to fear, to dread, to dislike; to hope; to know; dates 
killed by frost, dry rotten herbage. Of this root, two forms occur 
48 times in the Qur'an: khashiya 40 times; and Alii. 

khashyatun eight times. 

'ij^. khashiya a [v. trans.] 1 to fear (3:173) *c& L>»^ J* 'oi^ 
ULJ jJk'i'ja ^'jj&kli \J*^. ^Ull those to whom the people said, 
'The people [your enemies] have amassed [an army] against you; 
therefore fear them, ' but it [only] increased them in faith 2 to feel 
concern (4:9) I jaU- liU^ ajjj J^ik I j£'j5 '^ill and let 
those who, if they left behind them weak offspring, would be 
concerned for them [lest someone would treat them as badly] fear 
[in their behaviour towards orphans] 3 to stand in awe of (36:11) 
lJjJL 't>kj]l jkill ^jjl Cy ji& yow caw warn only those who 
will follow the Reminder and hold the Merciful in awe, though 
they cannot see Him (or, in secret). 

khashyatun [n./v. n.] 1 fear (4:77) 'q^A f4v liu* lil 

Ali^S behold!, a party of them fear mankind even as 
they fear God or more so [lit. with greater fear] 2 awe (2:74) *Jfj 

HI Ijio ^jjj iUoll <io £^>i»_i2 tjp^j Hi j'-S-^' jV ^ ejl a.a II 

-dll Aj^k 'qa Jaj^j /or f/iere are rocks from which streams gush forth, 
and others split so that water issues from them and others that 
tumble down in awe of God. 

o^/o^/t. kh-s-s small holes in a sieve; a keyhole; small breaks in the 
clouds; to be in dire straits, to be hard up; to belong to a small 



266 



Li/<>s/£ 



circle; to choose above others, to single out, to favour. Of this 
root, three forms occur four times in the Qur'an: '"o^h yakhtass 
twice; aI^U. khassatan once; ALalLai khasasatun 11 times. 

'(j^alij yakhtass [imperf. of v. VIII, trans.] to favour, to single 
out (2:105) iLij i> ^^-Iw AJSlj Go<f chooses for His mercy 
whomever He will. 

aIaIa khassatan [quasi-act. part, used adverbially] in particular, 
specifically, alone, only (8:25) aI^U. I 'jjill "cyat-^ V ^1 1 jSil j 
beware of discord that harms not only the wrongdoers among 
you. 

A^aU^i khasasatun [n.] poverty, straitened circumstances, need 
(59:9) <^L^± J^j 'jjj (Jc. 'ijJJi'Jij and they give [others] 
preference over themselves, even if they themselves are in need. 

""/cWc kh-s-f to stitch together, to lace together, to mend; to cover 
up, to stick on; to mix colours, to be of two colours. Of this root, 
(jl^i^yakhsifan occurs twice in the Qur'an. 

i yakhsif [imperf. of v. Ul^. khasafa, trans.] to attach, to 
stick together, to cover (20:121) tiiLj U^'j^ ^ fe» 

<i'jj i> lR'^j ^of/i ate /ram jY, so f/ie/r shameful 
parts appeared to them and they began to stitch upon themselves 
leaves of the Garden. 

p/o^/t. kh-s-m opposite side of a cloud; corners/edges of a sack; 
handles; to dispute, to argue, to defeat in an argument, to quarrel; 
antagonist, opponent, opposing party; defendant; to claim. Of this 
root, eight forms occur 18 times: "ikhtasama seven times; 

Cj^JLzh^yakhissimun once; jkLaUu takhasum once; ^ai khasm once; 
jUlaa. khasman twice; jjVa* khasimun once; -.j. ^ khasim three 
times and J>U^k khisam twice. 

^laSil ^ikhtasama [v. VIII, no object (imperf. oJ«>^>i 
yakhissimun at (36:49) is a geminated, perhaps a more emphatic, 
form of the regular yakhtasimun occurring elsewhere)] 1 

to dispute with, to disagree over (22:19) J^jj ^ I jV . ^ I jUlaa. 
f/iese fwo opposing camps are in disagreement about their Lord 2 



to recriminate, to make counter accusations (50:28) I J« , aaaj V Jli 
jycjlL J^jlj ciaja jsj ^ //<? 5fl/<i, 'Do wof accuse one another in my 
presence; I gave you advance warnings ' 3 to argue, to contend 

you were not present among them when they cast lots to see 
which of them should become guardian of Mary; you were not 
present with them when they argued [about her]. 

jLLatij takhasum [v. n.] mutual recrimination, disputing, 
wrangling (38:64) jUll J* I J»laUj j^l ^lli 'Jt that is real, the 
wrangling of the inhabitants ofHellfire. 

^uai khasm I [coll. n.] disputants, litigants (38:21) fcj 'Sd Ja'j 
LJ'jkJ I jjj^i '4 c'' n ^ h as the story come to you of the litigants, 
when they climbed into the private quarters? II [n., pi. jLlIaa. 
khisam] disputant, litigant, opponent (in one interpretation of 
2:204) aI j*j <Ja ^ L, aIII V^j'j Ij&II ?LaJI ^ iJjS ^iW.j ^ ^Ull 
^U^iJI f/iere w f/ie man w/iose views on the life of this world may 
please you, he [even] calls on God to witness what is in his heart, 
yet, he is the most bitter of opponents. 

^LaLii khasman [dual n.] 1 two litigating/antagonistic 
parties/persons (38:22) Uiu 'fSkli o^u JL UL«j ^ jUilai ^jij V Ijils 
ij^IIj f/iey said, 'Do not fear, [We are[ two litigants, one of us has 
wronged the other, so judge between us fairly' 2 adversaries 
(22:19) ^ I jo", nr. I jUilaa. jliA f/iese are ?wo opposing camps 
in disagreement about their Lord. 

Cx n'y^ khasimun [pi. of intens. act. part. khasim] one 
given to disputing, contentious person (43:58) U 'J* ° ? \ "JiL I jllSj 
'^jjl^i. Jj V'ja. V] ^11 » jjjlia saying, 'Are our gods better or 

him? '-they cite him only to provoke you, they are a contentious 
people. 

khasim [intens. act. part.] 1 one given to antagonism, a 
contentious person (16:4) 

created man from a drop of fluid, and behold the same man 
becomes an open contentious person 2 defendant, advocate 
(4:105) 'o0±& l£j Vj a*o nof Z?e an advocate for the 

treacherous. 



"{La*, khisdm [n./v. n.] contention, animosity (in one 
interpretation of 2:204) <M V^j ?^ J* ^j 5 i> o*^ !>j 
-llaiJI J J ja j <ala U. ^ f/zere f/ze marc whose views on the life 
of this world may please you, he [even] calls on God to witness 
what is in his heart, yet it is the most bitter of contentions. 



■i/u^/C kh-d-d to twist, to crack, to cut the thorns off a branch; to 
become stale, to become shrivelled; to munch on soft fruit; to be a 
glutton. Of this root, J jl^o makhdud occurs once in the Qur'an. 

jjirtVii makhdud [pass, part.] one with its thorns cut off, 
thornless, laden with fruit (56:28) }y±L* jV> J* among thornless 
lote trees. 



j/o^/c kh-d-r meadows, herbage, plantation, trees, green, fresh, 
soft, fragrant, verdant, youthful, inexperienced, new; to be 
blessed. Of this root, four forms occur eight times in the Qur'an: 
'j^k khadir once; D akhdar once; jl^ khudr five times; and 
mukhdarratun once. 

khadir [quasi-act. part.] that which is green, green 
herbage, plant, green foliage (6:99) IkjiU iU« f U<J J> Jja ^ill >j 
Ijtsia. Aia bkji.U J£ <j /fe if is who sends down water from 
the sky, then with it We produce the shoots of every plant [lit. 
thing], then from it We bring out greenery. 

'jJaiA "akhdar [quasi-act. part.; pi. jliai khudr] 1 green (in 
colour) (18:31) o*xL '<> Ijliaa. Ul2i 'jjl^j a«<i wearing garments of 
fine green silk 2 fresh (not dry) (12:43) 'cj^&j jU* cXJL yi» </J ^1 
plluU jil j jf-ii c£Uiu> j^uij i_al^ JLjl. / ^ee f in my dream ] seven fat 
cows being eaten by seven lean ones; seven green ears of corn 
and [seven] others, withered. 

S'^ai^ mukhdarratun [fem. act. part.] that which becomes 
green, verdant, alive with green (22:63) »U« fUUl [> Jji <M S J j2 jJ 
s'j^kl LpajVl jtjl^ua Jo you not see how God sends water down 
from the sky and the earth becomes verdant? 



t/o^/t kh-d~ c downward inclination of the neck, to lower one's 



269 



head; to be submissive; to be lonely; to abase oneself; sound of 
battle; rumbling in the stomach. Of this root, two forms occur 
once each in the Qur'an: takhda c and khadi c un. 

jiiij c takhda [imperf. of v. jl^i khada c a both trans, and 
intrans.] to be meek, to be submissive; to be yielding (33:32) illuU 

w/ves of the Prophet, you are not like any of the other women, if 
you show piety, do not be yielding in your speech, lest he in 
whose heart is sickness should [be moved to] desire/covet [you]. 

^jjuiti khadi c un [pi. of act. part. jL^U. khadi c ] those bowing, 
those showing submission, those humbling themselves (26:4) 'cj 
"jjjj^U. UJ ty* ? l^JI t> f^Jc. J'_>jj Lij ?/ We wish, We can 

send down upon them from heaven a sign, so that their nobility 
(or, necks) would [become humble to it[ bow [humbly] to it. 

S/Ja/^ kh-t-° to miss the target, to veer away from the correct path, to 
err, to commit a crime, to sin; a mistake, a crime, a sin. Of this 
root, eight forms occur 22 times in the Qur'an: 3 akhta 3 a 
twice; khata 3 twice; Uaa. khif once; jjiJaU. khatfun five times; 
aILU. khatfatun twice; '^4=^- khatfatun three times; ^iy=>^ 
khatfat twice and ULLa. khataya five times. 

UakS 3 akhta 3 a [v. IV, intrans.] to err, to be mistaken (33:5) u^Tj 
cjjlki U 'jjSJj JJ-kiJ Uua ^Uk J^jt aw<f there is no blame on 
you regarding the mistakes you make, only [you are blamed] for 
what your hearts deliberately intend. 

khata 3 [v. n./n., adverbially used] by mistake, in error 
(4:92) Daa. V) Lu>> JSj 'J t>>J 6^ is not [conceivable] for a 
believer to kill another believer, except by mistake. 

khif [n./v. n. implying intensity] mistake, sin, crime, an 
act of disobedience (17:31) (42j> !>j £ty \^ ^V'j I jii Vj 
I'jjjS Ukk °4bS b] do not kill your children for fear of poverty- 
We shall provide for them andforyou-killing them is a great sin. 

^jjiata. khatfun [pi. of act. part. ^JaU. khatf; fem. SjLU. 
khatfatun] 1 those who sin, sinners (12:97) lijii Ul 'jiiU UOU I jlli 
'jjjJaU US Uj f/iey 'Father, ask God to forgive us our sins-we 



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were indeed sinners' 2 [of deeds] sinful, erroneous (69:9) iVj 
^aLUIj cjl£aj>Jj <L5 '(>j 'j'jc'ja Pharaoh, those before him, and the 
ruined cities-fall] committed sinful [deeds]. 

AJjiai khatVatun [n., pi. <-i^=± khatVat and ULLa. khataya] 
evildoing, sin, crime (71:25) IjU I jk'ii I jSjc-t '^jll^al Cm because of 
their sins they were drowned and then made to enter a Fire. 

Lj/Ja/^ kh-t-b an affair, matter, concern, business, situation; a public 
speech, to address a group, a sermon, a speech, to speak; to 
propose in marriage to a woman, a marriage proposal. Of this 
root, four forms occur 12 times in the Qur'an: l_iLU. khataba three 
times; LJaa. khatb five times; s-ilki. khitab three times; 
khitbatun once. 

LJaU khataba [v. Ill, trans.] 1 to talk to, to address (25:63) lilj 
I jlla jjk^JI J4fl=>U. a«<5? w/ie« rftg ignorant speak to them, they 
say: 'We have nothing to do with you [lit. are quit of you] ' (or, 
they say 'Peace') 2 [with prep, ^a] to speak on behalf of, to 
intercede, to plead (11:37) uA>" '(4 s ) 1 'ul-^ <jl iJM^ Vj do nof 
/?/<?a<f w/tft Me /or diose w/io /iav<? done wrong-they will be 
drowned. 

'JSai. khatb [n./v. n.] matter, affair, ailment, trouble *(20:95) 
alki. arc<f w/iaf was the matter with you? 

LiUai. khitab [n./v. n.] 1 address, talking, discourse (78:37) 
0_kk <v uj^j V o-i-jll Lord o/ Mercy, no one will have it in their 
power to force speech with Him (or, they will have no authority 
from Him to speak) 2 argument (38:23) 'oy^4j *£4 ^ ^ Ij* tj] 
i_iUaaJI (^jc-j U^yjist Jlii »Vj ls^j wy brother, has 

ninety-nine ewes and I have one ewe, so he said, 'Put her in my 
charge,' and he prevailed over me in argument; *(38:20) 
i_sUaiJI decisive talk, sound judgement. 

Ajiai khitbatun [n.] marriage proposal (2:235) ^Uk V j 

'^ki J^iifl 'J f. Hull Juki. '(> 'j^l^'jc «o blame will be attached to 
you if you give a hint of [an intended] marriage proposal to 
[ these [ women or keep it to yourselves. 



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L/L/^ kh-t-t furrows, roads; lines, pen markings, writing, stripes; 
living quarters; affair, plan, intention; to write. Of this root, Jaij 
takhutt occurs once in the Qur' an. 

S > . . S - 

iaij takhutt [2 n pers. imperf. of v. Jai. khatta, trans.] to write 
down, to transcribe (29:48) Vj t_jt& I> 4Jja jiu iixS Uj 

ujlK'^ s-^j^ Ij] a«<i yow never recited, before it, any book; nor 
did you write one down with your own right hand. [Had you done 
so], those who are bent on denial might [then] have had [cause] 
to doubt. 

u5/L/£ kh-t-f to snatch, to grab; to dazzle, to blind; to be fast, to walk 
briskly; a hook, to hook; to sail, to miss the target. Of this root, 
four forms occur six times in the Qur'an: u4*k khatifa three times; 
i yatakhattaf once; * «S-.v» yutakhattaf twice; and <il=^ 

khatfatun once. 

t-ikk khatifa a [v. trans.] 1 to snatch away (22:31) J> ji UojlSa 
'jlkll Aikiaa f UUl as if he has fallen down from the skies, so the 
birds snatch him up 2 to dazzle, to blind (2:20) ■ «tr=.j jjjII 
5Ui ryio J4i filial UK J^'jllajl f/ie lightning almost blinds their sight, 
whenever it flashes on them they walk on in it. 

i iViXn yatakhattaf [imperf. of v. V t «Vvi takhattafa, trans.; 
pass, uikii yutakhattaf] to sweep away, to do away with, to grab 
from all directions (8:26) "uj^ ^ 'qj^V, xf. * JjJi '^u! il I jjSilj 
^Ull ^iLalj °J and remember when you were a few, considered as 
weak in the land and afraid that people might grab you from all 
directions. 

Aikl khatfatun [n. of unit] a snatch, a grab/a snatched object 
(37:10) Litmus <*jjU AikkJI ■ kka '(> V] except for he who snatches 
away a fragment [of conversation], and so is pursued by a 
piercing flame. 

yJa/C kh-t-w step, to take a step; way, tracks; to overtake, to avoid. 
Of this root, <sA'JLl khutuwat occurs five times in the Qur'an. 

cjljLk khutuwat [pi. of n. of unit khutwatun] footsteps (2:208) 
jUalill pl'jjai. IjkjS Vj a«<f <fo not follow in Satan's footsteps. 



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kh-f-t weakness caused by hunger, to become feeble; to 
become inaudible, to die down, to become soft, (of voice) to 
become subdued, to become still, to die suddenly. Of this root, 
two forms occur three times in the Qur'an: ciUj tukhafit once; 
and ciLki yatakhafat twice. 

i^aUj tukhafit [imperf. of v. Ill ciU. khafata, intrans.] to 
endeavour to muffle one's voice, to keep one's voice inaudible 
(17:110) ^Ux" ^lli "jjj jjjlj \+j iiiUj Vj Vj and do not be 

loud in your prayer, or too quiet, but seek between these [lit. this] 
a way. 

cjiUjj yatakhafat [imperf. of v. VI takhafata, intrans.] to 
enjoin quietness on one another, to hold an exchange in low 
voices, to whisper (68:23) 'oj&^n J>aj I jilLila so they went off, 
speaking to each other in whispers. 

<jJa/(_i/£ kh-f-d low flat land, a low flat hill; to lower; to be affluent, 
affluence, easy, relaxing situation; to take it easy, to walk at ease; 
to die. Of this root, two forms occur four times: "ikhfid three 
times and 4^=aU. khafidatun once. 

'(jiiil 'ikhfid [imper. of v. 'o±*± khafada, trans.] keep low, 
lower, bring down *(15:88) lh^j^ ^.U^ LP^'j be 
accommodating, be friendly, be tender [lit. lower your wing] to 
the believers; *(17:24) Jill ^1^. 't_y=4^j and humble yourself to 
them, be tender to them [lit. lower to them the wing of 
humbleness]. 

Avails, khafidatun [fem. act. part.] bringing down, humbling, 
debasing, demoting *(56:3) abasing [some] and 

exalting [others]. 

u5/u5/£ kh-f-f light load, a small group of people; camel's foot, to 
travel at ease, (of camels) to travel in single file; to be light, to be 
light-hearted, to move quickly, to be quick-witted; to take lightly, 
to treat with contempt, to consider as easily influenced, to die. Of 
this root, seven forms occur 17 times in the Qur'an: Uti. khaffa 
three times; khaffafa three times; u^ki yukhaffaf five 



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times; > fot.nl 'istakhaffa three times; t «jfo* takhfif once; Uuii fc/ia/lf 
once and <_ilii khifaf once. 

t-ii khaffa i [v. intrans.] to be, become or prove to be light or 
scanty *(7:9) iijj'j* 1>J ^ e one whose scales are light, the 
one who brought little to the weighing, the one whose good deeds 
did not weigh much. 

tiii khaffafa [v. II, trans.; pass, yukhaffaf imperf. of <-iia. 
khuffifa] to lighten, to lessen (40:49) <-jISJI j> U'jj Ik. Ua^4 J^j I jc-'-il 
asfc yowr Loni to lighten our suffering [even] for one day. 

tiiluil "istakhaffa [v. X, trans.] 1 to consider as light, to 
consider light enough to carry or handle, to take lightly, to make 
light of (16:80) l^j jfof ,, .* 12 jjj ^UuVI j jlk '(> Jkkj a«<f //e provided 
for you from the hides of cattle houses [tents] you find light 2 to 
consider as easy to influence, to consider as rash and incapable of 
serious thoughts (43:54) I jLlkli <Jjk eikilii so, He deemed his 
people easy to influence and they obeyed him 3 to urge, to hasten 
(in one interpretation of 43:54) I jLLkla '■CZJ, t ii&Ah so, He urged his 
people [to disobey Moses] and they obeyed him. 

<JLii khafif [quasi-act. part., pi. <-«Ui khifaf] 1 light (7:189) liJa 
lijik. X^. CiL*. UUij and when he mated with [lit. covered] her she 
conceived a light pregnancy 2 lightly armed, lightly equipped; 
easy moving (9:41) <lll Jjj^ ^ '^,.»vJj I lilii. I jjijl 

so go forth, lightly and heavily [armed[, and struggle for the way 
of God with your possessions and your persons. 

<|/i-i/C kh-f-y (the opposite concepts of appearing and disappearing 
are covered by this root, so affecting the interpretation of some of 
the verses in which derivatives of it occur) digging up, 
excavating, a grave robber; to disappear; to be unperceived, to 
hide; secret; secondary feathers in a bird's wing; jinn. Of this 
root, nine forms occur in 34 places in the Qur'an: takhfa six 
times; (jii! "akhfa (1) 17 times; ^iii 'ukhfiya once; jjia^ 
yastakhfun three times; [j*. khafiyy twice; <jal J akhfa (2) once; 
^j|U. khafiyatun once; khufyatun twice and ^fot no mustakhfi 
once. 



274 



takhfa [imperf. of v. ^ii khafiya, intrans.] to hide, to be 
hidden (40:16) J4v ^ cs*n V ujjj^ fl« on the Day 
when they will come forth, and nothing about them will remain 
hidden from God. 

''akhfa (1) [v. IV, trans.; pass. ^1 'ukhfiya] 1 to hide 
something, to conceal (2:271) U °Jfj ^ cJ&Lal\ I j'iu 'jj 
j>£l "Jii j^i il'jiill Ujpjjj if you openly give charity, it is 
praiseworthy, but if you keep it secret and give to the needy [ in 
private], that is better for you 2 to remove that which conceals, to 
make explicit, to bring out into the open (in some interpretations 
of verse 20:15) 1^.1 ilfl AelUl y f/jg //owr w coming, I am 
almost making it explicit [lit. removing that which makes it 
hidden] (or, keeping it hidden). 

if&M "j yastakhfi [imperf. of v. X <^iiiJ ^istakhfa, intrans.] to 
seek to hide, to endeavour to hide or conceal oneself (4:108) 
4AII 't> 'j jia^ Vj 't> 'u j^*' ' »j f/iey endeavour to hide from 
people, but they do not [try to] hide from God. 

jj^ii khafiyy [quasi-act. part.] 1 obscure, well-hidden *(42:45) 
J^ii t-ijJa 'js* 'jjjJii glancing furtively [lit. /rom a hidden eye] 2 
secret, silent, unspoken, inaudible (19:3) *fo ajj jj w/ierc 
he called to his Lord silently imploring Him. 

Lf ii.\ J akhfa (2) [elat.] more/most unperceived, more/most 
concealed, more/most hidden (20:7) jU 4jU JjSHj bjj 
whatever you may utter aloud, He knows the secret and what is 
even more hidden [less perceived]. 

AjIIa khafiyatun [fem. act. part./n.] that which is deeply hidden, 
that which conceals itself, a secret; also the jinn (the sing. fem. 
gender denotes emphasis) (69:18) J^L V 'jjlajki on 
that Day you will be exposed (or, you will be brought to 
judgement) and not a secret of yours will remain hidden. 

Ajii khufyatan [v. n. used adverbially] in secrecy, privately, 
silently, in the mind/thoughts (7:55) 1^4 V AjJ X^y*^ jj&j I jc-'i 
'qjsSJJI ca/Z o« yowr Lore? humbly and in your thoughts-He does 
not like those who transgress His bounds. 



275 



,i \ mustakhfi [act. part.] interpreted both as hidden, 
well-concealed or as apparent, visible (13:10) Jjill 'JJ I> il'jL. 
jl^ilL Lijluj lPW Ul^jI^ ja °(>j J^k '(>j aZz'/ce among you is he 
who conceals his words and he who speaks them openly, he who 
hides himself under cover of night, and he who sallies forth by 
day (or, appearing by night and hiding himself by day). 

j/J/c kh-l-d mountains, rocks; to remain put for a long time, to be 
forever, to be eternal, eternity, to grow old without showing 
physical signs of old age; to be well contented, to like someone or 
some place; to wear some kind of trinkets; mind; heart; spirit; a 
mole-like animal. Of this root, seven forms occur 87 times in the 
Qur'an: jjikj takhludun twice; jik! "akhlada twice; khuld six 
times; ilU. khalid four times; jjilU. khalidun 70 times; S jk khulud 
once; and Cu'^* mukhalladun twice. 

takhlud [imperf. of v. khalada, intrans.] to remain, last, 
endure for a long time or forever, to gain immortality (26:129) 
'jjiki °{£Sx\ '^L^a 'jjiijjj and do you build fortresses, so that you 
may remain forever? 

jkl "akhlada [v. IV] 1 [intrans. with prep. J)] to incline to, to 
take to, to cling to, to give oneself completely to (7:176) U15 jTj 
slji, (jiajVl jkl t^j oUka'j] an<i /raj We willed, We could 
have raised him up by their means, but he clung to the earth and 
followed his desire 2 [trans.] to cause to be immortal, to cause to 
remain or live forever (104:3) »'jk! <L« 'J '.'"■"*•> 3 thinking his wealth 
will make him live forever. 

"ilk khuld [v. n./n.] immortality (21:34) 'jkll ^SLi j> _>£il UL^. LTj 
We /lave raoZ granted to a human before you [Prophet] everlasting 
life. 

iJU, khalid [act. part., pi. jjUU. khalidun] 1 immortal (7:20) Jlij 
'jjjilUJI 'jj* U jSj 'J tjjSIo U j£ 'jl V] % J* .nil si* 'jc. UiSjj USljj U /ie sa/fi?, 
Towr LortZ only forbade you this tree lest you become angels or 
of the immortals ' 2 one living or remaining forever or for a long 
time (9:100) Ij3 l^a 'j^U. 'J^H\ l^kj ^ Jk; pUk jc-Ij //e prepared 
for them Gardens through which streams flow, in which they 



276 



abide forever 3 to live, to remain, to endure for a certain period of 
time without interruption (11:107) LpsjS/lj cjIj^U Cml'j 1 t^a '^jJU. 
there remaining in it for as long as the heavens and earth endure. 

jjli khulud [n./v. n.] immortality, eternity, remaining for ever 
(50:34) j jkJI J>'jj ^ili f^lu U jkjl enter if in peace-this is the Day of 
Eternity. 

i^JjI^a mukhalladun [pi. of pass. part. mukhallad] 
interpreted either as beautifully attired or as forever youthful 
(76:19) 

eternally youthful [lit. eternal youths] (or, beautifully attired 
youths) will attend them-if you could see them, you would think 
they were scattered pearls. 

o^/d/t kh-l-s purity, to be unblemished, to purify, to extricate, to 
extract, to select above others, to befriend; to bring to safety, to 
reach safety; to arrive, to join someone, to be alone with; to be 
sincere. Of this root, nine forms occur 31 times in the Qur'an: 
L >ak khalasa once; ^>akl 3 akhlasa twice; ^ ^akU 3 istakhlasa once; 
lyAi. khalis twice; khalisatun five times; ly4^ mukhlis 

three times; pj< nK« mukhlisun eight times; "^^kl mukhlas once 
and jjL=>kl mukhlasun eight times. 

o^li khalasa u [v. intrans.] to extricate oneself, to draw away 
from others, to draw or retire to one side (12:80) ai« I juQZJ Ilia 
Ijaj | J L = ik >v/ien they despaired of [retrieving] him, they retired to 
one side, as a conferring group. 

J akhlasa [v. IV, trans.] 1 to devote, to dedicate oneself or 
something entirely to (4:146) ^Ij I jV. afclj IjkLJj I jib 'jjill VI 
Ail °4jjp Ijlak! j no? so f/iose w/zo repent, mend their ways, holdfast 
to God, and devote their religion entirely to Him 2 to purify, to 
make someone pure; or to distinguish someone with, to favour 
someone with something exclusively; or to make someone 
devoted to (38:46) jl'J t/jSi J^IUj '^ Ulakl Ul We have rendered 
them pure by a pure quality (or, We have favoured them, to the 
exclusion of others, with a quality particular to them; or, We have 
made them devoted [to Us] by a quality of their own), [namely] 



277 



their keeping in mind the [ ultimate ] abode. 

QfiKw m) 'astakhlis [1 st pers. imperf. of v. X q ak£ . 1 'istakhlasa, 
trans.] to select someone or something above all else, to dedicate 
someone/something to oneself (12:54) V.^jvfJ <j ^jjjI Jllj 
f/ie fcmg sa/d, 'Bring him to me: so I may attach him to my 
person. ' 

qo1\± khalis I [quasi-act. part.; fem. a^SU. khalisatun] pure, 
complete, total, true (39:3) o^UJ 'j£ll *ii Vi frae [also: jcwre, tofaZ, 
complete] devotion is due to God alone II [fem. n. ^=JU. 
khalisatun] entitlement to the exclusion of all others, a privilege, 
that which is particularised (33:50) b) "is^ u) sij-lj 

'jjiajill jji '(j* ^11 A^alU. r 8 '-s5n,in 'jl ^jjll 'i'J a/so any believing 
woman who offers herself [without dowry in marriage] to the 
Prophet and if the Prophet wishes to seek her in marriage-this is 
an exclusive [privilege] for you [Prophet] and not for the [rest of 
the[ believers. 

IjaiiU mukhlis [act. part., pi. <jj> n)V» mukhlisiin] 1 one who 
devotes or dedicates oneself or something to (39:2) ^Jjlj UTja Ul 
'jj'J <! U n ]V» <MI (ialj indeed, We have sent down the 
Book to you with the Truth, so worship God, devoting to Him the 
religion 2 one who is sincere (2:139) J^jjj bSj j*j ^ <j? ^ 
'jjl rtU « <1 'jjkjj ^Uei '^STj UlULI Ulj say /Yo f/ie people of the 
Scripture ] How can you argue with us about God when He is our 
Lord and your Lord? Our deeds belong to us, and yours to you. 
We are sincere to Him. 

"u^iiU mukhlas [pass, part., pi. j jlak^ mukhlasun] the chosen 
one, the purified one (38:83) ' on ak^l l VI except for Your 

chosen/purified servants; * oa^U-VI name of Sura 112, Meccan 
sura, so-named because of the 'purity of faith'' it describes, also 
called .wall and Alulall (see .Vf/o^a s-m-d). 

ia/d/t kh-l-t to mix, to blend, a mixture, a component, the four 
humours; base people, common people; to intermingle, to 
associate, to be familiar with; partnership, partners; husband, 
cousin, neighbour; to confuse, to be mad. Of this root, four forms 



278 



occur six times in the Qur'an: Jala, khalata once; UUj tukhalit 
once; Jaiiil "ikhtalata three times and ilkk khulata" once. 

Jala, khalata i [v. trans.] to mix (9:102)^^1? ujlp-'cj 
liL 'jii; j UJLa X»c I jJak aw<f others confessed their sins, they 
mixed a righteous deed with another evil one. 

JalLij tukhalit [imperf. of v. Ill JJU. khalata, trans.] to associate 
with, to mix with, to intermingle with, to combine with (2:220) 
(■SiljiAi J»i jUUj '(jj j "Jj±. J41 $ ts-"^ i>- ^ jl^yj <2«6? f/iey asfc 

you about the orphans, say, 'It is good to set things right for 
them, if you mix their affairs with yours [lit. mix with them] [also 
interpreted as: if you intermingle with them] [remember] they are 
your brothers and sisters. ' 

JaJji.! "ikhtalata [v. VIII, intrans.] to become mixed/mingled 
with, to be combined with (18:45) ^Uj <j JJSaJi 't> alil'ji f US 
cpsjVl Z/fce wafer We senif <fown /rom f/ie s/cy, so the vegetation of 
the earth combines with it [absorbs it]. 

fUali. khulata" [pi. of n. JaJi. khallt] partners, business 
associates, kinfolk (38:24) j> IjjjS ££j 4*.Ug . ^V.i Jljlu ^LlJa iil 
^h^j JSs. y ^^V; i j<aA f lLkJI &e has done you wrong by demanding 
your ewe in addition to his ewes, and many partners transgress 
against one another. 

£jd/t kh-l- c to take off, to draw off, to draw out, to dislodge; to 
disown, to break a pledge; to be alone, to be mad, to be foolish; 
tattered garment. Of this root, jkl "ikhla c , occurs once in the 
Qur' an. 

jtiil "ikhla c [imper. of v. aJ±. khala c a, trans.] take off (20:12) 
(j/jiJ i'jlb 'iM dTJkj y±.la so fa/ce off your shoes; you are in the 
sacred valley, Tuwa. 

<-*/J/£ kh-l-f 'back, backside, behind, in the rear; to stay behind, to be 
put behind; to delay, to be a straggler; to replace, to succeed, to be 
appointed as successor; a ruler, representative, governor; an 
offshoot, a son, a generation, a follower; to differ, to be different, 
to be contrary; to fail to keep a promise, to let down, to alternate. 



279 



Of this root, 23 forms occur 127 times in the Qur'an: uAk khalafa 
five times; <_ik khullifa once; uJUi yukhalif twice; <_ik.l 'akhlafa 
13 times; uAkj tukhlaf once; uAki yatakhallaf once; <_iiiaJ 
^ikhtalafa 33 times; and <-ijsiiJ ^ikhtulifa twice; ■ aklJ 'istakhlafa 
five times; uAk tta(f twice; khalifun once; i_£U. fcMa/ six 

times; <sk khilfatun once; <_ill^i khawalif twice; 4iJi>. khalifatun 
twice; i_i£U. khala 3 if four times; *Uk khulafa 3 three times; uj* 1 ^ 
mukhallafun four times; <-ik^ mukhlif once; <_£>LiaJ "ikhtilaf seven 
times; uJikl mukhtalif eight times; jj^S^ mukhtalifun twice and 
tjj^L^mustakhlafiin 11 times. 

tJJi khalafa u I [v. intrans.] to succeed, to follow, to come 
after (19:59) iisl^iil I s!ilL»l! I jclla i_ila. '^A,iu °(> t alai f/iere 
came after them successors neglecting prayer and following lusts 
II [v. trans.] 1 to act as deputy, to replace (7:142) iMj 
^°ja a ^ J Moses said to his brother Aaron, 'Take my 

place among my people' 2 to act or do something during 
someone's absence (7:150) J15 uJ 'Jl^t. aJ^ Jl\ CJj 
*(> ^ _^iak a«<f w/rera Moses returned to his people, angry and 
grieved, he said, 'How foul your conduct has been after my 
departure!' (or, 'What afoul thing you have put in my place after 
me!'). 

t-ili khullifa [pass, of v. II uAk khallafa] to be left behind 
(9: 1 18) I jila. 'jjill aj^jII ^jJc'j and to the three who were left behind. 

lM±j yukhalif [imperf. of v. Ill <-ilU. khalafa, trans.] 1 [with 
prep. Jl] to act or do something contrarily to someone after 
having forbidden such an act to him; to impact on something 
behind someone's back (11:88) U 'j ijj Uj a«<f 

/ Jo «of wawf to Jo, behind your backs, that which I have 
forbidden you to do 2 [with prep, jc] to go back on, fail to 
keep/obey (24:63) ?jUt 'jc. 'jjilllj 'ji^' and let those beware 
who go back on His (or, the Prophet's) command. 

t-ilii 'akhlafa [v. IV, trans.] 1 to go back on, to break or to fail 
to keep (e.g. a promise) (20:87) UsL. '&c.'J* Uikl U I jlll they said, 
'We did not break our word to you of our own accord' 2 to act 
contrary to, to let down, to fail (14:22) '^c'Jj jaJ 'ij °f&c.j aJII b) 



280 



ffiiU la God surely promised you a true promise, I promised you, 
and failed you 3 to compensate or replace something spent or lost, 
to reward something spent (34:39) j$i e'<^ !> U»j 

whatever you give in alms He will reward it. 

Likj tukhlaf\2 nA pers. imperf. of pass. v. IV <_kkt °ukhlifa] (of a 
promise) to be denied, to be broken (20:97) iikj y IV ^ ci'j 
a«<f you have a promise you will not be denied. 

i yatakhallaf [imperf. of v. V, intrans.] to stay behind, to 
hold back from, to be absent (9:120) J> '(4Jja. I>j U 
<dil J *jc. I jiki 'J i_jljtVl zY z's not proper for the people of 
Medina and those around them of the desert Arabs to hold back 
from following the messenger of God. 

<_ii£l ^ikhtalafa [v. VIII, intrans.] 1 to differ, to vary, to be 
different (8:42) iju-JI ffifoV Jujc-IjS jjj /ia<i yow promised each 
other [to fight/meet], you would surely have differed [in keeping] 
the appointment 2 to dispute (with), to disagree (with), to differ in 
opinion (on) (42:10) aIII ZSLi y 4ji Jualikl Uj whatever you 
may differ about is for God to judge. 

L^kl J ikhtulifa [pass, of v. VIII] to be disputed (11:110) 'Sttj 
aj| ^Jiila Ijjjle We gave Moses the Book, but it was 

differed about [lit. differences were expressed in respect to it]. 

i «K"'ml ^istakhlafa [v. X, trans.] to appoint as successor, to 
cause to follow (24:55) I> 'jjill uAkU US o^j^ 1 tsi f4^^j 
w/Z/ certainly make them successors in the land, as He made those 
before them successors. 

t-ik khalf \ [n.] 1 succeeding generation, successors (7:169) 
(jiiVl li» y=jc- uj- 1 ^ SJ^I I jjjj <-«5i fA,-^4 1> so a generation 
succeeded them who inherited the Book, choosing the fleeting 
gains of this lower [world] 2 behind, rear *(41:42) y JJaUll ajjU V 
Ailk '(> V'j Aji cja falsehood cannot approach it from any direction 
[lit. before or from behind] II [adverb of place] at the back, in the 
rear, behind (19:64) Uik Uj Ujjjl yj U to Him belongs what is 
before us and what is behind us. 

£jiiU khalifun [pi. of act. part. uJU\ khalif] those who stay 



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behind after others have gone to carry out a task, particularly war 
(9:83) 'jjilUJI 1 J>» <■&' f^j yow c/iose to s/f af 

Ziome the first time, so stay [now] with those who stay behind. 

ufcU khilaf [v. n.] being contrary, being in opposition; being 
behind, staying behind (9:81) <M Jj*«j <- i ^>- jjakUl ^ ja 

f/iose wfto were left behind [ and did not join in the Campaign of 
Tabuk] rejoiced at their staying behind the messenger of God; 
*(7:124) jjSu. °i> f>^°J'j / wi// cut off your hands and 

feet upon alternate sides [on opposite sides] . 

Aik khilfatan [v. n./n.] (the act of) coming one after the other, 
replacing one another; being different, alternating (25:62) ^ j*j 
<ak. jl^jllj Jjill J*-?- //e if is w/io made the night and day replace 
one another (or, come one after the other). 

t-illji khawalif [pi. of n. khalifatun, also said to be pi. of 
act. part. uJU. khalif] ones staying behind; women (because they 
stay at home when men go forth to war); the laggards, contrary 
ones (9:93) I y& 'ch ' j^O ^ jjp^y JjjUI UjI 

t_ill^aJ censure, however, is for those who sought your permission 
and, though rich, were pleased to be with the laggards (or, [at 
home[ with the women). 

AiJi khalifatun [n., pi. i_«£U. khaWif and ilili. khulafa"] 1 
representative, (2:30) <_P»j^ cs? dpi* cPj Jli ijj 

yowr Lord foW ffte angels, 'I am putting a representative on 
earth' 2 successor, heir (7:74) ^ '^Jfj £u '<> iUk ij I jjSilj 
L>i»jVl an<i remember when He made you heirs after c ad and 
established you in the land. 

^jikl mukhallafun [pi. of pass. part. uAkl mukhallaf] one who 
is left behind (48:16) l/>Vi |> 'o^il <i tell the desert Arabs 
who were left behind. 

Ljk^A mukhlif [act. part.] one who does not keep a promise, one 
who goes back on a promise (14:47) aLJj i_iikl ill! '^J^ !5la 50 
do not think that God will break His promise to His messengers. 

ufcUil ^ikhtilaf [v. n.] 1 difference (between), diversity, 
succession (10:6) o^jVlj pI'j-Ul ^ Aill Uj jl^sJIj tPI i-ibLiaJ cs? Ijj 



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'j jai pUV in f/ie succession of night and day, and in what God 
created in the heavens and earth, there truly are signs for those 
who are mindful [of God] 2 discrepancy, contradiction, 
inconsistency (4:82) I jik^l jjc. Sc. '<> 'jlj 'Ji'jall 'ojji^i ^ 
IjjjS wi/Z f/iey nof ponder on the Qur'an?, if it had been from 
anyone other than God, they would surely have found much 
inconsistency in it. 

i itiVn mukhtalif [quasi-act. part.; pi. uj>4^ mukhtalifun] 1 
different from [one another]; disputing with one another (11:118) 
'u£?^'« QjMjs! sVj 0*^' J=s^ *i«£ jJj /za<i yowr Lord willed, 
He would have made humankind one nation, but they continue to 
be different 2 varying, diverse (16:69) > « JJjJi I> 
tjAjtt 5U2 <jl jlS /rom their bellies comes forth a drink of diverse 
hues in which there is healing for humankind 3 opposing, 
contradictory (51:8) ; «Wo JjS ^ '^1 yow are o/ opposing 
opinions. 

an mustakhlafun [pi. of pass. part. ■ akjl^ mustakhlaf] 
those who are appointed as successors, inheritors, heirs, or 
trustees (57:7) 'q jjlVi* . ^ J^Jkk I jaai! j and give owf o/ f/iaf over 
w/iic/i //e /las ma<fe vom successors. 

<i/<J/C kh-l-q to create, to originate, to design, creation, the entire 
creation, the human race; natural disposition, innate nature; to be 
shapely, comely; to deal tactfully with others, to assume a certain 
disposition; to attribute falsely; to estimate; to be of good 
character; luck, share; to be capable; (of a garment) to wear out; a 
fragrant substance. Of this root, 10 forms occur 239 times in the 
Qur'an: jii khalaqa 151 times; khuliqa 11 times; jk khalq 
52 times; JlU. khaliq eight times; jjilU. khaliqun four times; jbu. 
khallaq twice; 4iki> mukhallaqatun twice; JptiaJ J ikhtilaq once; 
jpU. khalaq six times and jk khuluq twice. 

Jk khalaqa u [v. trans.] 1 to create anew, to bring into being 
(25:54) ?L\1I J> Jjk ^1 jij ara<f He it was who created from 
water a human being 2 to form or to shape (3:49) j> jkt 
<S1I jib I'jlk jj^a ajs ^aili Jikll jjLlI / wi/Z s/ia/?e /or yow owf of 
clay [a thing] like the form of birds, then I will breathe into it and 



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it will become a bird by God's will. 

Jk khuliqa [pass, v.] to be created (25:3) V 3*11* 
'jjSki 'fi j lis oj^h tafce as/<fe /rom Him gods that create 
nothing, and are themselves created. 

<jk khalq I [v. n.] the act of creating, (3:190) £lyL&\ "Ji 
pUV J+j&j tPI M^lj cpajVlj frw/y, in creation of 
the heavens and earth, and in the alternation of night and day, 
are signs for those endowed with minds II [n.] 1 creatures, all 
creation, human race (31:11) |> 'jjill <#5jj^ ^ ti^- ^ 

f/w's w Got/ 's creation. Now, show Me that which those besides 
Him have created 2 design of creation, shape, stature (7:69) 
Aialiij Jkll J^S'ijj »- jj ? 'j5 j*j '<> dak ^r»V ij I jjSil j ara<f remember 
when He made you successors after the people of Noah and 
increased you in stature 3 stage of creation (39:6) uj^ <jl 

Jk pkj '(> lik ^t^t //<? creates you in your mothers ' 
wombs, one stage [of forms] after another in three-fold [depths 
of] darkness 4 lying, fabrication (according to one reading of 
verse 26:137)oJjS/l (tjk) jk V] l& y f/i/s w none £>wf r/ie 
fabrication of those gone past. 

JJLi khaliq I [act. part., pi. khaliqun] one engaged in 

creating (38:71) oa^ i> 'j^ lS^ cPj «4j <J5 j) w/ien yowr 

Lore? sa/<i to the angels, 'I am creating a human from clay' II [n. 
with the definite article: an attribute of God] the Creator, the 
Maker (59:24) isji\ 'jJliil aIII > //e w Go d, the Creator, the 
Originator. 

jpU khallaq [intens. act. part.] the greatest creator (15:86) o) 

s A S . e 

JJjJI ipUJI ja L^fij yowr Lord is the Supreme Creator, the All 
Knowing. 

Aikl mukhallaqatun [fern. pass, part.] formed, shaped (22:5) lii 

created you from dust, then a drop of seed, then a clinging mass, 
then a lump of flesh, both shaped and unshaped. 

(pi*\ "ikhtilaq [v. n.] fabrication, lying, invention (38:7) Imau. U« 
iptkl V] Ija 'oj Sj^N ^ cs? I^H we die? wof /z<w of this in the former 
faith: this is nothing but invention. 



284 



<jpU khalaq [n.] share, portion; standing (3:77) 'dJj&k hi 
,ji '(4^ Y ^ j 1 ^ ^ j ^ ?5h4 those who sell out 
God's covenant and their own oaths for a small price-those will 
have no share in the Hereafter. 

Jli khuluq [n.] interpreted as habit, custom, character, natural 

tJ Si 

disposition, traits, manners, way of life (68:4) LS X*1 '<Mj 

truly you are of great moral character. 

J/J/C kh-l-l opening, aperture; to go in between; to persuade; to be 
poor; character, trait, attribute; friendship, a close confidant; 
lover, loved person; wife; wine, vinegar; a tattered garment; 
anklets. Of this root, four forms occur 13 times in the Qur'an: Ak 
khullatun once; khilal eight times; JJi khalil three times and 
°akhilla J once. 

& khullatun [n., pi. J&U £Ma/] friendship (2:254) 'jJl l^tu 
AilLi Vj Vj <ii V f (^5^ 'u' i-Jjs 'us 'f^^jj ' j^' ' yow 
w/io believe, give from what We have provided for you, before the 
Day comes in which there is no bargaining, no friendship, and no 
intercession. 

JbU khilal I [pi. used adverbially] 1 (small gaps, breaches, 
openings) through, amongst, between, within (9:47) j>£kU. 
AUslI ^jijj ^<?y would have scurried about in your midst, trying to 
sow discord among you 2 [with prep. <>] among, within 
(30:48) '(> (jjjll i/jia yew see f/ze rain issuing from 
within them II [either v. n. of v. Ill or pi. of noun khullatun] 
the act of being friendly, having friends; friendships (14:31) |> 
V j <g jyj V 'J before a Day comes when there will be 

no trading or friendship. 

Jjk khalil [n., pi. ^akhilla^ 1 a very close intimate friend 
(43:67) o^=^ ( 4 ^4 ora Day, close friends will 

become each other's enemies 2 (an epithet of Abraham) the close 
friend of God (4:125) Xk '^\'Ji <W ii2lj Gog? toofc Abraham as a 
close friend. 

j/d/t kh-l-w to be vacant, to be solitary, to vacate, to be vacated; 



285 



wide open space; to be set free, to divorce; to be alone or in 
seclusion with someone; a cell, a hive; to devote oneself to 
something; to go past in time, something of the past, passage of 
time; to produce herbage, pasture. Of this root, four forms occur 
28 times in the Qur'an: JL*. khald 25 times; Ji*. khalla once; 
takhalla once and ajSU. khdliyatun once. 

Jii. khald u [v. intrans.] 1 to become of the past (2:141) &f ^ffi 
cl^s. U. cAk jS this is a community that has become of the past; 

for them is what they earned 2 to be alone, to be by oneself, to be 
in seclusion (3:119) JajAll J> J-UVI I I'jk lilj to when they 
are alone, they bite [their] fingertips in rage at you 3 to become 
empty, to become free, to become clear *(12:9) '^J, Ak'j S±i 
your father's undivided attention will be yours [lit. your father's 

face becomes free for you] 4 to become the norm, the practice, to 
become time-honoured (40:85) »i# ^ cA^ ja ^1 Aill ajL. this is 
God's way which has become established as the norm for His 
creatures 5 [also with prep. ^] to come and go past [in time] 
(35:24) tfci Su. VI &i I> 'Jfj there is not a community, but a 
warner has come [lit. passed] among them 6 [also with prep. <^1)] 
to meet in seclusion with, to be alone with (2:14) J& I'jk lilj 
Ul IjlU w/iew f/iey come to &e secluded with their devils 

[devilish leaders], they say, 'We're [really] with you. ' 

Ji. khalla [v. II, trans.] to let go *(9:5) \%j I j^litj I jto ^ 
J41iiu I jlii »l£jll £>wf // f/iey repent, maintain prayer and pay the 
prescribed alms, let them go on their way. 

takhalla [v. V, intrans.] to let go; to become vacant, to 
become free; to make oneself vacant or free (84:4) 1*js U> cM'j 
tiAiuj and it casts out what is in it and becomes empty. 

Auili khdliyatun [fem. quasi-act. part.] that which has gone past 
(in time), (of time) gone by (69:24) j»$fl ^ 'ftfEJ ^ liu* I jj>5Ij I 
ajIUJI eaf a«<f <frmfc with enjoyment as a reward for what you have 
done in days gone by. 

J /f/C kh-m-d (of fire) to die out, to abate; to faint, to be silent, 
contemplative. Of this root, ujV^ khdmidun occurs twice in the 



286 



Qur' an. 

£ji«ti khamidun [pi. of act. part. khamid] spent, extinct, 
expired, dead (36:29) ujV^- 1^ s Vj <=4^ V) b] # vW// &e 
owe Wast, and they will be expired. 

kh-m-r to mix, to infect, to intoxicate, intoxicating drinks, 
wine and spirits, to ferment; to leaven, to raise; to hide, 
head-cover, (of a woman) to cover the head and face; to bear a 
grudge. Of this root, two forms occur seven times in the Qur' an: 
"J*l khamr six times and "J*± khumur once. 

>*i khamr [n.] 1 intoxicating drink, spirits, wine in particular 
(2:219) jjjS p\ J5 jt-y^lj jUiJI jc. dlj^lLy f/zey ask you 

[Prophet] about intoxicants and gambling: say, 'There is great 
sin in both' 2 grapes and other fruits that may be fermented into 
wine (12:36) \'J*± ^1 UJLikl Jli one of them said, T see 

myself pressing grapes. ' 

>»i khumur [pi. of n. jUa. khimar] head-covers (24:31) jjj^j 
b^ji?- je. b* a«<i they should draw their head scarves to 
cover their necklines. 

0*/?/t kh-m-s five, fifth, one fifth, to make five, to become five, to 
become the fifth, Thursday; great army. Of this root, four forms 
occur eight times in the Qur' an: XJL± khamsatun three times; 
aIwU. khamisatun twice; qJ^. khamsun twice and khums 
once. 

khamsatun [card, no.] (18:22) Lk'j '^k '^Jla HJaL 'oA&j 
<^JL and [others] say, 'They were five, their sixth was their 
dog '-guessing in the dark. 

khamisatun [fem. quasi-act. part.] the fifth (24:7) AiwUJj 
(jjjMI 't> u 1 ^ °u! ^ ^ ^jkl b' «w<i [swear] the fifth [time] that the 
curse of God be on him, if he is one of the lying. 

(•jjl^i khamsun [card, no.] fifty (29:14) J& Ikjj UL'J jSTj 
lllc 'j*^ VI <— ill We sen? /Voa/z fo his people, and he 

stayed among them for fifty years short of a thousand. 



287 



khums [ord. no.] fifth (8:41) <il Jjti f ^ ]> J^x. UJ I J*$c\'j 

whatever you win [as spoils of war], a fifth of it belongs to God 
and the Messenger, to those of kin [ said to be the needy of the 
Prophet' s family ] and orphans, to the needy and the wayfarers. 

o^/f/t kh-m-s hunger, famine, to be hungry, to be slim around the 
waist; the hollow of the foot; a heavy garment of striped wool or 
silk. Of this root, a . makhmasatun occurs twice in the Qur'an. 

Zuu iL a makhmasatun [n.] hunger (9:120) V'j J4^4 V ^ 
JJU^ <j 'j4J LyS V] ... *M lW" (^i AlaaaJa V j C-iuaj that is because 
they never suffer any thirst, weariness or hunger in the cause of 
God but that a good deed is thereby recorded for them. 

Hf/t kh-m-t type of lotus tree; bitter fruit, inedible fruit; fragrance 
of the blossoms of fruit-bearing trees; to ferment, to be haughty; 
to take by force. Of this root, J=^ khamt occurs once in the 
Qur' an. 

khamt [n.] bitter fruit (also said to mean few fruits) 
(34:16) i^a. Jfl '^Iji (jjjjk 'n*/ri>i JiUEuj aw<f We replaced for them 
their two gardens with two others that yielded bitter fruit. 

j/j/6/c kh-n-z-r thick axe or adze; to be rough and crude; pig, wild 
boar; ulcers afflicting the neck. Of this root, two forms occur five 
times in the Qur'an: jjjia. khinzir four times and jjjlii khanazir 
once. 

jjjji khinzir [n., pi. jjjUi khanazir] pig (2:173) J^Sllc ^jk Uul 
jjjjiJI ^xTj Jill j 4j1«1I //e /ias on/y forbidden you unslaughtered 
dead animals, blood, pig 's meat. 

oVci/c kh-n-s to contract, to withdraw, to hide in, to shrink away, to 
cause to draw back; deer's shelter. Of this root, two forms occur 
once each in the Qur'an: [>>Ua. khannas; and Jjaia. khunnas. 

^iLii khannas [intens. act. part.] one given to drawing back, 
shrinking away [epithet of the Devil, so described because he 



fails to come forward to assist his followers in their time of need, 
or because he slinks away when God's name is mentioned, or 
because he sneaks up on people unnoticed to tempt them] 
*(114:4) (juUaJI the slinking, the sneaking, the devious one. 

o*ii khunnas [pi. of quasi-act. part. q4± khanis] the planets 
which retrace their own courses. Reference in verse (81:15) '^Jt 
ui&l] J'j*l\ LyoJU / swear by the planets that recede, move, and 
hide is said by philologists to be to the 'luminous five', namely, 
Mars, Saturn, Jupiter, Venus and Mercury, so described because 
they are observed to have a bi-directional motion, thus earning for 
themselves another epithet of 'the puzzled planets'. Other 
interpreters, however, take the reference to be generally to the 
stars in their rising and setting orbits. 



<i/c)/c kh-n-q to strangle, to stifle, to choke, an animal killed by 
choking; necklace; constriction, the mouth of a valley, small 
apertures; diphtheria. Of this root, <aiki« munkhaniqatun occurs 
once in the Qur'an. 

4 V\V\'<\ munkhaniqatun [pass, part.] [jur.] strangled (animal) 

(5:3) Ajja '//ill j 4j aIII jjil JaI Uoj jj^ijJ A^J ^jlr- LlLa^jk. 

... I'iJijAj forbidden to you [for food] are un-slaughtered dead 
animals; blood; pigs' meat; anything consecrated to other than 
God; strangled animals, those killed by violent blows . . . 

j/j/C kh-w-r the lowing of an ox or a cow, to low, to moo; 
weakness, to weaken at the time of need, a coward; low land 
between high hills. Of this root, jl'ja. khuwar occurs twice in the 
Qur' an. 

jlji khuwar [n.] lowing, mooing (20:88) <] I'iuk y^f. J4 1 z'j^ 
jl'ji so he produced for them a calf, an effigy that produced a 
lowing sound. 

o^h/t kh-w-d to wade, to ford, a ford; to plunge into a subject 
heedlessly, to engage in discussion without much knowledge; 
ambiguity, confusion, to shake up. Of this root, three forms occur 
11 times in the Qur'an: ^U. khada eight times; o*>°j± khawd 



289 



twice and jjlajU. kha J idun once. 

o^Li khada u [v. intrans.] to indulge in idle talk, to plunge into 
malicious gossip, to talk abusively, speak evil of someone 
(6:68) t*ytv^ ^ Ijlajij (^ia. "4-^ (j^j" 1 ^ (jl uj^j^! oi^' '— $j 
ojjc. w/iera yow come across people who speak ill of Our 
revelations, turn away from them until they move on to another 
topic. 

o^ji khawd [n./v. n.] idle talk, malicious gossip, abusive talk 
(6:91) 'dJ^k iJ 'fiji /eave them alone playing in their vain 

talk. 

kha^idun [pi. of act. part. "o^jU. kha'id] one engaged in 
idle talk or vain discourse (74:45) 'jj^UJI ^ Lp»jaJ vve 
indulged in vain talk with vain talkers. 

*-*/j/t kh-w-f fear, fright, to fear, to frighten; awe, concern, worry; 
to know, to suspect, to become aware; unworthy act; fighting, to 
decrease, to shorten. Of this root, eight forms occur 124 times in 
the Qur'an: <_ilk khdfa 83 times; i-i^a. khawwafa four times; <_ifji 
khawf 26 times; UuU. kha'if twice; kha"ifun once; %i. 

khifatun six times; ^jj^j takhwif once and <_i takhawwuf once. 

<-it». fc/ia/a a [v. trans.] 1 to fear (8:26) oJjll ^V-=>n 'J 
afraid that people might grab you from all directions 2 to be in 
awe of, to revere (55:46) cp^ <ij ^tiu <_«li '^Aj as for him who 
reveres the majesty of his Lord there are two gardens 3 to worry 
or be anxious about something, to be concerned (4:9) jl OtJ^ll Jt&tfj 
j^jL I jaU. liU^ J^ik '(> I jSjj a«<f /ef f/iose w/jo, i/ they left 
behind them weak offspring, would be concerned for them [lest 
someone would treat them as badly] fear [in their behaviour 
towards orphans] 4 to sense, to experience, to come against 

(4:128) ur, nj y iy/ r . c ui n^i 

IkLa U44h a«<i ?/a vw/e experiences high-handedness or alienation 
on her husband's part, neither of them will be faulted if they 
agree between themselves on a settlement. 

lJjZu yukhawwif [imperf. of v. II <_tfji khawwafa, trans.] 1 to 
cause to fear, to frighten (3:175) J>a jsUj !5la JiUTj <_i^i5 yJ4^l ^ m 



290 



that Satan only intimidates his followers, so do not fear them 2 to 
warn, to admonish (39:16) <j <M aii w/f/i f/iaf Go<i 

warai His servants. 

ijji khawf [v. n./n.] 1 fear, peril, dread (4:83) j> 'fiilk lilj 
5b Ijc-lil j c>Vl w/ieraever f/iere comes to them [news of any] 
matter concerning safety or peril, they spread it around 2 worry, 
concern (10:62) ^ j *-*j=^ Y ^ »W *u! ^' as /or f/iose 

w/io are c/ose to God, there [should] be no concern about them, 
nor shall they grieve. 

lUL kha°if [quasi-act. part., pi. qj&l kha D ifuri\ (one) 
experiencing fear, being afraid, fearful (28:21) Liaju UiU. jr'_>i 
so /ie left the city, fearful and vigilant. 

XLi khlfatun [v. n./n.] 1 fear, dread (30:28) J^iaiil 'fS^S ^jslls 
Jo you fear them with the fear [you have] for each other? 2 awe 
(13:13) ^sj^. 'q* <£SXA'j »iDj icjll j4uuj the thunder sings His 
praises, and [so do[ the angels, in awe of Him. 

uLjij takhwlf\y. n.] the act of warning (17:59) V) CjUVU J^jj Uj 
liijij We do not send the signs except to give warning. 

JTjij takhawwuf [v. n.] interpreted as either reducing, 
decreasing, lessening, or as fearing, dreading *(16:47) Jfc. 'fiia-t 'j 
or He/punishment overtakes them by gradual decrease in 
fortune (or, He/it takes them by fear). 

d/j/t kh-w-l (there is a degree of overlap between this root and 
J/cs/^ kh-y-l) maternal uncle, maternal aunt; household, servants, 
helpers; ownership, property; to give in ownership, to bestow; to 
authorise, to enable; an overseer; to show pride, to scatter. Of this 
root, four forms occur eight times in the Qur'an: Jj± khawwala 
three times; khal 1 1 times; JjaJ °akhwal once and ^VU- khalat 
three times. 

Jji khawwala [v. II, trans.] to grant, to accord, to bestow 
(39:8) I> <JJ j^ti U Ai« ^«kj iJ'ji. lij once //e grants 
him a favour from Him, he forgets that for which he had been 
calling [ God] before. 



291 



JU khal [n., pi. Jl'ja.1 "akhwal] maternal uncle (33:50) plij 
'jjklA (jjSui '^VU. pUjj and f/ie daughters of your uncles and 
aunts on the mother's side who migrated with you. 

little khalat [pi. of fem. All khalatun] maternal aunts (24:61) 'J 
°»SVU p jij or houses of your maternal aunts. 

6/j/c kh-w-n treachery, falsehood, disloyalty; to betray, to let down; 
to give false advice; to shortchange; a furtive glance, to glance 
furtively; to look after; to fall on hard times. Of this root, six 
forms occur 16 times in the Qur'an: 'jU. khana five times; 'cft^a 
yakhtan twice; AjUa. khiyanatun twice; jjjjU. kha D inun three times; 
<i2U. kha'inatun twice and khawwan twice. 

£ti khana u [v. trans.] 1 to betray (8:71) I jiU. jSa iiiuUa. I jJjjj 'Jj 
J^S *(> ilil // they mean to betray you, they have betrayed God 
before 2 to fail a trust (12:52) kL\ J\ ai'j ^ 

/" testimony should be enough proof] that I did not betray his [ the 
master's] trust behind his back 3 to break a pledge, to violate an 
agreement (8:27) 'oJ*^i 'f^'j J^UU Ijijijj and [do not] knowingly 
break your pledges. 

&jjtiij takhtanun [imperf. of v. VIII 'jtii.1 "ikhtan, trans.] to 

teg > ,a S a t , 

deceive, to defraud, to cheat (4:107) '^4^1 'ov^ oi^ i> Vj 
do not argue for those who betray their own souls (or, who are 
false to themselves, or, who betray one another). 

*JuL khiyanatun I [v. n.] breaking of a covenant, betraying 
(8:71) I> <lil Ijita. ^tuij?- l_Aui bjj but if they mean to betray 
you, they have betrayed God before II [n.] treachery, betrayal, 
(8:58) ?\'Ju JSs. 'j^jil iajla AjUi ^ J> s jaLkj lifj awj /f yow /ear 
treachery on the part of any people, throw it [their treaty] back at 
them equally/openly. 

£j^ti khd"inun [pi. of act. part. IjjU. kha^in; fem. ajjU. 
kha'inatun] a treacherous person, a cheat (4:105) 'uyjUii Vj 
I 'u 1 ^ fl"^ do rao? »e an advocate for the treacherous; *(40:19) ajjU. 
C^HS furtive glances, stealthy glances, furtive looks. 

"dfe khawwan [intens. act. part.] one given to treachery, a 
vicious traitor (4:107) llul Ul^ji j> L>au V aIII y Go<f <foes nof 



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love anyone given to treachery and sin. 

4 hit. kh-w-y space, void, an opening, emptiness, to be deserted; to 
be derelict, to be crumbling; ruins; to be uprooted; wasteland; 
hunger. Of this root, ajjU. khawiyatun occurs five times in the 
Qur' an. 

AjjLi khawiyatun [fem. quasi-act. part.] 1 fallen down, ruined 
(27:52) I ajjU J4j ^ those are their homes, desolate 
ruins as a result of their acting unjustly; *(18:42) I^Ajjc. j& 
completely destroyed [lit. empty on its trellises] 2 uprooted, 
hollow (69:7) JjjU. jl*^' as if they were hollow palm tree 
trunks. 

"A#/C kh-y-b the losing arrow in a game of fortune; to fail, to be 
disappointed; to go wrong; frustration, failure. Of this root, two 
forms occur five times in the Qur' an: LsU. khaba four times; and 
jjjjU. kha'ibun once. 

ljU khaba i [v. intrans.] to lose, to fail, to come to nothing 
(20:111) '(> jsj and those who carry [the burden of 

having committed] injustice will meet with failure. 

£jljti kha"ibun [pi. of quasi-act. part. LuU. kha'ib] (one who 
is) losing, failing, disappointed, a failure (3:127) 'jjill '(> lijja ^-WsjI 
jjjjjU. I jjiaia j' I jj^ aw<5? ffotf might cut off a part of the 
disbelievers' [army] or frustrate them so that they turn on their 
heels, losers. 

j/<#/C kh-y-r goodness, to be good, to be of use; to put ahead, to 
select above others, the select, the choice, the best; to have the 
option, an option, preference, to seek the best, to seek God's 
guidance before an action. Of this root, six forms occur 198 times 
in the Qur' an: 'Jlkl "ikhtdra four times; jjjjai yatakhayyarun 
twice; jja. khayr 178 times; jUa.1 ^akhyar twice; ^Ijja. khayrat 10 
times; and s'jja. khiyaratun twice. 

jUil "ikhtdra [v. VIII, trans.] 1 to select from, to choose from 
(7:155) \3&kA ^Vj ^j 5 ^ "J^j a«<i Moses chose from his 



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people seventy men for a time set by Us 2 [with prep. Jic] to 
prefer, to choose above (44:32) 'o&K*i\ JSs. pic. Js& Jiljj5il SHj We 
chose them above all others in full knowledge. 

'J^ yatakhayyar [imperf. of v. V jk2 takhayyara, trans, 

(imperf. prefix 2 is elided from OjJ^ takhayyarun in verse 

(68:38)] to seek the best, to select (56:20) 'ajj&k ^ an d 
[there will be] fruit of any [kind] that they chose. 

joi khayr I [n.] 1 goodness, all that is good (3:26) 'JjpJ '44f in 
Your hand is the good 2 much wealth, great property (2:180) LuS 

jJJJ^Ij L^JIjU ^-ajJI 'lya- ^j2 (jj i— l^all ISjkl jl^aa. Ijj 'pSjlc. ZS 

prescribed for you, when death comes to one of you if he is 
leaving behind great property, that he should make bequests to 
parents and close relatives II [elat.] 1 [usually with prep. <>] 
better (2:263) I^ujj J£La |> "Jp- '«'J^j ^JJ*^ Jj5 a kind word 
[from a would-be giver[ and forgiveness [from the would-be 
receiver of charity [ is better than almsgiving after which follows 
hurt 2 [in construct the best (3:110) o»\-& cjk jil -U 'jji puS 

yow are r7ie &esf nation that has been brought forth for 
humankind. 

jUiS J akhyar [pi. of n./quasi-act. part. jja. khayr] truly good, 
the best (38:47) JjiVl 'j ^W . ^B J^J liuc. J4jjj a«<i ?&ey, in Owr s/gfe, 
are among the chosen, of the best. 

liljii khayrat [pi. of fem. n. Sjji khayratun] 1 good deeds 
(21:73) pljjaJI ffcJ) ^°Jj 'jj^W uj% °JkU£«^.j We made them 
leaders, guiding by Our command, and We inspired them to do 
good deeds 2 rewards (9:88) cjl'jjaJ J4- 'iMjj '^^j '^'J^i 1 j- 3 * 1 ^- 
they strive hard with their possessions and their persons, the best 
rewards belong to them 3 good, pious women (55:70) ^Ijji 
yiua. in them there are virtuous, beautiful women. 

I'jiL khiyaratun [n.] choice (33:36) lij <V> Vj i>j*J 
°=a jUI j> s'jjaJI J41 "ojSj 'J IjUl AJji-jj Aill z'z* z's nof fitting for any 
believing man or believing woman, once God and His Messenger 
have decided on a matter, to have a choice of their own [ in the 
matter]. 



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ty<#/C kh-y-t thread, wire, string, rope; to sew, to stitch up, needle, 
tailor, tailoring. Of this root, two forms occur three times in the 
Qur'an: lui khayt twice and khiyat once. 

iaj* fc/iay/ [n.] streak; line; thread (2:187) ^£1 'J^w Ijjj-SIj I jlSj 
Jkill J> SjJj\ J=ikJI t> t>=S?^ -^p^ 1 eat and drink until the white 
thread/streak of dawn becomes distinct for you from the black. 

JaUa. khiyat [n. of inst.] needle (7:40) g£ JS*. AJaJI 'jj^i Sfj 
JaUaJ Jlu. a«<i f/iey will not enter the Garden until a thick 
rope/camel passes through the eye of a needle. 

d/tg/t kh-y-l (there is a degree of overlapping between this root and 
J/j/£ kh-w-T) imagining, to fancy, to suppose, to guess, to 
presuppose, to foresee; spectre, ghost, apparition, shadow; pride, 
conceit, snobbery; horse riders, horses; maternal uncle and aunt; 
mole (on skin). Of this root, three forms occur nine times in the 
Qur'an: l&h yukhayyal once; Jlii mukhtal three times and Jp- 
khayl five times. 

Jj£j yukhayyal [imperf. of pass. v. II Jla. khuyyila] to be made 
to appear in an imaginary form, to be made to look like 
something else (20:66) l^ii J«aJv !> $J Jfe> <4N#- ^ 

Zo a«<f behold, their ropes and staffs were made-through their 
sorcery-to appear to him to be moving. 

JtiaJ* mukhtal [quasi-act. part.] arrogant, proud, conceited 
(31:18) j>i Jte^, t_ia4 V <M s j] Go<f <foes not love any of the 
arrogant boastful [people]. 

Jji. khayl [coll. n.] 1 horses (16:8) U jKjj! jjasJ'j JUullj JjaJI'j 
j and horses, mules and donkeys for you to ride [them] and as 
an adornment 2 cavalry, riding forces (17:64) ^ijjaj '^c LJaJj 
dlkjj and assail them with the noise of your cavalry and infantry. 

?l^/t kh-y-m tent, woollen tent of Bedouins, a dwelling, to settle in 
a place; to hold back; to be secure; personal disposition. Of this 
root, jLUa. khiyam occurs once in the Qur'an. 

"{LL khiyam [pi. of n. khaym] tents, pavilions, canopies; 



295 



camel-litters in which women travel *(55:72) ^ ol 
dark-eyed maidens, treasured, highly valued [lit. sheltered] in 
pavilions. 



i/dal 



JM J al-dal the eighth letter of the alphabet; it represents a voiced 
dento-alveolar plosive sound. 

Lj/\/id- D -b custom, habit, persistence, to persevere, to do regularly, 
day and night. Of this root, two forms occur six times in the 
Qur'an: jJj da^b five times and lWjIj da^ibayn once. 

Lii'j da 3 b [n./v. n.] 1 way, custom, manner; habit, attitude; case, 
situation (3:11) °?&y± <^ffl '^'^ IsUL I £k. J^La '<> 'jj^lj 'jj^li J* J-^ 
Z/fce case/attitude/way of] Pharaoh's people and their 

predecessors, they denied Our revelations, and God punished 
them for their sins 2 [adverbially] 'as usual', 'in the way it has 
been done' (12:47) d'j 'g* 'cxfc-'Jy he said, 'You should sow 
for seven [consecutive] years as usual. ' 

da'ibayn [dual of act. part. LuIj da'ib] constant, diligent 
(14:33) j^lj ^ ^ «?a<i<? sw« a«<i f/ie 

moon useful to you, constant on their paths. 

Jjl'j Dawud [a proper name, borrowing from Hebrew, occurring 16 
times in the Qur'an] King and Prophet David (Sam) (27:16) <->Jjj 
f'^Zi JS liy J j jlkll ijJ=>ia liaSc. ^_>oLaM l^jlU Jlij j jl j JjUuLi Solomon 
succeeded David, He said, 'People, we have been taught the 
speech of birds, and we have been given [abundance] of 
everything. ' 

The Qur'an speaks of how David killed Goliath, how God 
gave him sovereignty and wisdom and taught him what He 
pleased (2:251), how he also made the mountains and the birds 
echo God's praises together with him, and how He softened iron 



297 



for him, saying, (34:10-11) 'Make coats of chain mail and 
measure the links well' The Biblical story of David's 
appropriation of another man's wife is not directly mentioned in 
the Qur'an but is hinted at in (38:21-6), where he is made to see 
his error and repents. God gives him the Zabur (4:163), a sacred 
book, said to be the Psalms, and this makes him a prophet as well 
as a king. 

d-b-b to move slowly, to proceed gently; to move on feet; 
members of the animal kingdom; to spread, to creep, to circulate, 
to flow; thudding sound. Of this root, two forms occur 18 times in 
the Qur'an: 4jIj dabbatunlA times and Liljj dawwab four times. 

AjI'j dabbatun [n., pi. Lsljj dawwab] 1 living creatures in 
general (42:29) jul'j I> £u lPO^'j <~^'y^ <3*- i>j 
among His signs is the creation of the heavens and earth and all 
the living creatures He has scattered throughout them 2 [in 
contrast with humankind] creatures that move on or in the earth 
(6:38) '(£Xd VI aj^h jjj=y Vj (_P»jVI iJ I> there are 
no creatures on the earth, or birds that fly with their two wings, 
but [ they are ] communities like yourselves. 

j/lj/j d-b-r back, backside, buttocks, the tail end, to turn one's back; 
to boycott; to plan, to arrange, to organise, to prepare; to depart, 
to die; root, origin. Of this root, 11 forms occur 44 times in the 
Qur'an: jjJj yudabbir four times; jj'jjj yatadabbar twice; j£y 
yaddabbar twice; jfil J adbara four times; orj£& mudabbirat once; 
"ji^mudbir twice; jjjji mudbirun six times; jU'i °idbdr once; 
jjIj Jafo'r four times; jjj <iwZ?wr five times and jLLl "adbar 13 
times. 

yudabbir [imperf. of v. II 'Jj'j dabbara, trans.] to manage, 
to govern, to execute (10:31) <M 'jjljiLi 'j^Vl °i>j ... and 
who governs everything?', they are sure to say, 'God. ' 

^j'iu yatadabbar [imperf. of v. V j£a tadabbara, trans.] to 
contemplate, to ponder upon, to meditate on (47:24) ^ 
l^lUal ^Jc Jj 'jli'jall <fo f/iey wof contemplate the Qur'an?, or is 
it that hearts [still] have their own locks placed upon them? 



298 



'jZ±i yaddabbar [imperf. of v. VIII JjjI "iddabbara, an 
assimilated form of v. jjjjI "itdabbara, trans.] to contemplate, to 
ponder upon, to examine carefully (23:68) U« ;»! JjSIl I j'Ji J^I 
tjjfj^l f^iUli ch °j Ziave f&ey nof contemplated the Word [of God]?, 
or has there come to them something that did not come to their 
forefathers? 

jj'i "adbara [v. IV, intrans.] 1 to turn one's back on, to turn 
down (70:17) Jfji'j jjJ °(> I jL'jj z'f w/ZZ call [claim] the one who 
turns his back [on the truth] and runs away 2 to retreat, to recede 
(74:33) jj'J ij JjlUj Z?y night when it recedes! 

cjIjja* mudabbirat [pi. of fem. act. part. s'Ja& mudabbiratun] 
those planning, carrying out, managing, executing (79:5) pl'J!a«lli 
I jUl an<i f/iose bringing the matter to an end! 

mudbir [act. part., pi. ojV- 2 - mudbirun] turning one's back, 
turning away, running away, taking to one's heels (27:10) <jflj 
Liiu jij Ijj'i (jlj a jlk l^jtk IaTj Ilia au^c 'A«<f throw down your 
staff, ' but when he saw it writhing like a snake (or, a demon), he 
turned tail and fled, and did not come back. 

"Jiii\ 'idbar [v. n.] (act of) retreating, setting, fading [of stars] 
(52:49) fjV^ J£j'j lPI J>j glorify Him at night and at the 
fading of the stars. 

jjI'j dabir [n.] origin, root, the last part, the end part (7:72) 
UjUL I j^iS 'jjjll 'jjj UkLTj We cwf f/ie roofs of f/iose w/io denied Our 
revelations. 

'Ji'idubur I [n., pi. 3 adbar] back, backside, end part, the last 
part (12:27) IjjSiloll J> ja'j CuiSa jjj '(> !a <L=>i«S bj'j but if his 
shirt has been torn from the back, then she has lied and he is one 
of the truthful; *(33:15) 'jjT^ they turn tail; *(15:65) jil 

'fAjU'i vvaZZc behind them [lit. follow their backs]; *(4:47) o*jaj 
UjU'i ^ liijjs Ia j We deprive a [few] people of [Our] 
direction, turning them on their heels, or, We shame them and 
frustrate their hopes [lit. We obliterate faces and turn them upon 
their backs] II [adverbially] at the end, closely after (50:40) j>j 
j jkLlI jU'Jj Aklui Jjiil proclaim His praise in the night and at the 



299 



end of every prayer [lit. prostration]. 
j/di/j d-th-r to become blotted out, to be forgotten; to become cold, 
to rust; to be covered, to be wrapped up, an outer garment. Of this 
root, jS'i muddaththir occurs once in the Qur' an. 

muddaththir [an assimilated form of act. part. 
mutadaththir of v. V 'J£a taddaththara] 1 one who is wrapping 
himself up (74:1-2) jiii '<=i I^IU vow, the one wrapping 

yourself [in your cloak], arise and give warning; * jS&ll name of 
Sura 74, Meccan sura, so-named because of reference in verse 1 
to 'the Wrapped One' . 

j/c/j d-h-r to chase away, to kick out, to repel, to banish. Of this 
root, two forms occur four times in the Qur' an: jjki duhur once 
and madhur three times. 

jjkj <iw/iwr [v. n.] repelling, driving off (37:8-9) I> 'jj^j 
I jjki t_ul^. pelted from every side and driven away. 

jjk'i« madhur [pass, part.] vanquished, repelled, driven away, 
rejected, banished (7:18) \'jJ*X* lljiia ^jil Jl /fe said, 'Get 
out of it, disgraced and banished. ' 

o^/cl* d-h-d to slip, to become slippery, to lose one's footing; to 
weaken, to lose one's grip; to refute, to invalidate, to argue down, 
prove wrong, (of the sun) to move away from the middle of the 
sky. Of this root, three forms occur four times in the Qur' an: 

yudhidun twice; a^J'j dahidatun once and 
mudhadun once. 

oJaaji yudhid [imperf. of v. i>akjl J adhada, trans.] to refute, to 
invalidate, to argue down (18:56) <j I jI^jj! (JJJjIIj I "(jjill Ji^4j 
^1 yet those who disbelieve seek to refute the truth with false 
arguments. 

Aj^S'i dahidatun [quasi-act. part.] refutable, baseless, null and 
void (42:16) '^p- ^ **■>'■» <1 Lu»£J U i«j '<> ^ ui^j 

J^jj and those who argue about God after He has been 
acknowledged [by others], their argument is null and void with 
their Lord. 



300 



<#-j/c/ j 



&£aa!±A mudhadun [pi. of pass. part. "o^U mudhad] defeated, 
vanquished (37:141) 'jj^'ill 't> 'jl£a ^U^a /ie casf fofs and was 
one of the defeated. 

cj-j/^/j d-h-w/y to spread out, to level up, to widen, to enlarge, to 
relax. Of this root, I^j daha occurs once in the Qur' an. 

daha u [v. trans.] to roll out, to spread out, to expand, to 
widen up (79:30) lilkj ^lli jkj o^jVlj a«<i f/ie Earth, after that, He 
spread [it] out. 

j/c/ J d-kh-r to be humbled, to be compelled; to be confused, to be 
subservient. Of this root, dakhirun occurs four times in the 

Qur' an. 

^Xjil J dakhirun [pi. of act. part, jil'j dakhir] 1 obedient, 
subservient (16:48) jc. ti£ ? ^ ;> Alii jjk U Ij'jj JjJ 
'jjj^l'j Ail I jLla JjUuillj Jo f/iey nof ponder the fact that whatever 
God has created that casts shadows all around [lit. to the right 
and to the left]-all submit [lit. prostrate themselves] to God, in 
humility 2 humiliated, abject, debased (40:60) 'jc. jj'jjki^ 'jjjll *Ji 
'jjji.rj uj^-*-^ those who are too proud to serve Me, will 
enter Hell, humiliated. 

Ojj^Jj taddakhirun (see jfc/idh-kh-r). 

J/£/j d-kh-l entrance, door, doorway, to enter, to penetrate; 
obscurity, secret, confidant; ill feeling, cheating; defects, 
loneliness; emaciation; to infiltrate, to come in between; guest, 
outsider. Of this root, eight forms occur 126 times in the Qur' an: 
diva dakhala 75 times; Jii dukhila once; Jfckil 'adkhala 38 times; 
Jijf ^udkhila four times; oJ?- ,J dakhilun twice; Ja-'-^ mudkhal three 
times; <jiil» muddakhal once and Ji.j dakhal twice. 

J£j dakhala u [v. intrans.] 1 to enter, to go into (18:35) Jfcvjj 
Auiil jkllii ji'j Aii. an<f he went into his garden while he was being 
unjust to himself [harming his own soul by his conceit and 
disbelief] 2 [with Jic.] to enter upon, to force one's way (5:23) 
'jjjlli. 'fkila I jk&k'j Ijli LiUll J^i I jk'jl enter in upon them through the 



301 



gate, for if you enter by it, you will indeed be victorious 3 [with 
J*] to join with (89:29) (ei#. J* <Ja.°ii join My servants 4 [with 
prep, j] to consummate marriage (4:23) I> 'fSjjkl ^jEsUI p^jj 
Juki (^Ul J^Loj a«<i [your] stepdaughters in your care— those 
born of your women [wives] with whom you have consummated 
marriage. 

JiJ dukhila [pass, v.] to be entered, to be invaded (33:14) 'Jj 
U jUJ '(> ^jJc. cjki /ia<i /f /f/ie c/Zy7 been entered, [and the enemy 
came[ upon them, from all [its[ sides. 

Ji'ji "adkhala [v. IV, trans.; pass. Ja/J "adkhila] 1 to admit, to 
cause to enter (42:8) hjAj ^ iL£ '(> J^i //e admits to His mercy 
whom He will 2 to put into, to enter something into (27:12) Jjiilj 
tSLja. (ji tdi pwf yowr /ia«<f inside [the neck of] your cloak. 

(^jkl'j dakhilun [pi. of act. part. Jilj dakhil] one who enters 
(66:10) 'jJa.lill ^ jUll enter, &of/i of you, the Fire along with 
those who enter. 

mudkhal [v. n./n. of place or time] entering; a place of 
entering, entrance (17:80) ^fja^ ^jaJj y'j JSj 

JV" a?f7 say, 'My Loni, /ea<i me in [lit. w/f/i an ingoing of truth] 
truthfully and lead me out [lit. with an outgoing of truth] 
truthfully' (said to be, among other interpretations: in and out of 
any task, or, situation in which one finds oneself). 

Ja>x« muddakhal [n. of place] a crevice, hiding place (9:57) °ji 

Ui. 'jji^J if they could find a 
place of refuge, or some caverns, or somewhere to crawl into, 
they would bolt away to it in great haste. 

JiJ dakhal [n.] falsehood, deceit, guile, fraud (16:94) \ ji^jj V j 
H»j '{&jC4 do not use your oaths as a means of deceit between 

you. 

6/c/ J d-kh-n smoke; famine, hunger; to be of bad character, the heat 
of the day. Of this root, oU.j dukhan occurs twice in the Qur'an. 

*Cj^±dukhan [n.] 1 smoke (41:11) yli tdLA J) </jSJ p 
then He turned to the sky, while it was yet smoke 2 haze (caused 



302 



by severe drought) (in one interpretation of 44:10) 'fjj i-jSSjli 
jji jLkij iUUI so tvflto/i out for a day when the sky brings forth a 
great haze [also said to refer to a great smoke that will fill the sky 
heralding the coming of the Day of Judgement]; * name of 
Sura 44, Meccan sura, so-named because of the reference in verse 
10 to a 'Smoke-filled Day\ taken by many to refer to the Day of 
Judgement. 

S/j/Jii-f"- 1 to push, to dispute; to delay, to avert; to come upon 
suddenly; to spread out; to hide, to shelter, a hideout, to shield, a 
shield; to support. Of this root, two forms occur five times in the 
Qur'an: \'j^yadra D four times and 1 Jil "iddara^a once. 

\'j±yadra a [imperf. of v. dara"a, trans.] 1 to avert (24:8) 
jjjjjlill 'qA <jj aJIL. Cjl'i^i £jj 'jl Lsl jjJI l^i ijij punishment shall 
be averted from her if she [in turn] calls God to witness that he is 
[one of the] lying four times 2 to repel, to overcome (13:22) 
<jJU 4j^JL. "jjji jjjj an<i f/iey repe/ an evil deed with a good one. 

tjj) "iddara'a [assimilated form of \'J'£ tadara'a v. VI, 
intrans.] to hide behind one another, to dispute with one another, 
to accuse one another; or to connive with one another in order to 
conceal something (2:72) jJ'jfii llij jifca ilj then, when you 
killed someone and blamed one another (or, you disputed with 
one another over it). 

fi/j/^d-r-j rank, level, station; to walk slowly, to do something 
gradually, flood channel; to wrap up, to fold, a sheet for writing 
on; to allure. Of this root, three forms occur 20 times in the 
Qur'an: ^j'-Sloi nastadrij twice; aIjj darajatun four times and 
CjIVj'j darajat 14 times. 

'^JsL^ nastadrij [imperf. of v. X £j°£J "istadraja, trans.] to 
cause to ascend or descend; to allure, to tempt, to lead on (68:44) 
'jjiiu V cjyk *!> j-Sluiu. We will lead them on [step by step to 
their ruin] in ways they do not know. 

AajJ darajatun [n., pi. CjIVj'j darajat] a step, degree, rank: 
(43:32) llakj f4^v h^-j'^ o- 3 *^ l3j^ (4-"^"^ '-^jj owe? We 



303 



Ziave raised some of them above others in rank, so that some of 
them may take others in servitude. 

j/j/j d-r-r to flow, to run, (of teats) to fill up with milk, (of income) 
to increase, to rain heavily, (of plants) to flourish, (of 
load-carrying animals) to go fast; a great pearl; to shine brightly; 
to spin tightly. Of this root, two forms occur four times in the 
Qur'an: I'J'jV midrara three times and \£Ji durriyy once. 

midrara [intens. act. part, used adverbially] profusely 
pouring, abundantly flowing (11:52) 1'JjV J^c. *UUl lKjj He 
sends down the heavens upon you in a downpour. 

'ig'Ji durriyy [quasi-act. part.] pearl-like, glimmering, shining, 
shimmering (24:35) l/Ji L£j£ t$i£ Aklkjll the glass is like a 
shimmering star. 

o»/j/*d-r-s to fade away, to pale, to be obliterated; to break in a 
camel, to separate the wheat from the chaff; to study a book, to 
learn, to examine carefully, to learn by heart, a learned person, a 
person who is constant in his studies. Of this root, three forms 
occur eight times in the Qur'an: ^j'j darasa five times; aIuIjj 
dirasatun once and LwJ 2 ] °idrls twice. 

OijJ darasa [v. trans.] 1 to study, to learn, to read with great 
attention to the content (7:169) JSe. I Jlj^ V 'J i_slkll jliw '^k. ikjj jj 
<ji U Ijlo'jjj &Ji VI aJII Ziave f/zey rcof pledged through divine 
writ not to say anything about God but the truth?, and have they 
not studied its contents? 2 (in a variant reading, ciuf/j darasat) to 
fade away, to be erased, to become extinct, to be something of the 
forgotten past (6:105) (^j'-s) ciuf/j IjlJoTj i^UVI dlliSj f/zws 

We explain in various ways the revelations, lest they might say it 
[ the revelation ] has faded into obscurity (or, as in the canonical 
reading, though they will say, 'You [Muhammad] have been 
studying [learning them from somewhere]'). 

a^Ij.j dirasatun [v. n./n.] studying/teaching (6:156) UuUjIjsj 'J 
'jJaUJ 'f^AuljJ 'jc. US '(jjj ULa '(> jaulL ^ LiUSlI Jjjl fesf you say, 
'Scriptures were only sent down to two communities before us: 



304 



we were not aware of what they read/their studying [of them]. ' 

b*L)°Jj °idrls [proper name] Prophet °idrls, so named because of 
his constant studying of the scripture. He is identified as either 
Enoch (Gen. V.18-19 & 21-24) or the Biblical Elijah, °ilyas 
(^Ul) in Arabic (q.v.), (I Kings XVII.ff. and II Kings I-III). Some 
Egyptian scholars suggest that 'idris 'may be the Arabicised form 
of Osiris . . . said to have been a wise king and/or Prophet whom 
the Egyptians subsequently deified' (Asad, p. 463) (19:56-7) 
Ijjj li|!La "u^ Ail m^I tsi jSilj mention too, in the Book [the 

Qur'an], [the story of] ^idrls, he was a man of truth, a prophet. 

3 ibn Kathlr states that he was the first individual to be awarded 
the status of prophethood following Adam. He also relates a 
report in which Idris is mentioned as the first person to use the 
pen. The Qur'an speaks of his being raised 'to a high position' 
(Q. 19:56-7). 

^jjj^d-r-k to reach, to overtake; to accumulate; to ripen, to reach 
maturity, to become of age; to follow up, to come one after the 
other, to rectify, to put in order; the bottom level, lowest level. Of 
this root, six forms occur 12 times in the Qur'an: ^Tji 'adraka six 
times; I^jfo tadaraka once; t*l jIjI °iddaraka twice; dark once; 
JjTj'j darak once and cy£J** mudrakun once. 

^adraka [v. IV] I [intrans.] to pass away and come to an 
end, to come to nothing, to fail entirely (according to a reading of 
verse 27:66) Sj^fl J4-"V indeed their knowledge has 

entirely failed concerning the Hereafter II [trans.] 1 to overtake, 
to catch up with (36:40) Jjlll Vj 'J^& J& 'J 1*1 ij^i V 
jl*ill it is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor can the night 
outrun the day 2 to overwhelm, to overrun (10:90) aSjJ lil jx*. 
JjjI'JJ ji aj clluM VI ill V ii cjiali Jli jjill f/ZZ, w/ie« drowning 
overtook him, he said 'I came to believe there is no god but He in 
whom the Children of Israel believe' 3 to encompass, to 
comprehend (6:103) 'JLajSlI 'A J4 jU-aiVl aSJjj V vw/on cannot 
encompass Him, but He encompasses all vision. 

«STjl'J3 tadaraka [v. VI, trans.] to come to the rescue, to rectify, 
to take steps to put right (68:49) ?Ij*1j M ajj |> aS'jIjj 'J Sf'jl 



305 



jLjiiju ja'j /ia<f a favour from his Lord not reached him, he would 
have been cast into the wilderness, blameworthy. 

&jlJt "iddaraka [assimilated form of v. VI 'A Jii tadaraka, 
intrans.] 1 to attain or overtake one another, with the last one 
catching up with the first (7:38) I jSjIjI lij ,jjs> 
llx^. Ijja every time a community enters [Hell], it curses its sister 
[community], until [eventually] they all come together in it 2 to 
cumulate; to be strung in a connected chain (27:66) '^if- '<£J'd Jj 
s'jiVI ,ji or, is it that their knowledge of the Hereafter 
accumulated [generation after generation]? [also interpreted as: 
indeed, their knowledge respecting the Hereafter is hasty and 
unfounded] . 

&ji dark [n.] a low level, a debased rank (4:145) 'Qjialill ol 
jlill 'qa J£»Vl c^TjJ ffte hypocrites will be in the lowest depth of 
Hell. 

&>i darak [v. n.] (the act of) catching up with, overtaking 
(20:77) ^s-^ V j ISjj UiUj V /iave wo /ear o/ &emg overtaken and 
do not be afraid. 

&jSja» mudrakun [pi. of pass. part. SjTJ& mudrak] one who is 
overtaken, caught up with (26:61) LAalJ J13 t j lj ^ JI ^ 
'jjSjiJ Uj and when the two hosts came in sight of one another, 
Moses' followers said, 'We are sure to be overtaken. ' 

fAljJ darahim [pi. of n. jlijj dirham, a word said to be either of 
Persian or ancient Greek origin occurring once in the Qur'an] a 
silver or copper coin of moderate value (12:20) JaIjj 
(jjjAljll j> Aji I s'j and they sold him for a lowly price, a few 
dirhams, having no interest in him. 

(i/j/j d-r-y to know, to comprehend, to understand; to inform, to 
teach; to disguise, a hideout; to act furtively; to deal gently, to 
placate, to comb. Of this root, two forms occur 29 times in the 
Qur'an: ^Js 'adri 12 times and tsjj' °adrd 17 times. 

gjA ^adri [imperf. of v. <_sjj dara, trans.] to know (72:10) V lij 
liuj J4jj J^j 'i'j jJ (>ajVl ,ji I>j iji j >5i jfr <2«^ so we Jo «of fcraow 



306 



j/oV J 



whether evil is intended for those who are on the earth, or 
whether their Lord intends for them guidance. 

isjj "adra [v. IV, trans.] to cause to know: (10:16) illl iLS 'jl Ja 
<j J^l'ji V'j aj'jJj U say, 7/" GoJ /ia<i so willed, I would not have 
recited it to you, nor would He have brought it to your 
knowledge'; *(69:3) !••• ^ LTj how will you come to 

comprehend what such-and-such is! 

j/^/j d-s-r nails, ropes with which a ship's planks are tightened, to 
repair a ship; to push, to step; a big hefty man, a great she-camel. 
Of this root, jlo dusur occurs once in the Qur'an. 

dusur [pi. of n. jllo disar] fastening materials, nails 
*(54:13) J*&j pljtf CjIj a boat, an ark [lit. that possessing planks 
and nails]. 

oV<->V J d-s-s to shove in, to infiltrate, to hide in, to adulterate, to 
bury; a spy, a plot, intrigue; sand adder. Of this root, yaduss 
occurs 1 1 times in the Qur'an. (Qur'anic word UlL'j dassaha is not 
considered here, as it is viewed by a number of philologists as an 
elongated form of 'J*& dassa). 

yaduss [imperf. of v. dassa, trans.] to bury, to shove in 
(16:59) i-sIjjJI ,ji Jj oj* should he keep it [the 

newborn girl] in humiliation (or, and suffer humiliation himself) 
or bury her in the dust? 

UlliJ dassaha (see if/o*/id-s-y). 

ls/oV j d-s-y to corrupt, to soil, to let down, to tempt. Of this root, 
(jlo dassa occurs once in the Qur'an. 

dassa [v. II, trans.] to corrupt, to tarnish (91:7-10) |> jS 
UlLi '(> LiU. jSj UlSj f/ie one w/zo purifies it [his soul] succeeds 
and the one who corrupts it fails. 

t/t/ J ^ _c_c to P usri violently, to shove, to drive away; barren stony 
land; to fill up, to walk with a limp. Of this root, three forms 
occur once each in the Qur'an: ^yadu cc ; 'o^'±>yuda cc un and go 



<#-j/£/ J 



307 



da cc . 

£Jj yadu cc [imperf. of v. go da cc a, trans.; pas. V. go5 yuda cc ] to 
push violently, to shove (107:2) g-i ts^ 1 ^ it is he who 
pushes aside the orphan. 

&da cc [v. n. used adverbially for emphasis] pushing or 
thrusting, shoving in (52:13) it'j jU J>jj on Z/iaZ Day 

they will be thrust into the Fire of Hell violently. 

d- c -wly to call, to summon, to invite, to call upon; to 
invoke, to pray to, to appeal to, to induce; to claim, to allege; to 
pretend, to accuse, to require; to weaken, to collapse, to rally; to 
gang up on. Of this root, eight forms occur 112 times in the 
Qur'an: li'j da c a 157 times; ^c-i du°iya 13 times; tadda c un 
three times; ^Ij da c I seven times; Jtiii <fw c a' 20 times; s'jc-j 
da°watun six times; cs'jc-j da c wa four times and °ad c iya 
twice. 

le'j <ia c fl u [v. trans.] 1 to call, to summon (17:71) I jcij £jj 
J^-aUib ^Ul on the Day when We summon each community, along 
with its leader, (or, by [the name of] its leader, see j»UJ 'imam for 
other interpretations); *(70:17) JtjZj j£l I> I j^'jj if ca/Z^ [claims] 
the one who turns his back [on the truth] and runs away 2 to cry, 
to call out to (26:72) 'jje.:u ij ^ji^ Ja Jo f/iey hear you when 
you call? 3 [with prep, j] to call for (38:51) s'j££ ^£Uj Uji 'jj^'i 
ljI'j^j f/zere f/zey will call for abundant fruit and drink 4 [with 
prep. 1] to ascribe to, to attribute to (19:91) I'ij (>k 4 jll 1'jc.j 'J f/iaf 
f/iey attribute offspring to the Beneficent 5 to name, to address by 
name (7:180) 4jLMJ ^ 'ojV^ ' jjjj « Jn'il *Ual«Vl <Slj to 
Go<i belong the Names Most Beautiful; call Him by them, and 
leave those who blaspheme/corrupt/alter His Names 6 to enlist 
the support of (10:38) 'iwWTml (> I jc-'ij aJ1« s'jjlaj I _£la iljjal 'aA« f 1 
<M jji 'j^a or <fo f/iey say, '//e /ias devised it?', say, 'Then produce 
a sura like it, and call [for support] on anyone you can beside 
God' 7 [with prep. Jj] to tempt, to induce, to entice (12:33) Lfj Jli 
<jj ^ jLi Cm y Lskl 'JkUl /ie .ya/tZ, 'My Lord!, prison is preferable 
to me than what they are asking me to do' 8 to call on, or to pray 
to [God] (40:60) I.vyfJ ^jcol ^Sjj JlSj yowr Lord says, 'Call 



308 



<#-j/£/ J 



upon Me, and I will answer you' 9 to cry out to (44:22) y <fj tcia 
jjl J=J« I'js f V> /ie cr/e<f /i/s Lonf, 'These people are evildoers' 
10 to pray for (25:14) Cj^S IjjS I jc-'ij IVIj 1 ^ ^° nof 

pray f/i/s day for one death, but for many 11 to invoke, to worship 
(6:71) Ujlfij Vj Uiii V U jji °<> jelii Ja ray, 'Are we ?o invoke, 
apart from God, that which neither profits nor harms us! ' 12 to 
call to the faith, to preach to (71:5) I'J+G ^ ^£ c/jcj LTj Ji 
&e said, 'My Lord, I have preached to my people night and day. ' 

<jfj du c iya [pass, v.] 1 to be invoked, to be worshipped (40:12) 
\y*$ 4j '(jjj ijkj j^i lij <jL jfe w ra, because 
when God alone is invoked you disbelieve, yet when partners are 
associated with Him you believe 2 to be summoned (24:51) ys ^4 

believers ' response, when summoned to God and His messenger, 
so that he may judge between them, is only to say, 'We hear and 
we obey' 3 to be invited (33:53) Ijk'ii JAjc-j li] w/ien yow are 
invited, enter 4 to be called upon (2:282) I jc-j U lij ir^Iill Lit V j Zef 
ffte witnesses not refuse when they are called upon 5 to be asked 
(47:38) Aill Jjxu, ^ Ijiial 'Jjci f V> '^fU [now] here you are, you 
[lit. those] who are being asked to give [a little] in the cause of 
God. 

Ojeii tadda c un [imperf. of v. VIII, trans.] 1 to desire, wish for 
(41:31) "oj^u ^ fe? fSlj fSLiil ls&z ^ fe? f^Ij m it you will have 
everything you desire and wish for 2 to call for (67:27) 
'j_^.iu <j j>j£ ^jJI Ija JjSj I jjiS 'jjill o jkj cjouj w/ie« they see it close at 
hand the disbelievers ' faces will be grieved and it will be said, 
'This is what you were calling for' 3 to claim (in an interpretation 
of verse 67:27) 4j °^k. Y£t> IjjaS 'j^l I jVj ^Afe-" ^ 
y^ w/ie« f/iey see it close at hand, the disbelievers' faces will be 
grieved, and it will be said, 'This is what you were claiming [to 
be untrue ]. ' 

da c i I [act. part.] one who calls or invites to something: 
(33:46) Ijji iy>»j ^ <J! /&s7 one who calls people to 
God, by His leave, and as a light-giving guide II [n.] 1 summoner 
(20:108) '*! (Tjc V ^c.rj oj^jj on that Day, they will follow the 
summoner, from whom there will be no escape (or, who makes no 



309 



exception in calling to all) 2 the one who invokes, caller, the one 
calling upon God (2:186) Sjcj i_uai LujS ^li ^ i/ijc- 'Tj 
lij [Prophet] if My servants ask you about Me, [ tell him] I am 
near, I respond to the prayer of the one who calls upon Me. 

flfci du c a" [n./v. n.] 1 a call (21:45) ^ Vj ykjL ^jif lij '<i 
'ojjiu U I ij ili^l ^-Jl say, 7 warn you only by Revelation, ' and the 
deaf will not hear the call when they are warned 2 prayer, 
supplication (3:38) y*~> ajjj '^il '(> ^ Li Lfj Lore?, 

/rom Yowr grace grant me virtuous offspring, You hear every 
prayer 3 summoning (24:63) f S^'v j>££j J J^j^ il^j I jEiks V 
L^«j ao «of regard the Messenger's summoning [of you] as being 
like your summoning of one another 4 invocation, invoking (19:4) 
liLi Lfj ^SjIcju 'jkS jjj llul JjJ j]| Ji£ilj ^W.fl 'jjA j ^j] Lfj Jli /ie said, 
'Lord, the bones within me have weakened and my head has 
become ashen [lit. all aflame] with grey, but never have I, in 
invoking You, My Lord, been rejected. ' 

Sje'J da c watun I [n.] 1 prayer (2:186) LyjS ^li jk. ^&ic. iillL. lilj 
ptc.'j lij ^liil Sjco LuJ [Prophet] if My servants ask you about Me, 
I am near, [ tell him [ I respond to the prayer of the one who calls 
upon Me 2 message (14:44) L>aj ujjS Jkl J) Uja.1 Ujj 

JLfjll owr Lore?, oe/ay /or a ferfe while, we will answer Your 
message and follow the messengers II [n. of unit] a call, a 
summoning (30:25) 'jj^j^ "f"' t> 'f^'- 2 p then 

when He calls you once [lit. with one call], out of the earth, you 
will all emerge. 

da c wa [n.] 1 prayer (10:10) ^ '<M*+* fe? '^Ijcj f/ic/r 
prayer in there is, 'Glory be to You, God!' 2 cry (21:15) ^ oSj La 
"jjj^U. \ \ m'-. '^Ukk ^I'jL: so, f/iaf die? rao? cease to £>e f/ie/r cry, 
ft'// We made them [like[ a mown field, lifeless. 

fljpji :, ad € iya° [pi. of n. ^c-j da°iyy] an adopted child (33:4) Lj 
j^LJ 'fkiUc-'J J«k //c ooes nof torn yowr adopted [children] into 
your own [biological] children. 

S/u5/j J-/- 1 warmth, to warm up, a fireplace, warm clothing; food 
and wool obtained from animals, provisions, to give generously; 



310 



to gather together. Of this root, J<_ij dif occurs once in the 
Qur' an. 

f Lti dif [n.] warmth, means of obtaining warmth, also said to 
mean a source of food and clothing (16:5) *<-iJ 1*js ^UuVlj 
jjklj l^L j ^alij cattle-He created them for you [ too [, from 
them you derive warmth and [other] benefits and you eat of them. 

^Ji-i/id-f- c to push forcefully, a forceful person, to gush, a great 
flood; to defend, a defence; to rush about, to run fast, to stall. Of 
this root, four forms occur 10 times in the Qur'an: dafa c a five 
times; g$'4yudafi c once; daf twice and jjl'j dafl c twice. 

ji'j dafa c a a [v. trans.] 1 to pay up, to hand over (4:6) JJu-jli 'jli 
J4ir^i j^jlj Ijii'jli liij J4i« ifyow sense f/zey have sound judgement, 
hand over their property to them 2 to respond, retaliate, repel 
(41:34) 'cyjJ ^* ^L. £&l ajJJI Slj ^jiJ Vj f&ey are not 

equal— good and evil— repel [evil] with what is better 3 to defend 
oneself (3:167) I jkftl j Jjj^ I jtll I'jlUu J4S Jj|j [when] it was 
said to them, 'Come, fight in God's cause, or [at least] defend. ' 

jsI'jj yuddfi [imperf. of v. Ill, intrans.] to defend (22:38) iill *c& 
Ijj-le 'j^l t> y '4 Go<f defends the believers. 

ji'j daf" [v. n.] (act of) repelling, driving back (2:251) V'jTj 
'o^}i\ pilail <_>^kl, l>"^ ^ ^a<5? if «of been for God's repelling 
some by means of others the Earth would have become corrupted. 

*j±\±ddfi c [act. part.] one who repels, averts, deflects (70:1-2) 
yj '(j^ ^jjjalSil ^Slj iJSu JjU* jL> a man [mockingly] demanded 
punishment that would fall upon the disbelievers with none to 
avert it. 

j/ui/j d-f-q to gush forth; (of a valley) to fill up with flood water, 
(of a river) to breach its banks; to stampede; to act rashly. Of this 
root, ddfiq occurs once in the Qur'an. 

jat'j ddfiq [act. part.] gushing forth, jetting out, spurting (86:6) 
jjal'j 'qa jli. He is created from gushing fluid. 



311 



jaJl "iddakara (see j/<i!/j dh-k-r). 
°j£iA muddakir (see j/<i!/j dh-k-r). 

t*!/d/j <f-£-£ to pull down, to level up, level sand dunes, low banks of 
mud, short stout horses, humpless camel, to be stout and well 
built; to fill in a pit with dirt; to weaken, to humiliate. Of this 
root, four forms occur seven times: ^ dukka twice; &s dakk three 
times; dakkatan once and il£s dakka" once. 

°& dukka [pass, of v. dakka, trans.] to be crushed, to be 
flattened out (69:14) sV'j ^ tfeJIj Lp=j^ P^kj a«<^ eart/i 
and the mountains are lifted up and crushed in a single crush. 

dakk [v. n.] 1 (act of) crushing, levelling up, flattening out, 
pounded, pounding (89:21) l£s l£s pSi lil !K no indeed!, 

when the earth is pounded, pounded and [again] pounded 2 
[functioning as n.] an even or a level place; land, or ground, 
broken, and made even, flattened earth (7:143) JrA\ <4j ^ 
l£j ikk and when his Lord revealed Himself to the mountain, He 
made it flattened earth. 

4S'j dakkatan [n. of unit] a crushing (69:14) JUaJlj pLkj 
sV'j ^ t&Ja a«<i f/ie earf/i awJ the mountains are lifted up and 
crushed in a single crushing. 

f IS'j dakka" [quasi-pass. fem. part.] flattened out, levelled 
(18:98) e-lSi <kk icj ilk lili w/ien my Lord's promise is 
fulfilled, He will turn it [this barrier] into flattened out [ground]. 

t£!/J/j d-l-k to rub; to try, to gain experience, a well-travelled camel, 
to be hard up; (of the sun) to pass the meridian, to set, to rise. Of 
this root, "A jli duluk occurs once in the Qur'an. 

duluk [v. n./n.] (of the sun) interpreted as: setting, 
inclining over the meridian, or rising (17:78) ,_yLJA\ AJA s!jlLJI $ 
tPI ij^d establish the prayer at the going down of the sun (or, 
at its crossing the zenith) until the darkness of the night. 



J/J/J d-l-l guide, to guide, to seek guidance; proof, to seek proof, to 



312 



(i-j/J/j 



enquire; to be at ease; to be coy, to be coquettish; to act brazenly; 
a middleman. Of this root, two forms occur seven times in the 
Qur'an: Jj dalla six times and JJ'j dalll once. 

Jj. dalla u [v. trans.] 1 to give a clue to, to indicate (34:14) U 
jkti Q±Ji\ ajIj V] Jc- J4^'j nothing indicated his death to 
them but the creature of the earth [said to be 'the termite'] 
gnawing his staff 2 to point someone to, to show, to lead to 
(20:120) V dtj M\ SjU J* aaSl J* pJg Adam, shall I show 
you the tree of immortality and a kingdom that never wanes? 

JoTj dalll [n.] marker, pointer, indicator, proof, guide (25:45) ji 
iLjL 4jL Jiiuill U!*j> USLo jij JJall a* jj /iave 

you not considered how your Lord lengthens the shadow?, if He 
had willed, He could have made it still-then We would have made 
the sun its indicator. 

is-j/d/^d-l-w/y bucket, pail, to let down a bucket into a well; to 
hang down, to come near; to lead on, to tempt, to deceive; to 
submit a proof, to offer money as a bribe; to use one's good 
offices. Of this root, four forms occur five times in the Qur'an: Jj 
dalla once; ji °adla twice; Jjj tadalla once and 'jk dalw once. 

Jj dalla [v. II, trans.] to lead someone on, to lure (7:22) UaTjs 
U4jIj1u ciijj s'jkJJI lal j Ilia jjjij so, he lured them with guile, and 
when they tasted the tree their shameful parts became manifest to 
them. 

Jj! "adla [v. IV, trans.] 1 to let down (12:19) I jLji s'Jla cilkj 
£'jTj Jii 'fi'jj j f/ien came travellers, and they sent their water 
fetcher, and he let down his bucket 2 [with prep, j] to offer or 
present [money] to [someone in authority as a bribe] (2:188) Vj 

(iyu (jilii ji'jJ '(> ija i jikui f ikki ji i jiij jluL ^ j^r^l i jkt 

do not appropriate each other's property in dealing together in a 
corrupt way, nor use your property to bribe judges/rulers, 
intending sinfully and knowingly to appropriate [even] a part of 
other people 's property. 

Jjj tadalla [v. V, intrans.] to hang down, to approach closely, 
to draw near (53:7-8) Jj.1 J c^'J <— ilS u l£a J'jjs Uj a«<f f/ien /ie 



313 



approached-coming down until he was two bow-lengths away or 
even closer. 

jIj dalw [n.] bucket, pail (12:19) fajj 1 jk'Ji s'J3»» ^iVj 
Z/zera came travellers, and they sent their water f etcher, and he 
let down his bucket. 

f/j/f/j d-m-d-m anger, to shake up violently; to inflict great 
punishment; to bury; to smother. Of this root, 'fte damdama 
occurs once in the Qur'an. 

damdama [quadriliteral v., intrans. with prep. JOz] to 
crush, to destroy, to visit with great punishment (91:14) JjiiSa 
lifjui J^i? j4o t» jjtai f/iey called him a liar and 

hamstrung her, so their Lord crushed them for their sin and 
flattened it [ their town ]. 

j/f/j d-m-r to destroy, to obliterate, to attack; a useless, 
good-for-nothing person; to enter without permission. Of this 
root, two forms occur 10 times in the Qur'an: j*j dammara eight 
times and tadmir twice. 

>»J dammara [v. II, trans.] to destroy: (27:51) '^U'Jo'j 
jjjj^l We destroyed them utterly, along with all their people. 

tadmir [v. n. used adverbially for emphasis] (act of) 
destroying (25:36) Ijj-jj '^U'jl'ja a«<i then We destroyed them 
utterly. 

d-m- c tears, to shed tears; to rain, to fill up a cupful of water. 
Of this root, j^o dam c occurs twice in the Qur'an. 

jjU'j dam c [coll. n.] tears (5:83) j> o^ua fi^l ls'j 2 yow vvZZZ 
see f/ieZr eyes overflowing with tears. 

d-m-gh brain, a concussion, to fracture a skull, to kill by a 
blow to the head; sunstroke; to vanquish, to destroy. Of this root, 
^^yadmagh occurs once in the Qur'an. 

£4°jj yadmagh [imperf. of v. j^a damagha, trans.] to break the 
head of, to cause great damage, to annihilate; to vanquish (21:18) 



314 



t5-j/j»/ J 



jjaIj ji Ijji Ai^jya JJaOl ^ic j^Jlj i_iiaj Jj no/ We ftwr/ f/ie truth 
against falsehood, so it [the truth] crushes it [falsehood] [lit. 
smashed its [falsehood 's[ head] and it [falsehood] becomes 
vanquished! 

tf-j/p/i d-m-w/y blood, to bleed, blood revenge, to be red in colour. 
Of this root, two forms occur 10 times in the Qur'an: £ dam 
seven times and *Uo dima 3 three times. 

j»j dam [coll. n., pi. dima"] blood (16:66) ^jjJ=u ^ 
'jjjjLill UjLo ILli Ual £ja '(> to drink, We give you some of 
that which is inside them next to dung and blood [lit. in their 
bellies], pure [clean] milk sweet to those who would drink; 
*(2:30) iUill J*1£j£j /ze blood; commits murder; *(2:84) V 

j^Uo jjSil^ Jo not shed one another's blood, or, do not commit 
what causes you to be killed [lit. do not spill your own blood]. 

jLLj dinar (see alphabetically). 

j/c)/ J d-n-w to be near, to come close, to approach, to bring close; to 
approximate; this life (as opposed to the next); the world, the 
earth; to become bare, to behave despicably, a vile person. Of this 
root, six forms occur 133 times in the Qur'an: Uj dana once; ^'4 
yudnl once; ^Ij dam once; ajjIj daniyatun three times; ^'J J adna 
12 times; U&ll 'al-dunya 115 times. 

lis <fawa u [v. intrans.] to come near, to draw close, to approach 
(53:8) Jtet Uj an<i f/ien /ie approached-and came down. 

^4 yudnl [imperf. of v. IV j& °adna, trans.] to cause to come 
near, to lower, to cause to hang over (33:59) ^MjjV 
"jj^jjj^lk ',> 'tj^jJc. 'jjjjj fllyj ^SUjj Prophet, tell your wives, 

your daughters and women of the believers to draw their 
garments over them. 

dam [act. part., fem. ajjI'j daniyatun] 1 near, within easy 
reach (55:54) jl'j the fruits of both gardens are near 

[at hand[ 2 hanging down, hanging low (6:99) l*«jja I> J>j 
ajjIj y'jja and from the date palm, from its pollen, [spring] clusters 



315 



of low-hanging dates. 

"adna [elat.] 1 nearer/nearest, close/closest, less in 
distance (53:9) j& 'J J^'J «— ilS jlSa wnf// /ie became two 
bow-lengths away or [even] closer, *(30:3) o±ji\ nearby 
land 2 less in number, fewer (58:7) J4*/j j* VI ls'_>h i> Oj^ ^ 
I jjlS Ua jjjl °4j" ja V] jiiSI V j i^llj t> (jAil V j °(4^. J ^" VI Al^aa. Vj there 
is no secret conversation between three people where He is not 
the fourth, nor between five where He is not the sixth, nor 
between less or more than that without Him being with them, 
wherever they may be 3 less in duration (73:20) J>j£ 'M JJkj °J\ 
43£j Jlill 'qa (jjjl [Prophet] your Lord knows that you 

[sometimes] stay up [praying] nearly two thirds of the night, and 
[sometimes] half of it, and [sometimes] a third [of it[ 4 worse, 
lower in value or status (2:61) "J^ ja ^ilL ^1 ja ^ill 'jjh')t.n"il Jli /ie 
sa/<i, 'Would you exchange that which is lower for that which is 
better?' 5 more likely [to take place], more probable (5:108) ^lli 
l^kj JSe. s'i^ilb I jjh 'J (jiil way, it is more likely they will give 
the testimony in its proper form. 

lii^l "al-dunyd [fem. elat.] (the nearer/nearest; the 
lower/lowest, in value), this life or this world (as opposed to s'ja-Vl 
'the last' or 'the next one') (16:30) jl'ij Gj'J I ji^kl 'jjjll 
"J>i. lj^i\for those who do good is a reward in this present world, 
but the abode of the Hereafter is far better. 

jj— fc/j d-h-r time, eternity, this life, long time, age, fate; hardship, to 
be afflicted, calamity. Of this root, jaj dahr occurs twice in the 
Qur' an. 

jAJ <fa/ir [n.] time, time from the beginning of the world to its 
end; events, passage of time (45:24) cjjiu Ui'J VI U. I jlllj 
'Ja'J V] US^j Uj GaJj and they say, 'There is nothing but our 
present life: we die, and we live; nothing but time destroys us. ' 
* ja'J name of Sura 98, Medinan sura, so-named because of 
reference in verse 1 to a point in time when humankind were 
nothing worthy of being mentioned. Also called o^VI (see 
oVc/i "-n-s). 



316 



<j/— fc/j d-h-q great pressure, to apply continuous pressure; to empty 
out, to spill; to fill up, to fill to the brim, to set things tightly close 
to each other. Of this root, jUp dihaq occurs once in the Qur'an. 

jUj dihaq [v. n. functioning as a quasi-act. part.] full to the 
brim; constant (78:34) ISIaj llikj and an overflowing cup. 

?l—*>/* d-h-m blackness, dark green; large numbers of people; attack, 
to overtake, to overwhelm, calamity. Of this root, jlilAXa 
mudhammatan occurs once in the Qur'an. 

^tilUi mudhammatan [dual of fem. act. part, (of v. IX) A^U'xa 
mudhammatun] blackish green, very dark green (55:62-4) I>j 
pliUi . . . jljjk Ufrj ji there are two other gardens below these two 
. . . both of deepest green. 

i>l—*>l* d-h-n fat, grease, oil, to be oily, to anoint; to act 
hypocritically, to act insincerely; a sprinkle of rain, to wet, to look 
sprightly; red leather, affluence; desert. Of this root, four forms 
occur five times in the Qur'an: tudhin twice; mudhinun 
once; J>j duhn once and oUp dihan once. 

'^jj tudhin [imperf. of v. IV 't>'i "adhana, intrans.] to 
sweet-talk, to be sycophantic; to be hypocritical; to compromise, 
to be reconciliatory (68:9) Oj^'-^ 1 As they wish you would 

talk sweet-talk [to them] and then they will talk sweet-talk [to 
you ] (or, you would compromise in matters of the religion and 
then they would compromise in matters of the religion). 

&j&'±» mudhinun [pi. of act. part. oV-i mudhin] (ones acting) 
hypocritically; compromising, taking things lightly (56:81) l^t 
'ftti iiujkll do you hold this discourse in little esteem? (or, 
are you being hypocritical in your attitude towards it?, or, how 
can you scorn this statement?). 

duhn [n.] oil (23:20) A*-aj (>j1Lj c42 iUli. j^L j^j 
'jjJSSU a«<f a free, springing out from Mount Sinai, that produces 
oil and relish for the eaters. 

"(fiui dihan [n./pl. of n. J>j <iw/i«] red-painted leather; fat 



317 



(55:37) Ja'jK iLUl pLJul lili w/iew f/ie sky is torn apart 

and becomes rose-red, like red leather (or, like molten/melted 
fat). 

$1— fc/j d-h-y wisdom, rationality; to be solemn, to be experienced; 
calamity, to afflict, to come upon by surprise. Of this root, ^'i 
3 adha occurs once in the Qur' an. 

yAJl 3 adha [elat.] more/most calamitous (54:46) 
Jj j (ji'J Ai-HJIj indeed, the Hour is their appointed time, and the 
Hour is most calamitous and most bitter. 

j/j/j d-w-r a circle, to circle, to go round, to turn; a halo; a frame; a 
wide open space between mountains; to treat, to manage; a 
dwelling, a house; to have a setback, to be afflicted; to dispute 
with, to dissuade. Of this root, seven forms occur 55 times in the 
Qur' an: J/jj tadur once; jjjjJj tudirun once; J'j dar 32 times; Jis 
diyar 16 times; Jj'j dayyar once; s'jjI'j da'iratun three times and 
jjI jj dawa'ir once. 

jjJj faJwr [imperf. of v. 'Jj <fara, intrans.] to roll, to turn 
(33:19) j> aIIc. ^jJ^u ^jK J/jj w/f/z f/ie/r eyes rolling, 
like someone fainting [in the throes] of death. 

jjJj ta<ffr [imperf. of v. IV JjI 'adara, trans.] to run, to 
operate, to transact, to exchange, to hand (2:282) s'Jkj 'qjSZ J V] 
frjjjjj SjjJalk unless it be ready merchandise which you hand 
one to the other. 

Jidar [n.] 1 house, home, mansion, abode, dwelling (28:81) 
o-ajVl ?J'jjj <j Ui l aai We caused the earth to swallow him together 
with his home; *(14:28) JjjII J'j the home of utter ruin, Hellfire; 
*(41:28) jkll J'j f/ie abode of immortality, Paradise; *(6:127) J'j 
piUl f/ie abode of peace, Paradise; *(7:145) 'ogAHi J'j the abode 
of the deviators, Hellfire; *(40:39) JJ& J'j the abode of 
settlement, or endurance, the next life; *(35:35) JuAaJ J'j the 
abode of everlasting residence, Paradise; *(16:30) J'j the 
abode of the pious, Paradise 2 town, city, neighbourhood, village 
(11:65) j>rf 'fkjj ^ I Jii U Jjtoi tef fftey hamstrung her 



318 



[the she-camel], so he said, 'Remain in your town for [another] 
three days' 3 [with definite article jlill :, al-dar] 'the perfect 
abode', 'the Hereafter' (6:135) jlill AjSIc. <1 qjSj '(> Ui'j^a yow 
vWM come to know for whom will be the good end in the 
Hereafter; *(2:94) jl'J f/ie Last Abode, the Hereafter 4 

Medina (59:9) J^jlj jsAa °(> 'qJsA i> uW^j J^' ji^l'j 
f/iose w/io had made their dwelling in Medina and in belief before 
them love those who emigrated to them. 

jUj diyar [pi. of n. jIj Jar] houses, homes, abodes, dwellings: 
(22:40) j>A jlls '(> I jk >.! 'jjill f/zose w&o &ave &<?e« driven out of 
their homes. 

jVjj dayyar [intens. act. part.] a dweller, a single person (71:26) 
I'Jjj 'jjjalill J> (>sjVl (jic. jjj V Lfj an< ^ Noah said, 'Lord, 

do not leave on the [face of the [ earth any of the disbelievers [not 
a single person [. ' 

SjitJ da^iratun [n. pi. jjI j'j dawa^ir] affliction, a setback, bad 
turn of fortune (9:98) f'jUl s'jjI'j 'jjI'jJ J^Sj 'o^jfej and they 
eagerly await bad turns of fortune to befall you, on them is the 
bad turn of fortune. 

J/j/j d-w-l to circulate, to go from one situation to its opposite, to be 
a bone of contention; to work in turns; to exchange opinions; 
defeat, a great setback, a calamity. Of this root, two forms occur 
once each in the Qur'an: J nudawil and ji dulatan. 

JjI'aJ nudawil [imperf. of v. Ill JjIj dawala, trans.] to alternate, 
to rotate, to cause to succeed by turns (3:140) 'j£ 1*1 jfo 
oJill such days [of victory and defeat] We deal out in turn among 
people (or, such are the days of victory and defeat, We deal them 
out in turn among people). 

AJjJ dulatan [v. n./n.] something taken in turns, going from one 
to the other, circulating among a restricted group (59:7) 'uj£j V 
'pSia ft-uc-Sn tjjj aJjJ [this is ordained] so that it [wealth] may not 
become [a commodity] circulating just between the rich among 
you. 



319 



f/j/j d-w-m to be constant, to persist, to continue, to remain, to last, 
to persevere, to be diligent; to circle, to hover, the eddy of a 
whirlpool, cyclone. Of this root, three forms occur nine times in 
the Qur'an: dama seven times; Jil'j da'im once and jj^lj 
da^imun once. 

flJ dama [v. intrans. forming with preceding infinitive 
time- adverbial ma 4j>w>J U), one unit functioning as one 

of the sisters of 'jk (q.v.)] as long as, so long as (19:31) 
tfk U. sl£j]lj silUlj a«<i /fe /ias enjoined upon me praying and 
giving alms so long as I remain alive. 

*^\'±da"im [act. part., pi. uj^ ,j da'imun] lasting, enduring, 
constant (70:23) 'jj^lj ft&^-a ^ tla^ f/zose w/zo are constant in 
their prayers. 

OjJ <i«« (no verbal root, although some philologists derive it from 
q/j/j d-w-n, meaning 'to weaken' or 'to be base'. The sense of 
'to write down' is a borrowing from Persian in the early Islamic 
period), it occurs 144 times in the Qur'an, and functions both as a 
nominal, in which case it is preceded by the preposition jss or as 
an adverbial. I [ adverbial, without prep. <>] 1 less than (72:11) 
I Yjs ^lA 3 ^ ^ oj j oj^-^ ^'j among us there are the 
righteous and there are the less so-we are divergent factions 2 
below, beneath (7:205) 't> jt+l\ 'dj'^'j Itjliaj '4^ <jj <^Jj jSil j 
JjSlI a«<i remember your Lord, inwardly, imploringly and in awe, 
and without raising your voice [lit. in below audible voice] 3 
different from, besides, in addition to (21:82) I> jjJalj^l !>j 
aii 'jji Xic. 'jj^yj ^ uj^-W <z«^ of the devils some dive for him 
and do work other than that 4 before, prior to (32:21) t> J4^^j 
jjka.'jj 'j4£J JS^\ jwJl 'jji ^jVi t_it j«Jt We s/ia// certainly make 
them taste of the lesser torment [in this life] prior to the greater 
torment, that they may return [to the right path] II [nominal, with 
prep. (>] 1 to the exclusion of (2:94) it s'>Vl '/J ^ Ld£ y J 
'jAillfl y Cj'jiJI l^ji«ja (jabll jji J> Z^Ai. say, 'If the Last Abode 
with God is to be for you to the exclusion of all other people, then 
long for death if you are truthful' 2 other than, besides (2:23) 'Jfj 

Ail! 



320 



'jjjblifl JujS '(jj j/yow /iave doubts about what We have sent down to 
Our servant [the Revelation], then produce a single sura like it 
and call your witnesses/helpers other than God, if you [truly think 
you are[ telling the truth 3 before (48:27) lljS Ikaa aii jji J*^ 
so He granted before that a near triumph 4 against, away from 
(19:17) Oka. J^jji '(> cjiijli 50, s/ie toofc, away /rom f/iem, a 
[barrier] shelter 5 a distance from, segregated from (28:23) Vjj 
jl'jjii (jjjl jUI ^jjj '(> a«d /ie found, at distance from them, two 
women keeping [their flocks] back [from it] 6 in addition to 
(55:62) cP^ !>'j f/zere are rwo of&er gardens in addition to 
these two 7 around, near, in the vicinity of (18:93) 'cjk ^ lij J^- 
'jj<m 'uJ^i Y ^j 5 ^ j j t> Vj wnri/, w/ien he reached a 
place between two mountain barriers, he found in their vicinity a 
people barely able to understand an utterance. 

0/ts/j d-y-n judge, ruler, controller; debtor, creditor, to lend, to 
borrow; punishment, reward; to obey; custom, habit; to worship, 
religion, creed, conviction; slave, to be enslaved, to be owned; to 
compel; to submit, to own up, to sin. Of this root, five forms 
occur 101 times in the Qur'an: yadinun once; ^Ijj 

tadayantum 11 times; Ijjj dayn five times; Jjjj din 92 times and 
jjjj.i<i madlnun twice. 

CjiHyadin [imperf. of v. 'jl'j dana, intrans.] to submit to, to 
abide by (9:29) i£J 'jjj 'cy£&i who do not abide by the religion 
of truth. 

'^ylii tadayana [v. VI intrans.] to borrow from one another, to 
lend one another (2:282) JjL^ <Jki Jj ^ j^ta lij I 'jjill I^jIIj 
J ji&li yoM w/zo believe, if you contract a debt, one with another, 
for a stated term, put it down in writing. 

Cii^dayn [n.] debt (4:11) & °j I^j <^jj Jl^j |> a/ter 
[payment] of [any [ bequest he may make or [any] debt [he may 
have incurred]. 

OjJ <im [n.] 1 religion, faith (2:256) j/J J iljSj V f/iere [should 
be] no compulsion in religion 2 true religion, true faith (3:19) *c& 
<M ise. 'jj'J 7Vwe Religion, in God's eyes, is total surrender 



321 



[to Him] 3 the teachings of the religion (5:3) j>%s c£S\ 
today I have perfected [ the teachings of] your religion for you 4 
worship, obedience, submission (8:39) 'jj^j uj^ ^ cr^ ^ j^j 
<dl <K 'jjjtill /rg/if f/iem until there is no more persecution, and all 
worship is devoted to God alone 5 law, custom, code (12:76) ^ 
■iO jjj ^ £U.i jtkUl /ie would not have been able to take his 
brother [as a penalty] under the king's law 6 judgement (37:20- 
1) jjjll J>°jj Ija UL'jU woe to us!, this is the Day of Judgement 7 
reckoning, counting, calculation (9:36) lil aIII '^jc. jj^I bj 

indeed, the number of the months with God is twelve months- 
ordained] in the Book of God, on the Day He created the 
heavens and earth— of them are four forbidden/sacred months; 
this is the correct calculation. 

£jLi« madinun [pi. of pass. part. madin] 1 ones who are 
judged (37:53) 'oyi^ La tUic'j O'jj USj In* Ii3 a/ter we die and 
become dust and bone, will we be brought for judgement? 2 ones 
who are controlled, under authority, compelled, constrained 
(56:86-7) J^Ljlla y l^jji^jS 'jjjuia jjc. J^jS '(jj Vjia w/iy f/zen, 
yow are nof constrained, do you not restore it [his soul] [to his 
body], if you are telling the truth? 

jUjj dinar [n. borrowed from Greek or Latin, maybe through Persian, 
and occurring once in the Qur'an] a gold coin, dinar (3:75) !> J4Vj 
IM jjjj V jlijpu ij-b '(jj of them is he who, if you trust him with a 
[single] dinar, will not return it to you. 



j/ dhal 



Jlili "al-dhal the ninth letter of the alphabet; it stands for a voiced 
interdental fricative sound. 

I j dha masc. sing, demonstrative pronoun (s^j^l -O^ 5 S J-^ c"0 
used to indicate someone/something, concrete or abstract, close to 
the speaker 'this', 'this one (here)', and occurring some 483 times 
in the Qur'an. Other demonstratives occurring in the Qur'an are 
the following: fem. sing. Jj and lsp dhi; masc. dual jli; fem. dual 
Cp; masc. and fem. pi. ?V J, all of which occur some 254 times in 
the Qur'an. The particle ha\ designated by grammarians as 
attention-drawing ha 3 (<b21I is often prefixed to 

demonstrative pronouns emphasising immediacy or close 
proximity and, in some contexts, particularising the object 
pointed out (2:79) <MI js?. '<> l& 'jjljsj ^ J^ajjIj ujf^ u?^ cfijs 
so woe to those who write a text with their own hands and then 
say, 'This [very one] is from God'. Also, the particle _J, 
designated as, lam of remoteness (^uil £1), coupled with the leaf of 
address (i-ALill 2 nd person suffix 'A and derivatives, agreeing 
in case number and gender with the addressee, may also be 
suffixed to the demonstratives to indicate remoteness, either 
physical or non-physical, 'that', 'that one (there)'. The attaching 
of the 2 nd person suffixes to the demonstratives has, through 
directly involving the addressee, the effect of particularising the 
attention drawing function of the demonstratives e.g. s j^> 'that 
one you [fem. pi.] see there'. Middle distance (Ja*«jL«ll), is 
indicated by the attaching of the 2 nd person ^1 alone to the 
demonstratives e.g. <M'x Rhetoricians point out that various 
distances indicated by the demonstratives may be physical or 



323 



non-physical. Depending on the context, short distance may 
indicate contempt or intimacy, long distance may indicate respect 
or rejection, whereas middle distance may indicate a mixture of 
both. Qur'anic commentators and literary scholars generally 
endeavour to discover the nuances of meaning hinted at by the 
manipulation of the distance aspect of the various demonstratives. 
An example may be found in the use of the long-distance 
indicator o^- 5 in (12:32) uguS ^ill 'd&& she said, 'That [the 
one you see there ] is the one you blamed me for. ' Having heard 
the ladies refer to Joseph with the near-distance l& (12:31) l& U« 
I >Sj this is not a mortal, and wishing to put an end to the rumours 
circulating among some women in the town accusing her of 
trying to seduce Joseph, the lady under whose roof he is living 
parades him before her guests and points to him with the remote 
demonstrative "jkli, thus hinting at his remoteness and their lack 
of intimacy although living physically close at hand. On the other 
hand, the use of the short-distance indicator li» in (21:36) ^ l&l 
jSi is this [here] the one who [mentions] runs down your 
gods? relates the contempt these people were expressing for the 
prophet and for his campaigning against their gods. The mixture 
of the opposing feelings of fear and trust felt by Moses when first 
presented with the two miracles of the serpent and the hand is 
indicated by the use of the mid-distance s&lj in pointing out these 
two miracles to Moses (28:32) o'j^'J !> cP^'J 

these [two miracles here demonstrated] shall be two signs from 
your Lord to Pharaoh and his chiefs. A revealing example of the 
way the various types of demonstratives are employed to convey 
nuances of meaning in the Qur'anic text may be found in two 
parallel verses (7:20) and (7:22). In pointing to the forbidden tree, 
there physically close at hand, Satan uses si* in his tempting of 
Adam and Eve (7:20) °J cj£L> U 'J VI ?j?->ill »ja °je USj'j U 
'(jjjjlLkll 't> UjSj your Lord only forbade you this tree that you might 
become angels or of the immortals. But in reminding the couple 
of His original instruction to them to stay away from the tree, 
God points to it with the long-distance indicator (7:22) 'jc. US^J jJ 
s'jkiSlI USJj did I not forbid you from that tree? Thus Satan's use of 
the short-distance indicates the alluring nearness of the tree, 



324 



and contrasts with God's use of the long-distance indicating 
that the tree should have remained unattainable. 
hadha/hadhihl is often used in Qur'anic context to 

implicitly indicate comparison, 'this, but not that' (29:64) sja U'j 
Lutlj "J$l V) Uj^l sliJ the life of this world [ as compared with the 
life in the Hereafter] is nothing but a diversion and amusement. 
Like the rest of the demonstratives f S/ j may be attached to one of 
the 2 nd person suffixes, thus indicating longer distance between 
speaker and the referent of ^ J. Such distance implies, in the 
views of rhetoricians, respect in some contexts, as in (2:5) ^ ^ J 
jjkJalll JJk '>Mj\j J^jj °qa ^i* those [ exalted people ] are following 
their Lord's guidance and it is they who will prosper, and 
contempt in others, as in (2:161) jUS 'fa I jjUj I j'jiS ^1 y 
'jjjj^aki (jaUllj fSj^lj aAII AjkS J^jlc. a* /or f/iose w/io disbelieve and 
die as disbelievers, upon those [wretched people ] is the curse of 
God, the angels and mankind together, li dha may be prefixed 
with ^ denoting similitude (q.v.) tSlliS, pointing out similarity with 
a preceding referent, 'thus', 'like so' (4:94) 1> so you 

yourselves were [in a similar situation] before. The similarity 
indicated by lis may be emphasised, or even dramatised, by the 
prefixing of attention-drawing U thus giving as in (27:42) 
J^jc vk*\ is your throne [in any way] like this one? 

tj/S/j dh-"-b wolf, wolf-like, ruffians; nobility; to act in a devious 
way; forelock; summit. Of this root, only Lui dhi°b occurs three 
times in the Qur' an. 

Lui dhi°b [n.] wolf (12:17) L-uill and a wolf ate him. 

f/S/i dh- :, -m to expel, to drive out; to insult, to compel, to humiliate, 
a fault. Of this root, only madh'um occurs once in the 

Qur' an. 

?jf.±Amadh"um [pass, part.] humiliated and despised (7:18) Ji 
I jjk'ia 11 He said, 'Get out!, you are disgraced and 

banished! ' 

lj/lj/j dh-b-b flies, bees, 'fly-whisk', swatter, to chase away; to 



325 



become emaciated; tip or point of a blade. Of this root, only LiUi 
dhubdb occurs twice in the Qur' an. 

LiUi dhubdb [coll. n.] flies, insignificant things (22:73) 'jjill oj 
<S I ji^ikl jlj UUi I jSkj y aHI jji '(> 'jjc-jj f/iose w/?ow w/iom you call, 
beside God, cannot create [even] a fly-even if they gathered 
together to do it. 

^/lj/j dh-b-h flood channels; a disease in the throat; to cut the 
throat, to slay, a butchered animal, to sacrifice, an animal fit or 
prepared for slaughter or sacrifice. Of this root, four forms occur 
nine times in the Qur' an: ^jj dhabaha four times; ^jj dhubiha 
once; '^'4yudhabbih three times and ^jj dhibh once. 

jui dhabaha a [v. trans.] 1 to slay (27:21) 'j IjjA" kiixJl 
/ w//Z punish him severely or slaughter him 2 to ritually 
sacrifice (2:67) iju I jkjjj °j '^'J&j aIh y Go<f commands you to 
sacrifice a cow. 

j^j dhubiha [pass, v.] to be ritually sacrificed (5:3) l-j 
' . i' ajl l an<i f/iaf which is sacrificed on idolatrous altars. 

jtjjj yudhabbih [imperf. of v. II j4i dhabbaha, trans.] to be in 
the habit of slaughtering, to slaughter in number (28:4) ■ 
^illy ^jVi' i m 'j 'piiLil ^j^ 3 ^ deems as weak one group of 

theirs: slaughtering their sons and sparing their women. 

jtji dhibh [n.] an animal earmarked or fit to be sacrificed, a 
sacrificial animal (37:107) pjjj SUijisj We ransomed him with 
a momentous sacrifice. 

lj/j/lj/j dh-b-dh-b to make something dangle or move to and fro; to 
perplex; to harm; to be in a state of commotion. Of this root, only 
oJ>'4'^ mudhabdhabiin occurs once in the Qur' an. 

mudhabdhablna [pi. of pass. part. mudhabdhab] 
ones who are pulled from two opposite directions, who keep 
swinging from one side to the other, waverers (4:143) ^lli 
f V> Ji\ Vj f-V> V wavering all the time between [this and] 
that, [belonging] neither to one side nor the other. 



326 



dh-kh-r the lower section of the stomach, stored provisions, 
treasure, to select, to store up, to treasure. Of this root, only dJj^^ 
taddakhirun occurs once in the Qur'an. 

jail taddakhir [imperf. of v. VIII jiil 'iddakhara, an 
assimilated form of ji5il "idhtakhara, trans.] to store up (3:49) 
... 'pSjjjj (ji Uaj 'jjMii ^ f^j'j <2wc? / te/Z you what you eat (or, 

what you may eat) and what you store (or, what you may store) in 
your houses .... 

S/j/j dh-r-^ first sprouts of a plant; offspring, to create, to cause to 
increase in number; to spread; to produce. Of this root, only ijj 
dhara'a occurs six times in the Qur'an. 

Sjj dhara^a a [v. trans.] 1 to create, to fashion out (6:136) I jJ«*j 
l^aj (.UuS/lj ijkll j> i'jj All f/iey apportion to God a share of the 
land produce and the livestock He created 2 to cause to increase, 
to cause to procreate (42:11) IVIjj i>j ^jj J^iil '(> '^kl J*^ 

^jjjj //e macfe /or yow o/ yourselves pairs, and of the cattle 
pairs [also], so as to multiply you therein. 

j/j/j dh-r-r small ants, specks, motes, powder; offspring; to 
sprinkle, to scatter, to cause to multiply, to spread creatures over 
the earth; to sprout. Of this root, three forms occur 38 times in the 
Qur'an: Sji dharratun six times; ajjj dhurriyyatun 28 times and 
CjUjj dhurriyyat four times. 

Sji dharratun [n.] a mote, a speck, a very small ant (4:40) y 
Sjj Jlal« J4tu V Go<f Joes raof wrong [anyone] by [as much as[ the 
weight of a speck of dust/an ant. 

Ajjj dhurriyyatun [n./coll. n.; pi. ^dji dhurriyyat] offspring, 
descendants, progeny (7:172) J44jj ^jjs-k t> cs^ i> ^ jjj 
an<f remember when your Lord took from the children of Adam, 
from their loins, their seed. 

dh-r- c arm, front legs of a four-legged animal; dextrous; a 
cubit, to measure in cubits; power, capability; pretext, means. Of 
this root, three forms occur five times in the Qur'an: j^ji dhar c 



327 



three times; jMji dhira c once and jjc-ljj dhira c ayn once. 

£ jj <i/iar c [n./v. n.] 1 measurement, measurement in cubits 
(69:32) sj£Ui lilji 'jjJulu l^c-ji UX" <ji p f/ze« ft'e Aim w/? in a 
c/iam, f/ze measurement of which is seventy cubits long 2 power, 
capacity, endurance *(29:33) liji J^j /ie was troubled and 
distressed on their account, he did not know what to do with 
them, he was exasperated with them [lit. he was too short of space 
to accommodate them]. 

jsljj dhira c [n.] a cubit (69:32) I jSLAi Itljj l^Lji fUL, ^ 
then tie him up in a chain the measurement of which is seventy 
cubits long. 

Ljjeljj dhira c ayn [dual n.] two arms, two front legs (18:18) 
^a'JL Ajc-I'jj LJj J4^j ««<^ ffeir dog stretching out its forelegs at 
the entrance. 

dh-r-w/y summit, top; to cause to multiply, to create; to 
scatter, to blow away, to winnow; shelter, to shelter. Of this root, 
three forms occur once each in the Qur'an: jjjj tadhru; "Jj* dharw 
and CjUjI i dhariyat. 

jjjj tadhru [imperf. of v. Iji dhara, trans.] to scatter 
something, to blow away (18:45) ^Ujll ^jlJi and 

becomes dry stubble that the winds blow away. 

jjj dharw [v. n.] scattering, dispersing, the act of blowing 
away (51:1) Ijji CjUJillj by those [winds] that scatter far and 
wide. 

dVjJi dhariyat [pi. of act. part. fem. 3jJ i dhariyatun] that 
which scatters, that which blows away (51:1) Ijji oUJillj fry f/iose 
[winds] that scatter far and wide; * clijliil name of Sura 51, 
Meccan sura, so-named because of the reference in verse 1 to 'the 
Scattering Winds' as a sign in nature illustrating the coming of 
the Day of Resurrection. 

dh- c -n to submit, to give in; to hurry up; to confess. Of this 
root, only ujh?^ mudh c inun, occurs once in the Qur'an. 



328 



cjjjpi* mudh c inun [pi. of act. part. "o?'±* mudh c in] one who 
submits, one who yields (24:49) 'j**^ $1 I jjIj l&! °u!'j 

f/iey /iav<? a claim, they come to him in submission. 

6/<j/j dh-q-n chin, beard; to place the hand under the chin, to hit on 
the chin; to annoy. Of this root, ySjl "adhqan, occurs three times 
in the Qur' an 

£)l3Si °adhqdn [pi. of n. "oai dhaqn] chins (36:8) UJi*. U 

jli&l ,Jj ^gi vi^i We Ziave placed fetters on their necks, right up 
to their chins; *(17:109) jl&6U 'jjjw they fall down on their faces, 
they prostrate themselves [lit. they fall to the chins]. 

j/til/j dh-k-r male, male organ, manhood, masculinity; weighty head 
of the axe; power; honour, renown, good name; to mention, to 
remember, to remind, to commit to memory, to learn by heart, to 
study, to investigate; to propose marriage; a record; to praise; to 
insult, to defame. Of this root, 19 forms occur 292 times in the 
Qur' an: dhakara 73 times; 'jSi dhukira 11 times; dhakkara 
eight times; jSi dhukkira 10 times; jSij tadhakkara 51 times; jki 
<i/i/fcr 76 times; t/jki dhikra 23 times; s'j£ij tadhkiratun nine times; 
"jjSi tadhkir once; madhkur once; jSi mudhakkir once; 

oljSlj dhakirat once; dhakirun twice; jSi dhakar 12 times; 

jj'jSj dhakarayn twice; jjSi dhukur twice; y'jSi dhukran twice; 
jkil °iddakara once; and muddakir six times. 

jSi dhakara u [v. trans.] 1 to mention (17:46) cjjki lilj 

s'jkj jli'jsJI w/ie« vow mention your Lord in the Qur' an, and Him 
alone 2 to remember (3:103) 'jju < — iila iljcl ij iSJc I jjSilj 

J^jS a«<i remember God's favour to you-you were enemies then 
He brought your hearts together 3 to recall, bring to mind (3:135) 
a^jjjil Ijjjijlali <M Ijj^- 5 '4'"° I j'-tk jl 4 .'n-sli I jka Ijj ^jjillj those who, 
when they have committed a sinful deed or have [otherwise] 
sinned against themselves, recall God, imploring forgiveness for 
their sins 4 to keep in mind (33:34) oUli '<> c&j& <jl ^ Oj^j 
^SjJI j a«<i fcee/? in mind that which is recited in your houses of 
God's revelations and wisdom 5 to meditate, to think over 
(7:205) 'A^sj ji dCj jSilj a«<i remember your Lord 



329 



internally [lit. within your soul], imploringly and in awe 6 to use 
the example of (19:16) l5STj«5 I^JaI '<> diml jj '^'j^ lJj£1I ^ 'jkilj 
and wse f/ie example of [the story of] Mary in the Book-when she 
withdrew away from her family to an eastern place 7 to repent, to 
take heed, to regret (37:13) 'jjl&y V I JJ^ lilj am/ w/ie« f/iey are 
admonished they do not take heed 8 to put into practice (2:63) Ijia. 

*^SEJ <ji U I jjSilj s'ji J^LijIi U holdfast to what We have given 
you, and bear its contents in mind [act in accordance with it] that 
you may be conscious of God 9 to reward (2: 152) ^'jSil ^ jjSili so 
remember Me; I will remember [reward] you 10 to insult, to 
demean (21:36) jSi ^ill ^ 'jj* °u] 'jj^ ui^l 'Tj 

J^JIi whenever the disbelievers see you, they only make fun of 
you— 'Is this the one who demeans your gods?' 11 to propose 
marriage (2:235) ,J J^jSI °j fU-ill <iui. ^ 'f&zfje. ^ J^SjIc ^Uk Vj 
I'j^ y^jjcl'jj V 'jSTj "j^jjjSjlu. 'fSi aIII ft. t^ii f/iere will be no blame 
on you if you give a hint that you wish to marry [these] women, 
or keep it to your selves-God knows that you will express your 
wish to marry them-but do not make agreements with them in 
secrecy. 

i , . . . . 

jSj dhukira [pass, v.] 1 to be mentioned (47:20) s'j_>- cAjy\ lili 

Jjall l^jj jSij ygf w/iew a clearly-worded sura is revealed, 

and fighting is mentioned in it 2 to be glorified, to be venerated 

(24:36) l^a 'J ^ lP> hjS ^ a lantern] in 

houses which God has ordained [that they] be raised high and 

that His name be mentioned in them. 

jSi dhakkara [v. II, trans.] 1 to remind (2:282) &>>\'i*.\ °J 
UAl'jkj jSiia so that if one of the two [women] should make 
an error the other can remind her 2 to admonish, to warn (50:45) 
Aic.j UiLkj '(> jli'jSJlj jSia admonish, with the Qur'an, those who 
fear My warning. 

j*j dhukkira [pass. v. II] to be admonished, to be warned 
(37:13) 'dJjfc^i V lijj and they take no heed when they are 
warned. 

jkjj tadhakkara [v. V, trans., some instances of the imperfect 
are assimilated as jSi yadhdhakkar] 1 to remember (79:35) 



330 



(jjila U JjUjyi f/ie Day era which man will remember what he 
endeavoured [to do] (or, his endeavour) 2 [with no obj.] a) to 
contemplate, to ponder, to mull over (25:62) 'J*$'j <JP J*V ^ j*j 
I jjlu 'i'j J jSi 'J 'i'J '(>! Aik. //e if is w/io made m'gfe and Jay 
replace one another, for those wishing to remember/ponder or 
wishing to show gratitude b) to take heed (20:44) AJkJ Lul V jS aJ V jia 
J speafc gentle words to him, that he may take heed, or 

fear. 

jki dhikr I [v. n.] 1 telling, relating, giving an account (19:2) 
UjS'j o'jjc. tifij ^«k'j j£i /fm's /s/ aw account of your Lord's grace 
towards His servant, Zachariah 2 recalling to the mind (2:200) liji 
IjSi lul jl '^Uli f^j^jS Ij'jSili ^SSj alia 'viV. when you have 
completed your rites, remember God as much as you remember 
your own fathers, or even more 3 meditating, thinking, 
contemplation, reflection (13:28) VI <M j&j °4bE *ji»kjj I jiali 'jjill 
Lijjall jU=u Aill jSju diose w/io /iave faith and whose hearts find 
peace in reflecting on God-truly it is in reflection upon God that 
hearts find peace 4 being a source of learning, being a source of 
guidance (54:17) J> J^i jkili yVjill UjLy jSTj We /iave made d 
easy to learn from the Qur'an—will anyone take heed? 5 
mentioning, talking about someone *(43:5) l^il^ 
should We stop talking about you [ignore you[ completely? II [n.] 
1 (possibly) messenger from God (65:10-11) aIII Jjsl i5 I 
aJII pUli '^Sjlc. jJi V jlij I'jSj '^SjII yoK w/io believe, God has sent you 
a reminder— a messenger reciting to you God's revelations 2 
revelation from God, a message from Him (7:69) °j 'c^^'J 
^jiiS ^ JVj cs-k |> jSi do you find it so strange that a 
Reminder should come to you from your Lord-through a man 
from among you— to warn you? 3 information, elucidation, 
explanation (18:70) iio djjki jZ*. 'jc. (^jSU (^jSujI up 
Ijki /ze said, 'If you follow me, then do not ask me regarding 
anything till I [myself] have made mention of it to you ' 4 past 
events, history (18:83) 4i« jhL. JS jjujill 'jc '^jlL^j 
diey asfc yaw [Prophet] about Dhu'l-Qarnayn, say, 'I will relate 
to you from his history' 5 honour, eminence (43:44) ^ jkil Ajjj 
ijL'JXj for it [Islam/the Qur'an[ is indeed an honour for you and 
your people 6 status, position, name, reputation (94:4) ^11 l&ajj 



331 



tSTjki and we have raised your name high 7 [with the definite 
article jkill °al-dhikr\ a) the Qur'an in particular (15:9) Ufjj J>j Ul 
'jjkalaJ <I Ulj jkill is We who have sent down the Reminder/the 
Qur'an, and We [Ourselves] are guarding it b) revealed books 
before the Qur'an (21:7) J*l \ jLli ^1 Vlkj VI ^ UL/j U.j 
jjUki V '^liS °J\ jSill f&e messengers We sent before your time 
[Prophet] were only men whom We had inspired; if you do not 
know, ask those acquainted with the Scriptures c) (possibly) the 
Eternal Record (21:105) lP»jVI "3 =3*) i> jjfjl' iA -^J 
'jjklLJI ^jUc. We wrote/decreed in the Psalms, in addition to/after 
the [earlier] Scripture/Reminder/Eternal Record that 'The Earth 
shall be the inheritance of My righteous servants. ' 

jjkj dhikra [v. n./n.] 1 remembering/remembrance, 
recollection/recollecting (6:68) ^ lsj^I J*j ^ 'jU4^ '^"'j £fj 
'jjJUall and if Satan should make you forget then do not sit, 
after remembering, with the evil-doing people 2 reminding, 
warning, admonishing (87:9) ts'jSiM 'J\ so remind, if 
reminding will (or may) help 3 sign, harbinger (in one 
interpretation of verses 79:42-3) ^ UL-'jl 'J$ a^\LA\ jc. l&J^ 
IaIjSj °(> w/iy should they ask such a question?, you [the Prophet] 
are [there for them to see as] one of its signs (or, you [Prophet] 
are one of its harbingers) [in another further and more commonly 
read interpretation: they ask you [Prophet] about the Hour: 
'When will it arrive?' [But] what [knowledge] do you have of it 
that you can tell them?]. 

SjSli tadhkiratun [v. n./n.] reminding/reminder (69:12) j>kl l«r/yd 
SjSij so as to mafe a reminder for you. 

jjijj tadhkir [v. n./n.] reminding, admonishing (10:71) 'JS 'JS 'J\ 
Ail! cjUL c^j^jjj wy presence among you and my 

reminding [you] of God's signs are abhorrent/too burdensome to 
you. 

jjki» madhkur [pass, part.] mentioned, remembered, being 
taken note of *(76:1) ljj£I« l^S *J /ie was insignificant [lit. «of 
something remembered/mentioned] . 

jSa» mudhakkir [act. part.] admonisher, reminder, warner 



332 



(88:21) j£il cA Uuj jSia so warn [them], you are only a warner. 

CxjjSti dhakirun [pi. of act. part. jSli dhakir, fern. pi. CjI'jSIj 
dhakirat] those who are mindful, those who remember, those who 
recite (33:35) pljSlillj I'jjjS <M 'jjjSlillj a«<f f/iose mew anc? women 
who remember God often. 

jSi dhakar [n., dual dhakaran, pi. dhukur and y'jSi 
dhukran] male (16:97) ^ia 'j jSi °t> HJlla I> w/io^oever does 
right, whether male or female. 

jStil ^iddakara [v. VIII, assimilated form of jSSil 'idhtakara, 
intrans.] to remember, to recollect (12:45) 'iu l^j ^ J$j 

<i and said the one who had gained freedom of the two and 
remembered [Joseph] after a while. 

muddakir [act. part, assimilated form of mudhtakir] 
one who learns a lesson, one who is admonished, takes heed 
(54:15) jSi '(> Js-a ajI* UUS'jS 'aalj We /iave Ze/f if [the ark[ as a 
sign; so, is there anyone who takes heed? 

j/til/j dh-k-w the sun, (of fire) to burn strongly; intelligence; to be 
witty; to slaughter an animal in the ritually approved manner; to 
purify. Of this root, only dhakkaytum occurs once in the 
Qur' an. 

Jsa dhakka [v. II, trans.] [jur.] to slaughter in accordance with 
the teachings (5:3) U V] J£l Uij [...] A2£«ll J»£>k- Cmjk 
forbidden to you [for food] un-slaughtered [lit. JeaJ] animals 
[...] and what has been savaged by a beast of prey, save that 
which you [yourselves] have [managed to] slaughter [while it 
was still alive]. 

J/J/j dh-l-l mercy, kindness; to become humbled, to become 
humiliated; to be tamed, to become docile; to be within easy 
reach. Of this root, 12 forms occur 24 times in the Qur'an: Jii 
nadhill once; Jto dhallala once; <Jli dhullila once; Jii tudhill once; 
JJij tadhlil once; Ji <f/iwZZ three times; dhillatun seven times; 
<li ^adhillatun four times; Jil 'adhall once; jjlil J adhallun once; 
J jli dhalul twice and dhulul once. 



Jii nadhill [imperf. of Ji dhalla, intrans.] to be humiliated, to 
be abject, to become humbled (20:134) '^i V jlfj CiLjJ V'jJ USJ 
cs'jajj Jii 'J Jj5 '(> ^SUli Loraf, o«Zy Yow ZiatZ sen? us a messenger 
we could have followed Your revelations before we suffered 
humiliation and disgrace! 

Jli dhallala [v. II, trans.] to tame, to cause to be docile, to 
cause to be manageable (36:72) 'oJ&i t^iaj °4b£j '^1 UUllij and 
We have made [livestock] manageable for them, so that some 
[can be used] for riding and some they [can[ eat. 

JJj dhullila [pass, of v. II] to be positioned within easy reach, 
to be made accessible (76:14) iblii l«ijLa cJlij and to 
fruit-clusters are made to hang low within easy reach. 

Jjj tudhill [imperf. of v. IV "adhalla, trans.] to humiliate, to 
humble, to abase (3:26) *U2 !> Jjjj I> *>jj Fom elevate 
whomsoever You will and humble whomsoever You will. 

Jjijj tadhlil [v. n.] the act of facilitating, placing within easy 
reach (76:14) ^Ui l^jA^ ^-^j a«<i its fruit-clusters are made to 
hang low within easy reach. 

s > . 

Ji dhull [n./v. n.] 1 humility, humbleness (17:24) o^'j 
iM^jJI 1> JjJI a«<i humble yourself, be tender to them [lit. 
lower for them, the wing of humbleness], out of mercy 2 
abasement, humiliation (42:45) Jill j> 'jj**^ %k uj^Jh J^'lnj 
yow w/ZZ see them exposed to it, [made[ humble by humiliation. 

5Jj dhillatun [n.] humiliation, disgrace, shame, abasement 
(10:26) <lp V'j j3 J4* jVj l3*1w Yj neither darkness nor 

humiliation shall cover their faces. 

5Jj| °adhillatun [pi. of quasi-pass. part. JJi dhalil] 1 weak 
(3:123) aLI 'pjjlj j'jjj <M f^j^" '-^j Go<f indeed helped you at 
Badr when you were weak 2 humble (5:54) °44n fjk ^ ^ <— iji-a 
Jjj^jUl (jic. ALi Go<f w/ZZ assuredly bring forth a people He 

loves and who love Him, humble towards the believers 3 abased, 
humiliated (27:37) J^j 3Jjf ljl> J4^j^j 1*j ^ JjS Si J44y^ 
jj'jcU^ we w/ZZ certainly come upon them with forces they have 
no power to face and we will drive them out of it, abased and 



334 



humbled 4 subjugated, demoted (27:34) ajj 3 I j^- 2 <^jW ci 
<Si! l^Jii Sjc.1 I jkk'j U jAuil she said, 'Whenever kings/wealthy 
people go into a city, they corrupt it and make the notables of its 
inhabitants lowly. ' 

Jil "adhall [elat., pi. jjlil "adhallun] weaker, more/most 
debased, humiliated, humble, comtemptible (63:8) ^ j=-Sfl O^-j^i 1 
JiS/l the mighty will drive the contemptible out of it [the town]. 

Jjii dhalul [quasi-act. part., pi. jii dhulul] 1 broken in, trained, 
docile, domesticated (2:71) ijaJI Jil^ Vj o-ajSfl jjjj Jjli V s'Ju 
?7 w a cow, not broken to plough the earth or water the 
tillage/fields 2 accessible, stable, manageable (67:15) J*+ ^ > 

accessible/manageable for you; so, travel its regions. 

ft/ft/i dh-m-m pact, pledge, guarantee, protection; dirt, to revile, to 
abuse. Of this root, two forms occur five times in the Qur'an: &j 
dhimmatun twice and madhmum three times. 

£»i dhimmatun [n.] a pledge of protection, a covenant of 
mutual protection, personal undertaking, good faith (9:10) '&j£Ji V 
&j V] (>> f/iey respect, with regard to a believer, no tie of 
kinship or treaty. 

madhmum [pass, part.] discredited, blamed, reviled 
(17:22) V jiii ZsJ*}i* ikaja Jii; V^JI <M ^ Jkkj V Jo rcof sef besides 
God another deity, lest you end up reproved and forsaken. 

tj/O/j dh-n-b tail, tail end, consequence; guilt, crime, sin, to sin; the 
end of the valley, the place where floodwater gathers, a great 
bucket; share, portion. Of this root, three forms appear 39 times in 
the Qur'an: Liii dhanb 11 times; Lijii dhunub 26 times; and Lsjii 
dhanub twice. 

Lui dhanb [n., pi. Lsjjj dhunub] 1 sin (39:53) Lsjiill jiiu aIII q\ 
^j^- God forgives all sins 2 a charge, an accusation (26:14) J4^j 
jjjKj 'j i_iUii Lui ^Jc. f/iey have a charge against me, and I fear 
that they may kill me 3 crime (81:9) jjL cjIoL s'jji'j^ll lilj 

w/ie« f/ie Z?aZ?y g/rZ buried alive is asked for what crime she was 



335 



killed. 

Lijjj dhanub [n.] share, portion, lot (51:59) Ijjii I 'ua^ bp 
^LalJ L_ijjj f/iose vtmo are unjust will have a share [of 
punishment] like/equal to the share of their comrades. 

<->/— fc/j dh-h-b gold; to go, to go away, to set out; to take away; 
creed, faction, sect, to adopt as a conviction. Of this root, five 
forms occur 56 times in the Qur'an: sjaj dhahaba 35 times; Lsii 
'adhhaba 11 times; LaIj dhahib once; LAii dhahab once and Liii 
dhahab eight times. 

lja j dhahaba a [v. intrans.] 1 to go (20:97) LsAili Jli /ie sai<f 
'Go/' 2 to go off (21:87) \ 'u Ljaj il tjjjll lij awo* [remember] 
Dhu'l-Nun [Jonah] when he went off angrily 3 to disappear, to 
clear off, to vanish (33:19) jIV J-iJj jSL, i_i'jill Lsaj lila w/ien 
/ear /ias passed, they lash at you with sharp tongues 4 [with prep. 
(>■] to go from, to depart from, to leave (11:10) Laj 
(^yjc. /ie is swre to say, 'Misfortune has gone away from me' 5 [with 
prep, _j] a) to go away with (2:17) V J* J4^j5j J>a jjjj aUI Laj 
'qJj^h God took away their light, leaving them in utter darkness, 
unable to see; b) to claim, to appropriate for oneself (23:91) U'j 
q±ju je. pi'i <rn \ (jia. Uu aII Liiil lil <ll '(> 4« m?r « f/iere any 
god with Him-if there were, each god would have claimed his 
creation, and some of them would have tried to overcome the 
others. 

v " - ' 

ljajI J adhhaba [v. IV, trans.] 1 to remove (9:15) ^jr - ljaojj 

and remove the rage from their hearts 2 to cause to disappear, to 

cause to vanish (4:133) 'ao^-L. pfcj J^Ull l^ji J^jajj Uu *o) ^ *o 

willed, He could make you, humankind, vanish and replace you 

with others. 

LiAlj dhahib [act. part.] one going (37:99) Jij lA cPj 
/ am gomg to my LoraV //e w//Z surely guide me. 

LiUi dhahab [v. n., with prep, j] the act of taking away, 
abolishing (23:18) 'jjj--^ ^ <J=- ^jj and for taking it all away 
We are able. 

Li»j dhahab [coll. n.] gold (9:34) Alasllj LsAill 'ji^lj f/iose 



336 



who hoard gold and silver. 

J/— fc/j dh-h-l part of the night; to become distracted, to be 
bewildered, to forget. Of this root, only Jajj tadhhal occurs once 
in the Qur' an. 

Jajj tadhhal [imperf. of v. J*i dhahala, intrans.] to be 
distracted, to be oblivious (22:2) rWrA j t*c f^u^Ja J*^ VJj fJi 
on the Day you see it, every suckling woman will be oblivious to 
that which she suckles. 

jj dhu [nom. case of masc. sing, possessive n., always in construct 
(iiUiJ) with a following noun, meaning 'owner', 'possessor', 'one 

~ f e e 

who has' (65:7) <^ I> ^ ji ijiii and let a person of means 
spend according to his wealth; accusative case li (dha) (5:106) jlj 
^jjS li even if it concerned a person of [one's] kinship [lit. 
possessor of kinship]; genitive case lsp (dhi) (14:37) p 'Jj Jt. i'jj 
in an uncultivated valley [lit. possessing no vegetation]. These 
occur in the Qur' an some 81 times. The rest of the paradigm are: 
nom. masc. dual Iji (dhawa) (5:95) Jsc. Iji <j jkSkj fwo persons of 
good standing [lit. possessors of good standing] arbitrate 
concerning it; acc. masc. dual (dhaway) (65:2) Ji. 
anc? fflflfe fwo persons of good standing bear witness, both 
occurring three times; acc. masc. pi. lSj- 1 (dhawi), occurring once, 
in (2:177) <jjjiil lsj^ ^ JUS ^plij a«<f [those who] give away 
some of their wealth, for His love (or, in spite of their love for the 
money), to their kin; fem. sing, oli J/iaf, occurring 29 times 
(89:7) jU*1I pli f/ie owe w/tft f/ie Zo/fy pillars; nom. fem. dual tslji 
dhawata, occurring twice (55:48) jUil l^jj fZte fwo w/f/i hanging 
branches; acc. fem. dual ^Iji dhawatay, occurring once, in 
(34:16) Jfl ^Ijj fwo fruit-bearing [gardens]]. These nouns 
convey a sense of belonging with varying degrees of closeness 
and also with different aspects of possessing, as may be 
determined from wider contexts such as the following: 1 
possessor of, in possession of (2:105) fJikJI JLislI ji AJllj God is 
[the possessor] of great bounty 2 endowed with (28:79) ^ jil <jj 
fJic. Zte Ztas great fortune/luck 3 having, provided with (55:12) 
'jLajjllj t-ilokJI ji LikJIj and grain in dry ears (or, which has husks), 



337 



and fragrant plants 4 owner of, lord of, sovereign over 
(something) (40:15) <j5fjkll j- 5 PVj^l the Exalted in rank, Lord 
of the Throne 5 given to, adherent to (41:51) flij jia j^ 1 ^jj 
if evil touches him, he is full of prolonged prayer 6 a 
member of a class or a group (6:15) <JJ li 'J^ 'Jj even if [it 
concerns] a person of [one's] kinship 7 ascribed to, known by 
(21:87) lliUi L-iAi il jjill lij a«<f [remember] Dhu'l-Nun [i.e. 
Jonah] 8 the essence, the inside, the innermost, the depth (3:119) 
jjil^ll oil jLJc. aIII *j] GoJ feiows exactly what is in the innermost 
part of all hearts 9 with, bearing (34:16) J=^- Jfl ^Ijj fwo 
gardens bearing bitter fruit 10 to be inclined to, to be oriented 
towards (18:18) J^ill Cjlij oi ^ ^ *(4^j wMe We turned them 
over, to the right and to the left. 

j/j/j dh-w-d horns; tongue; to keep off, to drive off, to keep away, 
defender; a small herd of camels (between two and nine). Of this 
root, only jl'-s jij tadhudan occurs once in the Qur'an. 

jjjj tadhud [imperf. of v. 'ii dhada, trans.] to keep back, to 
drive off (28:23) J'jj-^ riP'J^ i> -^jj aw <^ ^ found, at a 
distance from them, two women keeping back [their herd]. 

<jj/j/i dh-w-q to taste, to cause to taste, to experience, experiences, 
learning. Of this root, four forms occur 63 times in the Qur'an: jli 
dhaqa 36 times; jlii J adhaqa 22 times; Aili dha'iqatun three 
times; and oj^'- 1 dhd"iqun twice. 

Jli dhaqa u [v. trans.] 1 to taste (7:22) 1^1 ciii s'jkliil ISli Ilia 
I^jI'jL, when they tasted the tree, their shameful parts became 
manifest to them 2 to suffer, to experience (51:14) ^ 1 j 5 jj 

'jjkkiU <i J>iiS suffer your punishment, this is what you wished to 
hasten 3 to feel (78:24) 0"_>i Vj Ijjj l^ji 'jjS V f/iere f/iey will feel 
no coolness nor will they have any drink. 

JliS "adhaqa [v. IV, trans.] 1 to cause to savour, to give a taste 
of (30:36) l^j Ijkja aJ^'j ^Ull USi! lilj when We give people a taste 
of mercy, they rejoice in it 2 to cause to suffer (17:75) aUaiSf li) 
pL^ll i aju- a j sIj^JI i f/ie« We would have made you suffer 
double [the punishment] of [this] life and double [the 



338 



punishment] of [after] death. 

j dha"iqun [pi. of act. part, (jjli dha^iq; fem. <&\ i 
dha'iqatun] ones tasting, savouring; ones suffering (21:35) 
c/pjl every suffers death. 

dh-y- c to declare, to announce, to divulge, a telltale; to take 
away. Of this root, only "adhd c a occurs once in the Qur'an. 

£liS ^adha c a [v. IV, trans., with prep, j for emphasis] to spread 
around, to broadcast (4:83) <j I jtlil j i>S/l 't> *JJ Ijjj 

w/iewever f/zere comes to them [news of any] matter concerning 
safety or peril, they spread it around. 



9>Sj/ra° 



fljlt al-ra a the tenth letter of the alphabet; it represents a voiced 
alveolar rolled sound. 

e>VV J r-°-s head, top part, uppermost section; first day of the month 
or the year; leader, chief; a leading horse, a domestic animal. Of 
this root, two forms occur 18 times in the Qur'an: [Jj ra°s seven 
times and ly jjj ru^us 1 1 times. 

L>Jj ra°s [n., pi. o-jjj ru°iis] 1 head (12:36) jji J*k! 
I'jja. yjjiij / see myself carrying on my head bread 2 scalp (2:196) 
Alias <Jj '(> ii <j 'j 1>2 so if anyone of you is ill, or 

has an ailment of the scalp, he should compensate 3 capital, 
principal (2:279) '^SVjJ L>»j*j y'j £>wf i/vow repent [after 

having been practising usury] then you are entitled only to 
[ reclaim] your capital. 

*-VVj r ~ 3 ~S mercy, kindness, compassion, to have pity, to show 
kindness, to be merciful. Of this root, two forms occur 13 times in 
the Qur'an: ra°fatun twice and <_i jjj ra°uf\\ times. 

ra°fatun [n.] compassion, kindness (57:27) U&kj 
^ckjj Ailj s jSuSl 'jjjll and We put into the hearts of those who 
followed him compassion and mercy. 

L -'jj)j ra°uf [intens. act. part.] [an attribute of God] 
Compassionate, Most Kind (9:117) jL^'j <_ijtj ^ <ij J^jSc. Lib ^ 
f/ien //<? turned to them; He is to them Most Kind and Merciful. 

<|/i/j r- 3 -y to see, to behold, to sight, in full view; spectator; mirror; 
to show vanity; to cause to see, to make a show before others, to 



340 



act hypocritically, to demonstrate, to come into view; to conceive, 
to consider, to deem, an opinion; a dream, a vision, outer 
appearance. Of this root, 10 forms appear 327 times in the 
Qur'an: J\'j ra'a 265 times; i/J yura (1) twice; ls'J °ard 43 times; 
Ls'Ji yura (2) once; ujc-' J? yura J un twice; ls'*Ij5 tardea twice; c-Uj 
ri^a 3 three times; ra 3 y twice; ^ j n' 3 y once and Ujj rw'ya 
seven times. 

j\j ra'd a [v. trans.] 1 to see (6:76) US'jS ^fj Jjlll «jk s jk Ilia 
w/ie« f/ie ra'gfe grew dark over him he saw a star 2 to see as, to 
consider, to take something to be (35:8) Uui. »Tji <Lc. ijl, iJ 'Jjj 
as /or f/re person the evil of whose deeds is made alluring to him 
so that he sees it as good; *... ,J\ I jjj jJ/l jjj 'flj (frequently used 
in the Qur'an drawing attention to signs of God's creation and 
calling for reflection upon them) (16:79) ^ pljaH JJJ \'Jji jJ 
iill V] oVS"'^ ^ f-^JI ja. oo Z/iey not consider the birds, sustained 
[lit. enabled, subjected] in the air of the sky, nothing holding them 
up except God? 3 to realise (7:149) I JL± iS '^1 I'J'jj '^4' tj 
/?wf w/ie« f/iey became remorseful [lit. came to wrmg ?/ie/r hands] 
and realised they had gone astray 4 to see, perceive (8:48) <_s j cPi 
ujj 2 V U. / see what you do not see 5 to dream, to see in a dream 
(12:43) h'j^ £*" ls'J lA J^'j the king said, 'I see [in my 
dream] seven fat cows' 6 to judge, to examine, to evaluate 
(9:105) '{SLus. <M isji^ ' tBj say, 'Acf/, Goo" w?7/ j'wa'ge yowr 
actions' 7 to behold, to observe, to reflect upon (25:45) J) jj }Ji 
Jlill a* ^ j /iave vow «of considered the way of your Lord, how 
He lengthens the shadows? 8 to remember (18:63) Jh Lijl il CiTJ 
cj jkll cjwi (^jli SjkU! remember when we were resting by the 
rock?, I forgot the fish. 

ts'Jt yura (1) [pass, v.] 1 to be seen (46:25) VI J J* V I J^lJs 
'^jSLM, so they entered the morning time with nothing to be seen 
except their [ruined] dwellings 2 to be examined, to be judged, to 
be scrutinised (53:40) Jji <-«j*« "Jj f^af Aw labour will be 
scrutinised. 

j'J °ara [v. IV, doubly trans.] 1 to show someone something 
(41:53) 'ffcyiiji (^jij (jUVI (ji LuUli '^jiu We s/ia/Z s/iow Z/iem Our 
signs all around [lit. in the horizons] and in themselves 2 to 



341 



advise someone about something, to instruct someone about 
something (40:29) cs'j ^ VI J^J U. &6ja Pharaoh said, 'I only 
show [advise] you [in accordance with] what I see' 3 to teach 
someone something (4:105) o«U1I 'Jjj ^£»5l jklL Lii&ll ^Lll UTja Ul 
*h\ 'S'J We have sent down the Book to you with the truth so that 
you can judge between people in accordance with what God has 
taught you. 

is Ji yura (2) [pass, of doubly trans, v. IV] to be made to see 
something, to be shown something (99:6) Ijjjl lilisl o»Ull j'i^u ixa'jj 
j4JLii o« that Day, people will issue forth [ out of their graves [ in 
separate groups to be shown their deeds. 

is'?\'Ji tardea [v. VI, intrans.] to come in sight of one another 
(26:61) u lj ^ JI ts*l> ^ and when the two hosts came in sight of 
one another. 

JiSji yura°l [imperf. of v. Ill cs*l j ra°a, trans.] to act 
hypocritically before others, to act in a certain manner in order to 
be seen by others (4:142) Jjiill 'aP'J I _£IS s^Ul J) I jlli lilj 
w/ie« f/zey stanc? to pray, they do so sluggishly, showing off in 
front of people. 

fUj rfa" [n.; v. n. adverbially used] hypocrisy, acting 
hypocritically, in order to be seen, to show off (4:38) 'oJ&u 'jjillj 
(jjjll iUj j4^r_Pi! f/iose vv/io spewc? f/ie/r wealth hypocritically, to 
show off before others. 

Ifb ra 3 y [n.; v. n.] 1 vision, sight; seeing, sighting *(3: 13) 'J\'j 
(j^sJI w/f/i f/ie very eye [lit. w/f/i f/ie sighting of the eye] 2 opinion 
*(11:27) c^ljJI without thinking, on the spur of the moment, 
without reflection [lit. the beginning of the opinion] . 

[fjj ri'y [v. n., n.] show; appearance; splendour (19:74) L&ki '^j 
Ujjj 't>kt ^ jja '(> ' f 4Jja /iow many a generation before them 
We have destroyed who surpassed them in riches and outward 
splendour! 

Ijjj ru'ya [n.] dream (12:5) ^lj>i.l JSs. ^lUjj 'jj^Laii V Jo «of 
re/afe yowr dream to your brothers. 



342 




lj/lj/j r-b-b master, lord, owner, guardian, to have possessions; to 
be characteristic of; to pamper, to raise, to educate; a word; an 
adopted person; animal kept for milk; a woman newly delivered 
of a baby; to do well; mesh, thickened juice; a group of people; a 
rabbi, a person learned in divine law; early youth, to approximate. 
The words ribbiyun and aj$ij rabbaniyyun are considered 
borrowings from Hebrew or Syriac. Of this root, five forms 
appear 969 times in the Qur'an: Lfj rabb 960 times; L&J 'arbab 
four times; jjSj ribbiyyun once; tiJ^ij rabbaniyyun three times 
and LuUj raba"ib once. 

ljj rabb I [n., pi. LsU'j ~ 'arbab] 1 master, lord (12:41) ^VJ', n 
TjUi. aj j LS L^, 111 <jkUl my two fellow prisoners, as for one of 
you, he will serve his master with wine 2 deity, god (12:39) 

jl4ill iaTjll "jik "(jjSji" V^'Ji lA^ 51 ^ W?V ^VVO fellow 

prisoners, are divergent deities better or God, the One, the 
Almighty? II [no pi.] 1 the Lord, God (7:29) ^Jh J'j 'J*\ my Lord 
commands justice; *(1:2) "oi^Ull Lfj Loni of All [lit. Lonf of the 
worlds] 2 [in contrast to/combination with the use of caring 
Lord (7:189) jjjjSLill "cjjjSjl IklU^ linjli U4jj <^ Ijc-J ^Sj> ^ 
f/ien w/iew she grows heavy [with child] they both pray to God, 
their Lord, 'If you give us a good child we shall certainly be 
among the grateful'; (21:56) cAjJaa o^jSflj pI'j^J Lfj j^jj l£ 
no indeed, your Lord is the Lord of the heavens and the earth who 
created them. 

dfcuj ribbiyyun [pi. of n. ^jj ribbiyy] interpreted as either 
groups of large numbers of people or worshippers of God, people 
of God (3:146) qJuj J&IS 'jS^'j how many a prophet 

with whom fought many devout men. 

OjjjIjj rabbaniyyun [pi. of t J&j rabbaniyy] either men of God, 
worshippers or learned people conversant in the teachings of 
religion (3:79) Lst£fl oy&i ^ 'Cm^j \y_£be devoted to God, by 
means of your teaching the Scripture. 

Luljj raba^ib [pi. of n. %>j rablbatun] a step-daughter 



tin forbidden to you are your mothers . . . and your step-daughters 




343 



[who are] in your care-[ those born] of your women with whom 
you have consummated marriage [lit. whom you have gone into]. 

U4j rubama/rubbama [composite particle, occurring once in the 
Qur'an, consisting of prep, rubba (Lsj) (described by 
grammarians as indicating high or low frequency) plus linking 
particle U>] 'many a time', 'frequently', 'often'; 'perchance', 
'perhaps', 'maybe', 'may well' (15:2) IjilS °jl I j jiS 'jjill "ijj X^'j 
'{j&XJ* those who disbelieve may well come to wish they had 
submitted to God. 

£/<_j/j r-b-h growth, gain, to profit, to earn, to win; trade, goods kept 
for trading; young sheep and camels. Of this root, ^jj rabiha 
occurs once in the Qur'an. 

^jj rabiha a [v. intrans.] to be profitable, to prosper (2:16) U>a 
so their trade brings no gain. 

o^/i-j/j r-b-s to sit in waiting, to bide one's time, to be on the 
look-out; to lurk, to waylay, to ambush, to wait for something to 
befall someone, to await a chance to act. Of this root, four forms 
occur 17 times in the Qur'an: 'oAy tarabbasa 13 times; "oAy 
tarabbus once; L>4j" mutarabbis once and q^JIjL 
mutarabbisun twice. 

o^iji tarabbasa [v. V] I [intrans.] 1 to await, to be on the 
look-out (9:24) sJAj -dil j^. I so be on the look-out till 
God brings about His command 2 to play for time, to sit on the 
fence (57:14) f^j^j '^J'j fj^4jjj '^Si-ii '^ii *f^j but you 

allowed yourselves to be tempted, you played for time, you 
doubted and were lulled by [false] hopes 3 [with prep, j] to bear 
with, to give time for a possible outcome (23:25) <i JVj V) j* ci 
jj?. J^. aj IjLujia he is merely a man with a touch of madness in 
him, so bear with him for a while [he might sober up] 4 [with 
prep, j] [jur.] (of women whose marriage becomes terminated 
either by divorce or death of husbands) to refrain from marrying 
for a prescribed period while looking out for signs of pregnancy 
(2:228) f jja Jj&uijL '6^Ajk cti^A'^ divorced women [must] 



344 



keep an eye on themselves [and look out for any sign of 
pregnancy] for three monthly periods [before remarrying] II 
[trans, with prep, j] to lie in wait for, to sit in ambush, to await 
evil happening to others (9:98) jjI'jJ JjSj Lh41wj they await 
[hoping for] turns of misfortune to befall you; *(52:30) <i 'o-^J* 
jj£J Luj we are awaiting his death/the evil turns of fate. 

i[>fljjj tarabbus [v. n.] [jur.] refraining from certain actions for 
a prescribed period (2:226) J^Sa <*j'J 'oAy 'f^4 I> uj 1 ^ oi'^far 
those who vow not to have sexual relations with their wives, there 
is a waiting period of four months [before a final decision is 
made]. 

(•jjIojjjji mutarabbisun [pi. of act. part. o^J" mutarabbis] one 
who sits in wait, one who sits back expecting something, usually 
bad, to happen to others (52:31) 'jj^ujiJI 't> 'j&U I y-^y t3 say, 
'Wait [if you must[, I too am, along with you, one of those 
waiting. ' 

Js/lj/j r-b-t to tie, to tie up, to connect, to unite; to station, garrison; 
to line up, (of an army) to take up a position; to conclude an 
agreement; a band, fetters, shackles; a place where animals, 
particularly horses, are kept, stables. Of this root, three forms 
occur five times in the Qur'an: Jajj rabata three times; lil'j rabata 
once and J=>Ijj ribat once. 

Ljj rabata i [v., trans, with prep. to strengthen, to fortify 
*(18:14) '?fij» j& Lijjj We gave strength to their hearts, We 
strengthened their determination [lit. We tied up their hearts]. 

iajlj rabata [v. Ill, intrans.] to be constant, to be steadfast, to 
participate in the defence of the land, to man the garrisons (3:200) 
I jWjj I jIh^j I I ^S^i you who believe, become 

steadfast and remain steadfast, be on call [to defend] [also 
interpreted as: fortify yourselves]. 

Jaljj ribat [v. n.; n.] tethering, tying up; stationing, keeping 
ready *(8:60) JjaJI h^ij [tethered horses, horse enclosures] horses 
specifically kept for defence, warhorses. 



345 



r-b- c four, fourth, to happen each fourth day, foursome; 
square, quarter; living quarters, neighbourhood; a well-built, 
medium-height person; spring, to become fertile, spring rains, to 
be in one's prime, lushness. Of this root, six forms occur 22 times 
in the Qur'an: £jj rub c twice; j^Uj ruba c twice; yj "arba c three 

It g s 

times; 3 arba c atun nine times; oj^'J J arba c iin four times and 
(4*jIj rabi c uhum twice. 

&jrub c [n.] one quarter, fourth part (4:12) 'jkjj j4ji' 
f/zew to you is one quarter of what they leave. 

pljj ruba c [n. used adverbially] four, in fours (35:1) ~*S£XA Jcl^ 
g-Ujj djXj J^jkl J J Xo. j w/io appoints angels as messengers 
with wings, in twos, threes and fours. 

jjjj °arba c [card, no.] four (24:45) g-ij ls £*i '<> J4^j aw<^ 
Jom£ of them walk on four [legs]. 

tijuj "arba c un [card, no.] forty (7:142) aLI c^iu. 'fk 

f/ie fenw o//i/5 Lord reached completion-forty nights. 

jjIj rabi c [ord. no., quasi-act. part.] fourth, one completing a 
foursome (58:7) °(4*/j ji V] Jj^j </>?j 't> Jjjki U f/iere is no secret 
conference of three but He is their fourth. 

j r-b-w hill, elevated part of the land, to go on the top of a hill; 
growth, to increase; usury; to be out of breath, to have asthma; to 
raise, to grow under someone's care, to educate, to cultivate; a 
group of ten thousand people. Of this root, eight forms occur 20 
times in the Qur'an: Jfj raba four times; J*j rabba twice; Jjji 
J arba (1) once; ^Ij rabl once; XA'j rabiyatun once; ^'J °arba (2) 
once; Uj riba eight times and s'_£j rabwatun twice. 

Lfij raba u [v. intrans.] 1 to increase, to grow (30:39) !> J^li Uij 
aIII jjc. jj'J j^Ull JjJ ^ Ijj whatever you give out in usury 
to increase in value through [other] people's wealth will not 
increase with God 2 to swell up, to come to life (22:5) LpC&I cslPj 
clfjj c/j&l cUJI Uljj! lili s'jJj, you perceive the earth lifeless, 
yet when We send down upon it water, it stirs and swells. 

Jij rabba [v. II, trans.] to bring up, to raise, to rear (17:24) Jfj 



346 



Ijjju-a ^tuj US Ui^akjl Lij a«<i say, 'Lord, have mercy on them 
both, just as they reared me when I was little. ' 

Lfi'Jiyurbi [imperf. of v. IV ^'j "arba, trans.] to cause to 
increase, to cause to grow (2:276) plIiUll ^'jjj Ujll jkki God 
blights usury, but blesses charitable deeds with multiple increase. 

^Ij rabi [quasi-act. part., fern. XA'j rabiyatun] 1 high, 
mounting up, swelling (13:17) UjI'j IjjJ JjUI J^li a«<i the flood 
carries with it a swelling froth 2 severe, harsh, ever-ti ghteni ng 
(69:10) ajjIj sia.1 '^Aikii J^jj Jjluj l°_Uaki f/iey disobeyed the 
messenger of their Lord, so He seized them with an 
ever-tightening grip. 

^jl} J arba [elat.] more, higher, greater (16:92) '^a zl\ 'J 
^ t> Lsii J us t because one party may be more numerous than 
another. 

Ljj riba [n.] usury (2:275) ^ fj^ ^ VI "uj^j^ V ^ tla^l 
j^Uil 'jjLLo^ll 4 WU'j f/zose w/io consume usury will not rise [ up on 
the Day of Resurrection] except like someone confounded by 
Satan 's touch. 

Sjjj rabwatun [n.] hill, elevated land, height (2:265) 4jk JUS 
s'j^'jj like a garden on a hill. 

%Jc*\jr-t- c to pasture in lush grass, to be in fertile land, to have 
plenty to eat and drink, to live in great affluence; to lark about in 
a carefree manner. Of this root, jjjj yarta c occurs once in the 
Qur' an. 

'^jiyarta c [imperf. of v. jjj rata c a, intrans.] to enjoy oneself 
playing in the open, to run about enjoying oneself (12:12) l£U *L.jf 
Laij ^jjj lie. send him with us tomorrow to run about and play. 

j/cj/j r-t-q space between any two fingers; a closed up mass, 
darkness; to mend, to join together, to repair, to patch up; sticking 
together. Of this root, jSJ ratq occurs once in the Qur' an. 

Jjj ratq [n.; v. n.] layers pressed together into one mass, 
closed up mass (21:30) tiSj l23l£ lPO^Ij '"j I jjiS 'jjill Jj JJji 



347 



UiUajAa have those who disbelieve not considered that the heavens 
and the earth were a multi-layered mass and We split them? 

(i/d/jr-t-l to have well-formed and neatly spaced teeth; to be 
symmetrical, to be neatly arranged; to enunciate clearly and 
deliberately; the good of everything. Of this root, two forms occur 
twice each in the Qur'an: <_£j rattala and JijS tartil. 

J3j rattala [v. II, trans.] 1 to arrange neatly, to give in 
successively distinct parts (25:32) 'jlijiill «ik J'ji V'jl I Jj& 'jjill JUT, 
Xj'jS sUJjjj ail <j cjoil iilliS sV'j -^4- those who disbelieve say, 'If 
only the Qur'an was sent down to him in one body!', thus [We 
sent it] to strengthen your heart, and We have given it in 
successive, distinct parts 2 to enunciate clearly, deliberately and 
distinctly (73:4) Xjjj 'jlijSlI Jfjj and recite the Qur'an distinctly. 

Jjjjj tartil [v. n. used adverbially] 1 in a neat and orderly 
arrangement, distinct (25:32) ^Lyji sUlTjj and We have given it in 
successive, distinct parts 2 reciting distinctly (73:4) 'jli'jSlI Jfjj 
and recite the Qur'an slowly and distinctly. 

S/jr/j r-j- 3 to postpone, to delay, to cause to wait. Of this root, y*J> 
turji 3 (variant reading: turji) occurs twice and oj*-'J* 

murjawn once. 

turji (variant reading turji) [imperf. of v. IV J^'J 
3 arja, trans; variant reading of imper. £ J 3 arji] to put off, to delay, 
to postpone (7:111) aUij Ijlti f/iey sa/<i, 'Delay him and his 
brother [for a while}' (variant J). 

murjawn [pi. of pass. part. ^'Jt murja] one who is put 
off, postponed (9:106) <M j^V 'd'j*-'J* "ujIp-^j a«<^ others deferred 
to God's decree. 

jr/jr/j r-j-j the dregs of society, the dregs in a drinking trough; to 
shake, to agitate, to rouse, (of the sea) to become tumultuous, 
turmoil, commotion, excitement, the sound of thunder. Of this 
root, two forms occur once each in the Qur'an: £j rujja and jrj 
rajj. 



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£j rujja [pass, of v. rajja, trans.] to be shaken, to be caused 
to quake (56:4) tk'j lPO^' £4j w/re« f/re earf/i is shaken 
violently. 

£j rajj [v. n. used adverbially] the act of shaking, the act of 
quaking (56:4) tk'j £4-1) vv/zen f/ze earf/i is shaken 

violently. 

j/jr/j r-j-z ballast used to steady a camel's hawdaj/litter, weakness; 
plague, filth, abomination, guilt, devil's insinuation, the 
worshipping of idols. Of this root, two forms occur 10 times in 
the Qur'an: j*. j rijz nine times and rujz once. 

j*j rijz [n.] punishment, affliction (7:162) J> 'f^jic. UL/Ji 
jjllkj I Uu 50 We sen? them a punishment from heaven for 
their wrongdoing; *(8:11) J-Lia jk j Satan's insinuation [lit. 
Safarc '5 affliction] . 

J*o ni/z [n.] filth, abomination; sinning; idolatry (74:5) jajllj 
jkila an<i s/iwti a/Z abominations. 

J r_ 7 _ ' y dirt, filth, punishment, abomination, misbehaviour, 
doubt; the roar of camels, thunder, to gauge the level of water in a 
well. Of this root, "o^j rijs occurs 10 times in the Qur'an. 

"o^j rijs [n.] 1 dirt, filth, abomination (5:90) 'j^jA'j 'J^aJi Ud 
jUa^ill J-c- i> u^j ftfjSllj LillajVlj intoxicants, gambling, idols 
and divining arrows are an abomination of the work of Satan 2 
punishment, affliction (7:71) Lilac. j '<> J^Jc. <*ij 'J 

punishment and wrath have already [been decided] to fall upon 
you from your Lord 3 doubt, mistrust (9:125) tya'J* J^jS "oa^ V^J 
J*4j (jll Hkj f4^l js as /or f/iose w/10 are s/c/c a? heart, it added 
doubt to their doubt. 

tlllh r ~J~ c to return, to turn back, to recur, to revert; to take back, to 
claim back; to back down, to reply, to give back, to resume an 
activity; to become emaciated. Of this root, eight forms occur 107 
times in the Qur'an: jVj raja c a 35 times; jVJ :, arja c a 11 times; 
ruji c a 36 times; ^Ijjj yatardja c a once; £Vj raj c three times; 



349 



ruj°a once; jj^lj raji c un four times and marji 16 

times. 

raja c a i I [v. intrans.] 1 to return, to go back (9:94) 'oJj&k 
J^jlJ j>kkj lij °f£$\ they will excuse themselves to you, when you 
return to them; *(21:64) I j^Vj they reflected on the 

matter [lit. they returned to themselves] 2 to change one's 
position, to mend one's ways (7:168) pliplj cjUukJU ^U'jLj 
'jji^jj We tested f/iem with blessings and misfortunes, that they 
might mend their ways II [v. trans.] 1 to cause to return (9:83) bp 
'(4^ fijlk ^) <1M so [Prophet], if God brings you back to a 

group of them 2 to restore, to give back to (20:40) ^ 
'j'jpj V j j3j so We restored you to your mother so that her 
fears may abate [lit. her eye settle down] and not sorrow 3 to 
bring back (56:87) 'jjiiia J^S bj ^j»-j5 &rmg if [the soul] back 
[from the dead] if you are truthful 4 to send back (60:10) 
jUSII y^j^-j 2 <fo «of se«<i f/iem &acfc f/ie disbelievers; 
*(20:89) V'js J^llj ^-jj he replies, he holds a conversation [lit. he 
returns speech to them]; *(34:31) JjSlI ™j t^jd 

dialoguing, debating [lit. f/iey return speech one to the other]; 
*(67:3) jIojII a second look, look very carefully [lit. 

return the sight]. 

rw/Ta [pass, v.] 1 to be returned, to be made to return, to 
be taken back (41:50) ^ u»~ . \\ »ise. J bj <^5j iA 'cfij but even if 
I were to be taken back to my Lord, the best reward would await 
me with Him 2 to be referred to, to be deferred to (2:210) <U Jlj 
jj-VI jkjS all matters are deferred to God. 

jaIjjj yataraja c a [imperf. of v. VI, intrans.] to return to one 
another, to be reconciled to one another (2:230) ^Ua. l*£Ua 
Uklji 'J U^i jj/ze /f/ze second husband] divorces her, there will 
be no blame on them if the two of them [the first husband and the 
wife] return to one other. 

raj c I [v. n.] the act of returning something, bringing back 
something (86:8) jiil <*kj JSe. <il bringing him back [to life] is 
certainly within His power II [n./v. n.] 1 a return (50:3) USj Is- lis 
^k'j dlli Oj5 /Tiow strange, to come back [to life]] after we 



350 



have died and become dust?, such a return is too far-fetched 2 a 
recurring action, echo (86:11) jVjll ^ f^Ulj by the sky with its 
recurring [rain]. 

yiio ruj c a [n./v. n.] return, returning (96:8) <^?-jil '4>j J) bj to 
yowr Lore? is the [final] return. 

^ji^lj raji c un [pi. of act. part. J-aTj ra/7 e ] those who return, go 
back (2:46) $J '^ij f*5j '(4* Oj 1 ^ oi'^ those who know 

[also interpreted as: who expect] that they will meet their Lord 
and that it is to Him they are returning. 

marji € [v. n.] going back, returning (11:4) <M to 

God is your return. 

ui/jr/j r-j-f to quake, earthquake, tremor, to tremble, to agitate, to 
shiver, to shudder; to spread lies, to spread false rumours; to 
thunder, to prepare for war. Of this root, four forms occur eight 
times in the Qur'an: tarjuf twice; Aikj rajfatun four times; 
j rajifatun once and Cx^-'J* murjifun once. 

uik'jj tar/w/ [imperf. of v. <_ikj rajafa, intrans.] to tremble, to 
quake, to shake (73:14) LfeJIj L^j^' fjy era ffe -Day f/i<? 
earth and the mountains will shake. 

5Aj rajfatun [unit n.] a tremor, an earthquake, a blast 
(7:78) Aik'JI ^ia-li an earthquake seized them. 

rajifatun [fem. act. part] one that shakes up *(79:6) 
f/i<? shaker (epithet for the first blast of the Trumpet calling 
for the rising of the dead). 

Qji^J* murjifun [pi. of act. part. <-W>« murjif] spreaders of 
false rumours, agitators, provocators (33:60) 'oj&+J <^ 'c£^ 
'^j ^lijijl 3jj.i<JI ,ji '(jjVjUl j "o^'Ja Ji if the hypocrites do not 
desist, and the ones in whose hearts is sickness, and those who 
cause civil unrest in the city, We will rouse you against them. 

J/jr/j r-j-l a man, manhood, masculinity; a foot, a leg, to go on foot, 
to dismount; to comb one's hair; to improvise, to talk or give an 
improvised speech; rocky land difficult to walk upon; (of locusts) 



351 



to swarm; poverty, lazy person. Of this root, seven forms occur 
73 times in the Qur'an: Jkj rajul 24 times; rajulan five 

times; Jlkj nja/ 28 times; <J».j rijl once; n/7an once; Jk°j 

'ar/'w/ 13 times and cVj ra/7/ once. 

J^j ra/w/ [n., dual S^-'j rajulan, pi. Jkj rijal] 1 a man (2:282) 
jbi'JJ j Jkja jolkj UjSj °J 'jli 'js* I j ^ uSu n l j anii have as 

witnesses two of your men, if two men are not available, then 
have one man and two women 2 human being (6:9) ISL atikk 'jlj 
yL'j ils&kS /f We /iac? macfe rtim /f/ze Messenger] an angel, We 
would still have made him [in the shape of] a human being 3 
person (33:4) ^i'j^ tj uP* !> JVJ ^ U Got/ Joes nof give a 
person two hearts within his breast 4 [in the pi. JLa. j nja/] folk, 
people (33:40) 'fkllk j '(> ikf Ul U. Muhammad is not the 

father of any of your people 5 male member of the jinn race 
(72:6) jjaJ 't> <JI*.jj aAw o^V t> J^-J ^ij flW <7 there have 
been [certain] men of the human-kind seeking protection with 
[certain] men of the jinn-kind. 

JUj rijal [pi. of quasi-act. part. <_M'j rdjil] on foot (2:239) bp 
UUSj J Vlkja /fyow are in a state of fear [from an enemy], 

then [pray[ on foot or while riding. 

rijl [n., dual cP^j rijlan, pi. Jk'j °arjul\ 1 foot (5:6) 
^ ji jj I jk^J j so w/pe yowr heads and your feet 
up to the ankles 2 leg (24:24) J4Vjj fji on 

the Day when their own tongues, hands and legs (or, feet) will 
testify against them; *(60:12) cfcSWjj 'iUi '<>ijm jl^l 'qAj V 
they do not falsely attribute children to their husbands, they do 
not commit adultery [lit. nor do they produce any falsehood, they 
fabricate between their hands and legs] 

Jaj rajil [coll. n.] men, foot-soldiers (17:64) J=^Jc LJkij 
'^k-jj and assail them with [the noise of] your cavalry and 
infantry. 

J f-j-m stones, to stone, to kill by stoning, to heap up stones (on 
a grave), to heap abuse (on); to curse, to drive out, to expel; 
doubt, conjecture; boycotting; shooting stars; to gauge the level of 



352 



water in a well. Of this root, five forms occur 14 times in the 
Qur'an: ^Vj rajama five times; jik'j rajm once; ^jlj rujum once; 
jLa.j raj'Zm six times and oJ* jVj- marjumun once. 

(4 j rajama u [v. trans.] to stone (18:20) ^ j^Vjj J^jSc. I y /f 
?/?ey should discover you, they will stone you. 

£o ra/m [v. n.] the act of stoning *( 18:22) <-J?JL 
conjecturing, guessing in the dark, guessing at what is being kept 
hidden, shooting in the dark [lit. throwing stones without seeing, 
blindly]. 

jijkj rujum [pi. of n. <4\j rajm] materials for stoning, rocks, 
projectiles, missiles (67:5) cttJallill ^J=-'j L*UkVj and We have 
made them [the stars] rocks for stoning the devils. 

"^jrajim [quasi-pass, part.] stoned, cast out (15:17) I> UUJ^j 
^'j jUaii and guarded it from every outcast devil; *(16:98) 
^jll (epithet of Satan) the outcast, the stoned. 

^JaJija marjumun [pi. of pass. part. marjum] stoned, 

castaway, outcast (26:116) 'j^jVj^ t> lPj^ you will be among 
those stoned. 

j/jt/j r-j-w hope, to hope, to look forward to, to anticipate, to 
expect; to fear, to be apprehensive about; areas covered by (e.g. a 
room, a house, a town), directions, sides. Of this root, three forms 
occur 24 times in the Qur'an: J*.' J tarju 22 times; *J*-'J* marjuww 
once and *lVj J arja° once. 

jVjj tarju [imperf. of v. IVj raja, trans.] 1 to hope, to hope for 
(28:86) J$> °j jKh you could not have hoped that 

the Book be sent to you; *(24:60) '<jj*-°jj V csS^ ?^ old 
women [the women who have no expectations of marriage] 2 to 
fear (71:13) \'JSj <S1 'tjjVjS V U w/iaf is it with you that you do 
not fear God's majesty? 3 to be concerned with (10:7) V 'jjill 
U&ll s^Ij I jla'jj liUl ujVjj those who are not concerned with 
meeting Us and are satisfied with the life of this world 4 to 
believe in, to expect (45:14) <M j>u 'uJ^'Ji V 'jjill I jjiij I _>£«l* 'jjill 
tell those who believe to forgive those who do not expect/believe 



353 



in God's days [of punishment]. 

jk'>» marjuww [pass, part.] one who is the object of hope, one 
who has great hopes placed in him (1 1:62) fJ^J* Ujs *J '^LAj 
|j* 5aZ//i, vow Ziave been a person amongst us in whom great 
hopes had been placed, before this. 

fUji a arjd [pi. of n. IVj ra/a] sides, areas covered by e.g. a 
town, a country, a house and the like, quarters (69:17) je. JsOj 
l^jlk'j the angels will be at its sides. 

yiJi turji c (variant reading fti/71), 3 ar/i^ (variant reading 
aVJ) and Oj^'Ja murjawn (see S/jr/j r-j- c ). 

"/c/j to be wide, to be spacious, to be ample; to welcome; 

courtyard, flood channels in a valley, spacious fertile lands. Of 
this root, two forms occur twice each in the Qur'an: Likj rahuba 
and Ikjii marhaban. 

LAj rahuba u [v. intrans.] to be wide, to be spacious (9:25) 
cjjIj Uu £>ajVl '{SjXc c£Cjaj and the earth, vast as it is, [despite 
what it encompassed] was straitened for you. 

U*>« marhaban [v. n. used interjectionally] welcome (38:59) V 
Uk'j^ no welcome to them! 

<jjja.j rahTq [no known verbal root, occurs once in the Qur'an] wine, 
the most exquisite pure mature wine (83:25) I> 
they are given to drink of the best of wines, sealed. 

J/c/j r-h-l to travel, to set out, to go away; travel gear, travel bags, 
saddles; to take as a mount; (of a camel) a strong traveller; 
journey. Of this root, three forms occur four times in the Qur'an: 
lKj rahl twice; Jkj rihal once and XL. j rihlatun once. 

J^j rahl [n., pi. Jlkj n'/ia/] travel gear, luggage, saddle bag, 
pack (12:70) <^ thj ,J <KJi J*k he placed the drinking-cup in 
his brother's pack. 

rihlatun [n.] a journey, trip, tour *(106:2) t igLallj 4Jk j 
journey of the winter and [the journey of] the summer 



354 



(reference here is to the two annual trade caravans, in winter to 
the Yemen and in summer to Syria, upon which the survival of 
the Quraysh (q.v.) depended). 

ffc/jr-h-m the womb, blood relatives; mercy, kindness, 
compassion, pity, sympathy, to show mercy, to show compassion, 
to let off, to be kind, forgiveness, bounty, good fortune, blessing. 
Of this root, 11 forms occur 342 times in the Qur'an: rahima 
20 times; oJ^'J 1 turhamun eight times; <Aj rahmatun 111 times; 
jj-uJjll 'al-rahimin six times; (>kjll 'al-rahman 57 times (and 113 
times in the basmallah); "al-rahlm 115 times (and 113 times 
in the basmallah); ruhama once; ^'J J arham four times; 
Xa^'Ja marhamatun once; flk'J J arham 12 times and JLkj ruhm 
once. 

'^j rahima a [v. trans.] 1 to show mercy, to have mercy upon 
someone (11:47) 'jj^UJ J> iS Z^.°jt J J jaij VI j if you do not 
forgive me and have mercy on me, I shall be one of the losers 2 to 
guide (11:119) ^.j |> VI 0??^ 'uj^ ^ j and they will continue 
to be at odds with one another except for those whom your Lord 
has guided 3 to forgive (29:21) iLSj '<> ^jjj iUiy °i> t-j^y //e 
chastises whom He pleases and shows mercy to/forgives whom 
He pleases 4 to spare, to rescue (11:43) |> VI jUi °i> ^1 ^-ale. V 
^.j f/iere « no protection today from God's command except for 
whom He spares. 

fV>i turham [imperf. pass, v.] to be shown mercy, to be treated 
with mercy (7:204) 'oJ^y that you might be shown mercy. 

a^aj rahmatun [n.] mercy, grace (28:73) cPI J^i Jkk J>j 
<L^a 'j^a I jilulj ajs I jiC »j] jl^jllj and out of His mercy He has made 
for you the night and the day, that you may rest therein and that 
you may seek of His bounty. 

4>»aIj rahimln [pi. of act. part. jUTj rahim] showing mercy, 
merciful (12:64) j*j IMk jlk Allli God is the best 

guardian and the Most Merciful of the merciful. 

£ya>*Jh "al-rahman [quasi-act. part., always in definite form] 
[attribute of God] the Most Merciful, the Beneficent, the Lord of 



355 



Mercy (67:19) 'c^'Jh V] "ci^A ^> none holds them up save the 
Lord of Mercy; * cj^-'Jt name of Sura 55, Medinan sura, so-named 
because of the reference in verse 1 to 'the Lord of Mercy' and His 
attributes in following verses. 

^jaj rahim [intens. quasi-act. part., pi. ruhama"] 1 one 

endowed with mercy, compassion (48:29) jW JSe. ills! ^ 'jjillj 
J44j iU^-j an<i f/iose w/f/i /i/m are Ziani against the disbelievers, 
and merciful among themselves 2 [attribute of God] the Most 
Compassionate (2:199) jjie 4JII ^ <M IjjjjuLulj and ask 

forgiveness of God: He is Most Forgiving and Most 
Compassionate. 

^arham [elat.] more/most merciful (7:151) "ufe^y J^-'J 
You are the Most Merciful of the merciful. 

marhamatun [n.] mercy, compassion (90:17)1 
a^'JJj JjLJU and [be of those who] enjoin upon one 

another steadfastness and enjoin upon one another compassion. 

fl^J ^arham [pi. of n. rahim] womb, uterus (3:6) ^ 
iUu UuS (.IkjVl ^ 'fSjj^4 if is #e w/zo shapes you in the womb(s) 
as He wills; *(8:75) Jj kindred; *(47:22) ^.Ikjl I jil&j and 

break, or cut off, your [ ties of] kinship. 

ruhm [n.] mercy, kindness, compassion (18:81) 'J ^'J* 
Uckj LjjSIj sl£'j <l« Ijji U4ij U4Vuj so we wished that their Lord 
should change him for them, [for one] better in purity and more 
inclined to show mercy [lit. nearer in mercy]. 

j/t/j r -kh-w to relax, to slacken, to ease up; affluence, to live in 
comfort; gentle breeze; to travel at a good easy pace, to be 
infrequent. Of this root, rukha" occurs once in the Qur'an. 

?Lij rukhd" [quasi-act. part., used adverbially] fair, gently, 

easily (38:36) LjUJ ?j^L jyjS ^ U'ji-^j so We 

subjected to him the wind, running gently at his behest 
wheresoever he willed. 

S/j/j r-d- support, help, backing, to bolster, to back up; to become 
bad, to spoil; mean, vile, base; to go beyond. Of this root, Jij rid" 



356 



occurs once in the Qur'an. 

f Jj rid 3 [v. n.; n.] supporting, helping, backing; support, help; 
supporter, helper, backer (28:34) iVjli UUJ j*. '^Ji ji 'qJJa 
^'^4 li'jj ^ and my brother Aaron is far better than me in 
speech-send him with me, as a backer to confirm my words. 

j/j/j r-d-d to turn back, to cause to go back, to give back, to stand 
back; to avert, to reject, to dissuade; to refer to, to submit a matter 
(to someone); to have an exchange of words, a dialogue; retreat, 
reneging; point of reference, judgement; reputation. Of this root, 
eight forms occur 45 times in the Qur'an: ij radda 15 times; ij 
rudda 22 times; 'oJ&Jk yataraddaduna once; jjJ 'irtadda eight 
times; ij ra<i<f twice; *ij radd four times; s Sj* mar add six times; 
j ji'j^ mardud once and jji mardudun once. 

Jj racWa u [v. trans.] 1 to give back, to restore (28:13) Jft l\SSSJ 
<1 and We restored him to his mother 2 to repulse, to repel, to 
send back (33:25) Ijja. I jIUj p<Kj»J I j'jiS 'jjill <M j'jj Go<f repulsed 
the disbelievers [still] with their rage-they gained no benefit 3 to 
avert (21:40) Iaj'j 'q JlA^m ^ °?'f^)'A &u '^J^ °t_£ but it will come 
upon them suddenly, and it will stupefy them-so they will have no 
power to avert it 4 to cause to turn away, to dissuade (2:217) Vj 
I jclLsU (jj J^jjj 'jc. jjjj J&L f/iey w/ZZ raof stop 

fighting you [believers] until they make you turn away from your 
faith, if they can 5 to bring back (38:33) ojiX Ikl^ jjiLa "Jc lijjj 
Jljc-S/lj 'bring them back to me!' [he said] and started stroking 
[their] legs and necks (or, in another interpretation: started to 
smite them, necks and legs, with the sword) 6 to give in return, to 
reciprocate, to respond (4:86) & jpj °j "o^L. I jjki -uai jAuk lilj 
w/ten yow are offered a greeting, respond [lit. greet] with a better 
one, or [at least] reciprocate the like of it 7 to reverse something, 
to return it to a previous state, to reduce (95:5) 'o&t* J£J sU'ia'j 
then We reduced (or, restored) him to the lowest of the low 
[states] 8 to refer something (to someone or something) (4:83) ty'j 

la <^j' <^jj 6 J^J ^ Ijcljl i-jjiJI J\ {ja jj\ °»Ac.La. 

°4-^ jt-iitfinj 'jjill a^LJ whenever there comes to them [news of any [ 
matter concerning safety or peril, they spread it around, but had 



357 



they referred it to the Messenger and those in authority among 
them, those able to think it out would have correctly evaluated it 
[lit. known it]. 

Jj rudda [pass, v.] 1 to be returned, to be given back (12:65) 
J^jlj cjjj °4^^j I j-^-j they found their goods returned to them 2 to 
be brought back, to be caused to return (6:28) I j$j I jiUl I jjj 'jSj 
<£. even «/ they were brought back, they would only return to the 
very thing that was forbidden to them 3 to be turned away, to be 
dissuaded (6:71) UAsL! Js. 'Sjij Ujliu Vj Uili V U aIS uj j i> 
<M U'ja ij are we to call, aside from God, that which neither 
profits nor harms us? -and be turned on our heels after God has 
guided us? 4 to be averted, to be repulsed, to be repelled (12:110) 
'qi* J^Ji pja jc. liJj j'J V j Owr punishment will not be averted 
from the guilty people 5 to be refuted, to be rejected (5:108) 
J^jUyl 3u ijUyl !ij2 'jl I jsUj 'J (^Ic sjI^iSIL I >L 'jl (jiil way, it 
is more likely that they will give the testimony in its proper form, 
for fear that all oaths [including theirs] would be refuted [even] 
after [ they have given [ theirs 6 to be reversed, to be reduced to an 
abject state (16:70) Jiji J& Jjj !> '^^j J^lij^ ^ ^'j GoJ 
created you, and will cause you to die, and some of you will be 
reduced to a most abject stage of [old] age. 

jjjSj yataraddad [imperf. of v. V intrans.] to move from one 
side to the other, to oscillate, to waver (9:45) Ji <4fjE £$3J'j 
'jj'iiji '(^jj'j awo" f/ie/r hearts feel doubt, so in their doubt they 
waver. 

jjjt ^irtadda [v. VIII, intrans.] 1 to turn back (18:64) JOz liSjU 
HalaS UaJjIc so f/ie fwo turned back, retraced their footsteps; 
*(5:21) '£ JjJ je. IjSsSjj Vj Oo raof ran away [lit. ao no? fwra ora 
your backs]; *(27:40) IM '£J) °rft in the twinkling of an 
eye, before you blink [lit. before your glance comes back to you] ; 
*(14:43) (4^jJ° f^j "^'ji y n °t blinking, utterly stupefied [lit. their 
glance does not return to them] 2 to renege on, to revoke (2:217) 
'jc. J^ia ji'jj '(>j ana" w/ioever o/ yow revokes his faith 3 to 
return (to a previous condition) (12:96) iTjli <«Vj cr^- »^ /ie 
placed it onto his face-thereupon he became able to see again. 



358 



Jj radd [v. n.] 1 the act of repelling, repulsing, averting 
(21:40) liij 'j jiukil^ !sli J4^2 ^gu Jj but it will come upon 
them suddenly, and it will stupefy them-so they will have no 
power to avert it 2 the act of taking back (2:228) b^Cw 6^ b<s^ j»4j 
IjirJ '(jj iillj ^ an<f f/ie/r husbands are [more] entitled to 
take them back during this period, provided they wish to put 
things right. 

Jlj radd [act. part.] 1 one who prevents, turns away, stops 
(10:107) <L^il *ij jj^j 't&jj '(jjj an<i if He intends good for you, 
there is no one who can turn away His bounty 2 one who restores, 
(28:7) i^il) s jjlj Uj We will be restoring him to you 3 one who 
causes to come back, one who causes to return (28:85) 'o±'J ^ o\ 

J) '^i'jl 'jli'jSlI I&k. vv/io /ias macfe the [teachings in the] 
Qur'an binding on you [Prophet] will return you to an appointed 
time/place 4 to divert, to re-channel, to pass on (16:71) J^a iillj 

%\'Ju, Aji God has given some of you more provision than others- 
those who have been given more are unwilling to pass on their 
provision to those in their possession [the slaves], so that they 
might become equal therein. 

"Sja mar add [v. n.] 1 going back (42:44) iSd^ 
there any way of going back? 2 repelling, forcing back, warding 
off (13:11) ^ jl- (.jSj <M 'i'J l-sj j a«<f if God wills harm on a 

people, there is no turning it back 3 benefitting, giving returns, 
rewarding (19:76) \*SJ* "J^j Ojj diUJlUl cjUO'j but the 

good lasting deeds are best for reward with your Lord, and best 
in yielding returns. 

ijijAmardiid [pass, part., pi. jAjX>° mardudun] 1 repelled, 
turned back, averted (11:76) Jjp>« jjc £Jic. J^uli J44'j aw <^ there is 
coming to them a chastisement that cannot be turned back 2 
returned, restored (79:10) s'ji^JI J* jj'^j^ ^ oAs^a ^ey say, 
'W/iaf?/, s/ia/Z we be restored to life?' 

ui/j/j r-d-f backside, posterior, rump; to come after, to follow, to 
come from the back, to come in succession, to ride behind 
someone; to stand in for, a ruler's substitute; entourage. Of this 



359 



root, three forms occur once each in the Qur'an: <_iij radifa; 
rddifatun and o&J* murdifin. 

<_ijj/<_ijj radifa/radafa a [v. intrans.] to come behind, to draw 
near, to be near at hand (27:72) ^ill Lk*h <-kj uj^ °d 
• maybe some of what you seek to hasten is near at hand. 

rddifatun [act. part, fem.] that which follows (79:6-7) ^ jj 
4ii jll l^iiE ^.I^JI o« f/ie Day w/ien f/ie Was? of f/ze Trumpet 
reverberates and the second blast follows it. 

Cx£iJ* murdifin [pi. of act. part, <-iSj» murdif] coming one after 
the other, in succession; causing others to come one after the 
other, or in succession (8:9) 'q&J* '^SSXJ j> uJL 'j&sL ^ I will 
reinforce you with a thousand angels, coming in succession. 

f/j/j r-d-m to fill (a hole in the ground) with earth, to fill gaps in a 
wall; to mend, to patch a tattered garment; to live off the good of 
the land; to remain, to be constant; dam, big heap of earth. Of this 
root, p'j radm occurs once in the Qur'an. 

j»i> radm [n. ; v. n.] dam, barrier made of earth and other 
materials (18:95) °44>j l5s-5 so lend me [your] 

strength and I will erect a barrier between you and them. 

j r-d-y death, destruction, demise, to perish, to kill, to cause 
death, to die by falling, animal killed by falling, to bring to the 
ground, to ruin; garment, cloak, to wear; to increase. Of this root, 
four forms occur six times in the Qur'an: ^'Sj tarda once; is'SJ 
3 arda three times; Ji£ taradda once and Q'Jm mutaraddiyatun 
once. 

t/jjj tarda [imperf. of v. ls/j radiya, intrans.] to perish, meet 
with ruin (20:16) ls'j'j^ ($j ^ t>^ V I> l^ic. ;a£La£ do not 
let anyone who does not believe in it and who follows his own 
whimsical desires distract you from it, for you will come to ruin. 

jij °arda [v. IV, trans.] to cause the demise of, to ruin 
(37:56) LttJjSl 'Jt aIIIj by God, you almost brought me to ruin! 

t/jjj taradda [v. V, intrans.] to come to ruin, to meet with 



360 



destruction, to fall to one's death (92:11) Jiji lij <L« ^jij U'j 
and what use to him would be his wealth if he falls [into Hell]? 

"KiijL mutaraddiyatun [act. part, fem.] animal killed by falling 
(5:3) ... X&jiAj ... a&J c^JJ^ forbidden to you [for food] are 
dead un- slaughtered animals; . . . animals killed by falling .... 

J/i/ j r—dh—l to be base, uncouth, vile, low, despicable; dregs of 
society, rejects, dirt, vice. Of this root, three forms occur four 
times in the Qur'an: Ji'j J ardhal twice; uj^'J 'ardhalun once and 
Jil'j J aradhil once. 

JjJ 'ardhal [elat.] worse/worst, more/most abject, more/most 
forlorn (16:70) J^l\ Ji'J J) Jjj I> and some of you will be 
reduced to the most abject state of [old] age. 

£jIjJ 'ardhalun [nominalised pi. of Ji'J ''ardhal] lower 
stratum of society, lower caste, the dregs of the society, the most 
abject of people (26:111) 'uj^'j^ i&jSlj ^1 'u*p how can we be 
convinced by you when the lowest of people follow you? 

Jj|J "aradhil [nominalised pi. of Ji'j "ardhal] lower stratum 
of society, lower caste, the dregs of society, the most abject of 
people (11:27) UlilJ J>a "(jjill V] i^EujI ^Ijj U>j awtZ we cfo «of see 
[anyone] following you but the lowest among us. 

<i/j/j r-z-q provision, livelihood, earnings, means of living, 
subsistence, income, bounty, (of God) to provide with means of 
living, to seek to earn a living, (of God) to bestow with bounties 
or to favour with bounties, to grant as means of sustenance. Of 
this root, five forms occur 123 times in the Qur'an: Sjj razaqa 56 
times; (jjj ruziqa five times; Sjj rizq 55 times; jjSjlj raziqun six 
times and S'jj razzaq once. 

Jjj razaqa u I [v. trans., pass. v. jjj ruziqa] 1 (of God) to 
sustain (30:40) p p f^ajj p ^ God it is who 

creates you then sustains you, then causes you to die, then gives 
you life again 2 (of God) to provide something for someone 
(2:172) '^Uajj ^Ij11> I> IjK eat of the good things We have 
provided for you 3 to make provisions for, to give maintenance to 



i/o»/j 



361 



(4:5) ft jluSlj ^ °>a jSjjIj Uol-aa J»S1 ill! Jx^. j^jII iSll^J il^ilJI I jjjj Vj ara<i 
Jo not give to the feeble-minded the property which God has 
assigned [as if it were your own] to manage; make provision for 
them from it and clothe them 4 to give something as charity 
(4:8)^ jSjjli 'ij^L^Aj (^alillj (jjjall ji J <aJs!\ li] j an<i if some 
non-inheriting relatives, orphans and the poor attend the 
distribution of the inheritance, give them something of it [as 
charity] 5 to reward (22:58) I jk* 'J I p <UI ^ I jj^'j 
liuk lajj aAII J4^j1h5 f/iose who migrated in the cause of God then 
were killed or died, God will provide for them a goodly reward II 
[doubly trans.] to make provisions for, to give maintenance to 
(16:75) I'JsVj jjjj jji Uluk lajj li« »U5£> 'cy>'j and someone We 

have endowed with good provision from Us, so he spends from it 
secretly and openly. 

j'jj rizq [n.; v. n.] 1 fortunes, bounty from God, livelihood; 
providing for (51:22) 'jjic. Ji Uj J^ajj m heavens is [the 

deciding of[ your fortunes [also interpreted as: in the sky is [the 
source of[ your sustenance [the clouds [] and all that you are 
promised 2 provision, sustenance (10:59) jjj I> 'j&l ill! Jji U J>a'j 
UJjk <i« Ziave yow considered what provision God has 
sent down for you, of which you have made some unlawful and 
some lawful? 3 maintenance, to maintain (2:233) <1 j _>S^»il 
t_i ^jj^j "o^jj <2«^ f/ie maintaing and clothing of them is 
incumbent upon the father [lit. the one for whom the child has 
been begotten]. 

£)J*Jj raziqiin [pi. of act. part, jjlj raz/a] (particularly of 
God) bounty-giver, sustainer, provider (15:20) ^ Ukkj 
CdJ jj ^ ^ I>j We /zave provided sustenance in it [the earth] for 
you and for those [creatures] for whom you are not providers. 

Jlj>l "al-razzaq [intens. act. part., appears in Qur'an only in 
definite form], [attribute of God] the Supreme Provider (51:58) *c& 
'(JiA ji jljjll ja aJII Gog? w the Supreme Provider, the Lord of 
Power, the Ever-Mighty. 

C/oVj r-s-kh to be firmly fixed, to be deeply rooted, to be strongly 
established, to stand firm, to be completely absorbed into the soil, 



362 



to be thoroughly informed. Of this root, o>Mj rasikhun occurs 
twice in the Qur' an. 

^jijjj rasikhun [pi. of act. part. jjJj rdsikh] those who are 
very sure, very deeply rooted, well entrenched (4:162) j£J 

i> Jjjl ^] Jjjl oy*ii ujVj^'j J4-^ f-M <^ but those of 
them who are well grounded in learning and those who have faith 
do believe in what has been revealed to you [Muhammad], and in 
what was revealed before you. 

a»lo»/j r-s-s to bring about reconciliation, to mend; the onset of 
fever; to be firmly fixed, to be well established, to take root 
firmly; a sign; a wise person; an old well, to dig a well; to spread 
rumours. Of this root, ^jll "al-rass occurs once in the Qur' an. 

o-jfl °al-rass [n.] "al-rass is said to be an ancient well, or 
a particular dwelling in Arabia or Antioch among other things; 
according to Asad, however, a town of that name survives to this 
day in the central Arabian province of "al-Qasim (50:12) 
^jil LAalJj pjj J>'j5 the people of Noah denied [the 

Truth] long before them, as did the people ofRass and Thamud. 

d/o»/jr-s-l flock, camels, a series of flocks, to drive groups of 
camels to the water in succession; ease, gentleness, slow pace, 
clear enunciation, to be lucid, to travel at an easy pace; message, 
messenger, to send a message, to dispatch, to exchange messages, 
an errand; to let go, to neglect; wind. Of this root, 1 1 forms occur 
524 times in the Qur' an: J^'J °arsala 114; cKj ^ursila 16 times; 
Jjlo'j rasul 237 times; Jl«j rusul 96 times; j risalatun three 
times; CjVU. j risalat seven times; d*>'J* mursil four times; Q»'J* 
mursilatun once; Ju'J» mursal twice; cx£*J* mursalun 33 times 
and <s£LJj* mursalat once. 

Ju/j "arsala [v. IV, trans., pass. v. J^'J °ursila] 1 to send 
(15:22) jtSIji UJl«jij and We send the wind as pollinators 2 to 
dispatch (26:53) jjI'-iJ 'a'y^-'J Jl«ju 50 Pharaoh 

dispatched summoners to the cities 3 (of God) to send as a 
messenger (9:33) ^ j^'j lKJ ^ j* # is #e w&o sent His 
Messenger with guidance 4 to send for (12:31) s j» ^ 



363 



s j$jlj CjLJj when she heard their gossip she sent for them 5 to let 
loose (6:6) I'JjV '^c. '■^'CLAl UL/Jj and We let the sky loose on 
them in a torrential [rain] 6 to set upon (19:83) (L'j bl jj 
Ijl °Jkjjj 'ajji^l J^- u^^l /iave yow [Prophet] not seen that We let 
loose the devils upon the disbelievers to forcefully incite them 
[into sinning]? 7 to allow to go, to permit to go (20:47) L£« J^'ji 
Jjjljluj so allow the Children of Israel to go with us 8 to let off, 
to release (39:42) J^L jj Jl lsj^ 1 d-j&j ^j^ 1 cr-^ ^ 
so //e keeps hold of those whose death He has ordained and 
releases the others until [their [ appointed time. 

JjLj rasul I [n., pi. JLj rwsw/] 1 messenger (12:50) JlSj 
jVJ Jli Jjl-'jll iilk lHa aj ^jjjI a«<i f/ie fcmg said, 'Bring him 
to me'; when the messenger came to him he said, 'Go back to 
your master' 2 messenger from God to call to Him, usually with a 
Book (9: 128) J^uiil °qa J jlfj j>£*la. °.ial a messenger has come to you 
from among yourselves; * J j^jll the Messenger, Prophet 
Muhammad (5:83) gu&ll J> ls'J 5 J Jjst ^ I (jj'j 

jki j> I ja'jc. ant/ w/ierc f/iey Ziear w/iaf /zas oeera sent down to 
the Messenger, you will see their eyes overflowing with tears 
because of the truth they recognise [in it] 3 an emissary, an angel 
entrusted with a certain errand (7:37) fiijij^ ULj (4*1*. lij then, 
when Our emissaries come to them to recall them II [used 
collectively] deputation (26:16) 'jj-JUJI Lfj JjLfj Uj V jsa Jj^'ji liti 
so go, both of you, to Pharaoh and say, 'We are a deputation 
from the Lord of the Worlds. ' 

j risalatun [n., pi. c^L^j risalat] 1 a message, a revelation 
(7:144) v&SSj J^jj J* 'J^LJ J\ ^JA, Jis //«? said, 
'Moses, I have chosen you from among others by [ relating to 
you] My messages and by my speaking to you' 2 teachings, 
instructions (33:39) *Sj&^j <S1I pVliuj 'jjiij 'jjill f/iose who deliver 
God's teachings and fear Him 3 God's Message in its totality 
(5:67) WL-j clkL ui Jaii JJ '^j d£j °qa dU] djj? ^ ^ Jjiujll l^jfU 
Messenger, proclaim what has been sent down to you from your 
Lord— if you do not, then you will not have communicated His 
Message 4 Prophethood, the Call (6:124) |>jj y I _jHS aT* °(4*l* lilj 



364 



j/u-/j 



revelation/sign comes to them, they say, 'We shall not believe 
until we ourselves are given a [revelation] like that given to 
God's messengers', but God knows best where to place His 
Prophethood/Message. 

J**>» mursil [act. part., fem. ZLJJ* mursilatun, pi. oj-U>° 
mursilun] 1 one who sends, dispatches (27:35) J^jlj <U'_>« ^fj 
but I am sending them a gift 2 one setting up, assigning (54:27) U 
•41 AiUll jLJJ* We are assigning the she-camel as a test for them 
3 one conveying messages (44:5) 'q£**'J» US Uj U^c. I'jUl a 
command from Us, for We have always sent messages [to 
humankind] 4 one who lets go, one who allows something to take 
its course (35:2) lK>» °*A>*4 t»j t«J ■ j l <V. ^ £«kj 'j^ ^Uil U 
»ju '(> <i whatsoever mercy God releases for humankind, none can 
withhold and whatsoever He withholds, none can release after 
Him. 

J^J*mursal [pass, part., pi. oj^J* mursalun; fem. pi. c^LJJ* 
mursalat] 1 one who is sent, one who is delegated (13:43) Jjij 
%JJ» cL2 I jjiS 'jjjll f/iose w/io disbelieve say, 'You are not sent [by 
God]'; *(27:10) jjL'JJ God's Messengers, the Prophets 2 
[c^LJJA] variously interpreted as the angels, the prophets, the 
winds, the verses of the Qur'an or the souls (77:1) lijp chlSjJ'j 
by the winds (or, prophets/angels etc.) sent in swift succession; 
* cS%JJJ name of Sura 77, Meccan sura, so-named because of 
the reference in verse 1 to the 'Winds Sent Forth' to effect 
changes all around. 

j/oVj r-s-w to come to stand firm, to dock, to anchor; to sink (e.g. a 
peg) firmly into the ground; to mend, to effect a reconciliation; 
(of clouds) to break into a downpour. Of this root, four forms 
occur 14 times in the Qur'an:^'J "arsa once; ^'Jj rawasi nine 
times; CjIIJ'j rasiyat once and ^'J» mursa three times. 

JuZj :, arsa [v. IV, trans.] to cause to settle, to fix firmly 
(79:32) IaHi'J cfeJIj and the mountains He set firm. 

t^-Jjj rawasi I [pi. of nominalised act. part. rasi] 
mountains, ballasts (31:10) '^Sj °j ^Jjj <>ajSfl <jl <j^j and He 



365 



cast in the earth firm mountains-lest it should sway with you II 
[fem. act. part. pi. cjliJj rasiyat] immovable, firmly standing, 
large *(34:13) jj^j an d gigantic cauldrons [lit. firmly 

fixed; or, hardly movable]. 

J*iJ* mursa I [v. n.] docking, anchoring, coming to rest 
(11:41) XnXJJ^j Ublja— Aill 1*js I jjS°J JISj board it [the ark]. In the 
name of God will be its sailing and anchoring II [adv. of time] 
due time (79:42) UU'jl 'jd AilUl jc. & jiLy f/iey asfc yew [Prophet] 
about the Hour, 'Whenever is its arrival [lit. coming to port] ? ' 

J /o*/j r-sh-d guidance, reason, good sense, correctness, to be rightly 
guided, to lead to the correct path, to seek guidance, directions, 
landmark, guide. Of this root, seven forms occur 19 times in the 
Qur'an: a^jj yarshud once; lij rushd six times; lij rashad five 
times; SLSj rashad twice; jjA^lj rashidun once; ixjSj rashld three 
times and lilA murshid once. 

.iwjj yarshud [imperf. of v. lij rashada, intrans.] to follow the 
correct path (2:186) 'aJ^'ji °(4^ ^ 1 J 1 jjj? 4^ so let them 
respond to Me, and believe in Me, so that they may follow the 
right path. 

lij rushd [n.] 1 good sense, good judgement (4:6) I jftlj 
J4ir^i ^jll I jka'jli liuj f^jl* bp I j*^ lij cr^- fes? the orphans 
until they reach marriageable age, then, if you find they have 
sound judgement, hand over their property to them 2 the right 
path, guidance (72:1-2) o^jJI J) P^ ^VjS Uj we have 
heard a wondrous recital that gives guidance to the right path 3 
learning, knowledge (18:66) li<Sj cj^ic. (>i*j 'J Jk. idkji Ja may 

1 follow you so that you can teach me (or, for guidance) some of 
the learning you have been taught? 

lij rashad [n.] 1 guidance, enlightenment, correct judgement 
(18:10) 115 j UjUl '(> UJ ^a'j A^k'j ^j'i lit* Uj'j owr Lord, granf us 
from You mercy, and furnish for us, out of our situation, guidance 

2 well-being, goodness (72:10) j»l o^j^ |>j 'jjj l$Jx> V Uij 
liuj '(4j'j f*J J l J ««<i so we Jo «of tow whether evil is intended for 
those who are on the earth, or whether their Lord intends for 



f/iem goodness 3 benefit (72:21) li«5j Yj &u V ^1 / Ziave 

no control over any harm or benefit that may come to you. 

jUij rashad [n.] guidance, enlightenment (40:38) '^ikl jj^l f j^j 
pLii'jll Jjj^, My people, follow me! I will guide you to the path of 
enlightenment. 

cjjl-lj rashidun [pi. of act. part. 151'j rashid] one who follows 
the correct path; one who is sensible (49:7) f^j m5»> l$j 

endeared to you belief and made it beautiful in your hearts 
and He has made hateful to you disbelief mischief and 
disobedience, those are the rightly guided. 

Jj-ij rashid [intens. act. part.] 1 sensible, right-minded, 
endowed with good judgement (11:78) J&a Ji jj'jij Vj aJII I jiSi 
iiij Jkj J^Sia |>yB so Ziave some /ear o/ Go<f and do not disgrace 
me before my guests; is there not a single right-minded man 
among you? 2 one who leads to the right way (11:97) jUl I jiili 
Jjc'ja jUl U j j| but they followed Pharaoh 's orders, and 
Pharaoh's orders were not rightly-guiding. 

murshid [act. part.] one who leads to the right way, a 
guide (18:17) \'±XJ» l$Tj <1 j&j 'j& J5^=j i>j j*i <M j«j I> /ie 
whom God guides is the guided one, and he whom He leads 
astray-for him you will find no guiding protector. 

Yo^/j r—s-d to be on watch, to observe, to sit in waiting, to watch 
out for something, a watching post; to prepare, to designate; 
highway; downpour of rain. Of this root, four forms occur six 
times in the Qur'an: SLaj rasad twice; iU-ajl 'irsad once; "±^J* 
mar sad once and illaj* mirsad twice. 

iuaj rasac? I [v. n., used adjectivally] lying in wait, in ambush 
(72:9) liLaj Ijt^yj <! tiaj tjVI * /i' nj '^^a ^VUH jcl£» US Ulj an<i 

f/iaf we used to sit [ in parts ] of it for listening, but the one who 
listens nowadays will find for him a meteor lying in wait II [n.] 
watch, guard (72:27) I'iLaj Aik J>j pi J> islLy 4li f/zerc //e 
serifs' watchers to be in front of him and behind. 



£/u^/j 



367 



jLajl ^irsad [v. n.] (act of) preparing, facilitating, sheltering 

(9)107) °{_y^ litLajlj jjjio^JI (jjj Isjjsjj IjiSj I'W. m Ijiijl (jjillj 

JjS '(> jLi'jj aIII Lfjl a«<i [as for] those who built a mosque in an 
attempt to cause harm, disbelief and disunity among the 
believers, providing an outpost for those who fought God and His 
Messenger before. 

'i^a'jA marsad [n. of place] a watching post, a place of ambush, 
highway (9:5) f^>°J* l£ J4 1 1 and ambush them at every 
vantage point. 

jLaj* mirsad [n. of place/v. n.] a place of ambush, a watching 
post, highway (78:21-2) IjL 'o*tX±=& liU-aj- *o] Hell is ever 

a place of ambush, a home for transgressors; *(89:14) eiEj "Ji 
jllaj^U Your Lord is always on the watch. 

O^lo^/j f-s-s to line up, to align, to set together in a row or stack, to 
pile up, to fit together tightly; lead, soldering with lead. Of this 
root, "^jLa'j^ marsiis occurs once in the Qur'an. 

^ajlfl^, marsiis [pass, part.] tightly fitted, well lined up (61:4) 
l_ya J^o'Ja JjGjj °4jlS Ula <L±^ u^' i 4- 1 ? , 4 ^ IlJ God truly loves 

those who fight in close ranks for His cause, like a 
well-compacted wall. 

t/o^/j r-d- c to suck a mother's milk, to suckle a baby, a suckling 
mother, a suckling baby, to seek a foster mother, breast-feeding. 
Of this root, five forms occur 11 times in the Qur'an: '^='j 
"arda c a six times; y^jLz tastardi once; <ct^='j rada c atun twice; 
murdi c atun once and y*b'J* maradi c once. 

£<ij ^arda c a [v. IV, trans.] 1 to suckle, to breast-feed (2:233) 
AsJL^'jh 'J 3'J '(>! jlLlS Cj^y- cja^VjI cj**<*ji c!A\'Jl\ j mothers shall 
suckle their children for two whole years, for those who wish to 
complete the period of nursing 2 to nurse, to take care of a(/one's) 
charge (22:2) Cala 'J He Ji^'jl J*jj Vjjj J>jj era f/ze Day you 
see it, every nursing suckling/woman will be oblivious to whom 
she suckles/nurses. 

^uojLu tastardi 1 ' [imperf. of v. X 'is tarda' : a] to seek to 



368 



suckle, (of a child) to seek breast-feeding (2:233) °J f&J 'Jfj 
t_i jJiutHu J^jili U JajlLo lij ffife. ^Uk '^YJ I jL^a'jjli nor w/ZZ there 
be any blame if you seek to breast-feed [engage a wet nurse for] 
your children, provided you pay as agreed, in a fair manner. 

AiUij rada c atun [v. n.; n.] breast-feeding, suckling (4:23) 
... ZjzL^Jh 'qa j>£jl^ajj ... ^I'/fll J^Sjlc. ciba'jk. forbidden to you are 
your mothers . . . and your sisters [by breast-feeding ]. 

*jlu3ja murdi c atun [act. part, fern.] one who is breast-feeding or 
nursing a baby (22:2) <~W,nj <x+±'J* Jajj I^jj'jj J>°jj on f/ie 
Day yow see it, every suckling/nursing woman will be oblivious to 
whom she suckles/nurses. 

£*y>» maradi" [pi. of fem. n. j^=>° murdi c ; pi. of v. n./n. of 
place £>±>°J* marda ] breast-feeders, foster mothers; (act of) 
feeding through breasts/teats (28:12) 'cy ^Ij^ll U^jkj and 
We had previously made wet nurses unacceptable to him. 

tf-j/o^/j r-d-w/y to accept, to agree, to consent, to be pleased, to be 
satisfied, approval, contentment, acceptance; favour, grace. Of 
this root, 11 forms occur 73 times in the Qur'an: radiya 38 
times; <^jj yurdl three times; j3 tarada twice; ,^^J °irtada 
three times; <^jj taradi twice; radiyatun four times; 
radiyy once; y'j^j ridwan 13 times; mardiyy once; aI^j* 

mardiyyatun once and cL^J* mardat five times. 

<j^aj radiya a [v. intrans.] 1 to attain inner peace, to attain 
contentment (20:130) ^^'Ji jiill Uil jLi j j4-i Jjlll f Uli and 
at the beginning and end of the day celebrate His praise that you 
may attain contentment 2 to accept [without condition] (5:119) 

Ijlajj ^ cs^J ^°<^ accepts them and they accept Him 3 to 
be satisfied with, to be content with (10:7) Uilil OjVjj ^ bi-^ Ijj 
U&ll sliJlj I jl^jj f/iose w/io are nof concerned to meet Us and are 
satisfied with the life of this world 4 to approve of (39:7) J^ji V'j 
jiSlI ojUsJ ana* He does not approve of ingratitude/disbelief in His 
servants 5 to forgive, pardon (9:96) I'j^'jj yi I'^jSl J^l 
"(jjLiil! ^'jall jc. ^^jj V aJII Jjli ?Zi£y w/ZZ swear to yow in order to 
make you forgive them, but even if you do so, God will not forgive 



369 



those who rebel [against Him]. 

yurdl [imperf. of v. IV J^j "arda, trans.] to satisfy, to 
seek approval, to flatter (9:8) '^jS ,jjuj f*Aljau f&j^jj f/i<?y give 
you satisfaction with their mouths, but their hearts refuse. 

is^aSJi tarada [v. VI, intrans.] to come to a mutual agreement 

(2:232) jjjjjtaSL IjliJ'jJ lij £4^ljjJ 'J cA jl laau ^2 <5?0 TiOf 

prevent them from remarrying their husbands if they agree 
mutually to do so in a fair manner. 

J££J ^irtada [v. VIII, trans.] to accept as fitting, to approve of 
something as suitable, to select, to choose (24:55) ^ lP^j 
'^1 (jlifijl ^ ill anc? //e w/ZZ surely establish for them their religion 
which He had approved for them. 

<j^aljj taradi [v. n.] mutual agreement (2:233) °jc. VU^i I'i'j 
r^jfr. ^Uk !»i jjUiSj lPO but if by mutual consent and 
consultation, the couple wish to wean [the child], they will not be 
blamed. 

Alii j radiyatun [act. part, fem.] 1 approving, liking, content, 
satisfied, well-pleased (89:28) <4jj J] l s*f'J return to 

your Lord, content and well approved of 2 [in the sense of the pass, 
part] approved of, accepted (69:21) Jl^lj J* j*i and so he 
will be in agreeable [lit. approved of] life. 

"(j^aj radiyy [quasi-pass, part.] agreeable, acceptable, being 
approved of (19:6) ll^j mj ^i^lj vj^s J» i> j cs^ Ji who shall 
inherit me and inherit the family of Jacob; Lord, and make him 
acceptable [ to You [. 

Cfij^aj ridwan [v. n./n.] 1 God's favour, pleasure, favour (9:72) 
y^jJI jjill ji aii 'jjkS Ail! 't> D'J^aJj and, greater still, acceptance 
from God, that is the supreme triumph 2 God's acceptance 
(9:109) jja. L)lj*Ja jj <W i> ls'j 2 (jic. Ajliu |_>i«l '(>al Zte who founds 
his building on consciousness of God and desire for His 
acceptance better? 

ifpaj* mardiyy [pass, part., fem. aI^j- mardiyyatun] 
acceptable, well-received (19:55) &j isp. 'j^j ^ was 

well-received by his Lord. 



370 



cLXJa mardat [n.] 1 pleasure (2:207) iUyjl <^ ^j^u (jils J>j 
sLaji f/iere is a/so a kind of person who gives his life away 
seeking the pleasure of God 2 favour, acceptance, approval 
(66:1) ^MjJ (jiii dii iill jJ U J>'jki ^1 ^jill Igju Prophet, why 
do you prohibit what God has made lawful to you-seeking your 
wives' approval? 

lj/L/j r-t-b moisture, to be moist, to be wet, to be soft, to be ripe, to 
be succulent; ripened, fresh dates, to ripen dates, palm trees, 
green verdant pasture. Of this root, two words occur once each in 
the Qur'an: Lij ratb and LJaj rutab. 

iJaj ratb [quasi-act. part.] soft, wet, green (6:59) Vj lJo'j Vj 
qiL lJj£ V] «w<3? nof a f/img, fresh or withered, but is in a 
clear Record. 

iJbj rutab [coll. n.] fresh, soft, ripe date (19:25) <M\ ^jij 
Ijjk 113a j ^Jjlc. J=aLi Alaall a«<i 5/ia/ce f/ie franfc of the palm tree 
towards you; it will shower you with fresh, ripe dates. 

tj/^/j r- c -b fear, terror, fright, to frighten; to fill up a drinking 
trough; to be fat and flabby; to be sliced; a tall, slim, beautiful 
woman. Of this root, Li. j ru c b occurs five times in the Qur' an. 

Lij ru c b [v. n.; n.] terror, fear (18:18) 'fa* cjoTjl 'fac cULI jl 
Uc'j 'fa* Cj&Xj rjji had you seen them, you would have turned 
from them and run away, and would have been filled with terror 
of them. 

J /&/ J r ~ c -d thunder, tremor, shiver, shudder, to agitate; to take fright, 
to threaten, faint-hearted; to be flabby. Of this root, Sij ra c d 
occurs twice in the Qur'an. 

Je'j ra°d [n.] thunder (2:19) SJij -^jj <g t&Ji J> °J 
or like a cloudburst from the sky in which there is darkness, 
thunder and lightning; * Jejll name of Sura 13, Medinan sura, 
so-named because of the reference in verse 13 to 'the Thunder' 
that sings the praise of God. 



371 



(i/^/j r- c -y pasture, grazing land, to graze, shepherd, to shepherd; to 
guard, to watch over, to observe, guardianship, to manage; to 
abide, to heed advice, to mend one's ways. The word Uelj ra c ina, 
classified under this root, is considered to be homophonous with a 
Hebrew word, meaning 'evil', but not a borrowing from it. Of this 
root, six forms occur 10 times in the Qur'an: Jc'j ra c a twice; Uclj 
ra c ina twice; uj^j ra c un twice; X$k. j ri c ayatun once; Jtiij ri c d° 
once and ^'j* mar a twice. 

ra c a a [v. trans.] 1 observe, to give something its rightful 
dues, to regard in the right spirits, to see something in the right 
light (57:27) U'ji-'j U»a jl^aj iUil V] ^jfe. U1 jjaS U Ia jc'iil -ujIja jj 
l^ili. j jk and monasticism they have invented-which We did not 
ordain for them, [they did that] only seeking God's pleasure-but 
they did not observe it with the observance due to it 2 to graze, to 
pasture, to feed (20:54) Ijcjlj I j,K so eat, and pasture your 

cattle. 

Uelj ra c ina I [a phrase, consisting of imper. v. ^Tj ra c i, 
'regard' or the n. ^Ij, 'shepherd' + the pronom. suffix U , 'us' or 
'our'] (a form of address coined by the Companions of the 
Prophet which they used in addressing him and which happened 
to be somewhat homophonous with a Hebrew word meaning 
'evil'; the Muslims therefore were cautioned against using the 
expression) 'regard us', 'look at us', 'listen to us', 'have care for 
us'; our shepherd (2:104) Ujk.1 ijjj Utl'j ijji V '^1 l^tu 
believers, do not say [to the Prophet] 'ra c ina', but say ' J unzurna' 
II [either an act. part, from v. 'jc-j ra c una, to be foolish, to be 
unsteady; or an utterance somewhat homophonous with the 
Arabic phrase Uc-I'j ra c ina and also a Hebrew word derived from 
the root meaning 'evil'] (taking advantage of the Muslims' use of 
Uc-lj ra c ina in addressing the Prophet (sense I, above), certain 
members of the Jewish community at the time saw an opportunity 
to mock the Prophet, by using this homophonous Hebrew word in 
addressing him themselves) 'you foolish one!'; 'you evil one!' 
(4:46) £-<luJj 1 1±) nr.j \ > » uj^j^j '^j* jjjj^j IjjIa ijj^ (j* 

jj'J LmJoj ^VymL & Lk.rjj £-1^ Jic. rame of those who are Jews 
distort words from their contexts: they say, 'We hear and 



372 



disobey', and 'Listen' [adding the insult] 'may you not hear', and 
[they say[ 'ra c ina' (originally meaning 'look after us', or 'our 
Shepherd'), twisting it abusively with their tongues [so as to 
mean: 'you foolish one!' or 'you evil one'] so as to disparage the 
religion. 

lij^Ij ra c un [pi. of act. part. jcXj ra c I] shepherd; one who 
observes, fulfils, honours (23:8) "uj^'j '^Si^'j °?$P^ °p* oi^'j those 
who are faithful to their trusts and pledges. 

AjIcj ri c ayatun [v. n.; n.] caring, observing, honouring, 
fulfilling (57:27) 

l^ili. j ja. U'jt'j and monasticism they have invented-We did not 
ordain it for them, only seeking God's pleasure— but they did not 
observe it with the observance due to it. 

fli j ri € a^ [pi. of n. ra c I] specifically signifying herds or flocks 
of sheep; shepherds, those grazing animals on open land (28:23) 
ifjll 'jjLoj jZ*. iJU, V Ulli they said, 'We do not water [our flock[ 
until the shepherds drive [their flocks] away. ' 

Jz'j* mar c a [pass, part.; n.; n. of place] pasture; pasturage; 
place of pasture (87:4) J^'J^\ ls'^j and who brought out the 
green pasture. 

<-j/£/j r-gh-b desire, wish, to ask for something, to covet, a request; 
gluttony, a heavy load; a soft load. Of this root, four forms occur 
eight times in the Qur'an: sjc-jj yarghab four times; Lic'j raghab 
once; Lsc-lj raghib once and oj^'j raghibun twice. 

Ljft^j yarghab [imperf. of v. Lit j raghiba] I [intrans.] 1 [with 
prep, tji] to ask humbly, to implore, to petition (94:8) '<&j ^j'j 
Lic-jli and turn humbly to your Lord with your requests 2 [with 
prep. (>] to reject, to disdain, to shun (2:130) fi« 'jc. Lsc'jj 
A^ij '<L* '(> V) ^jaI jjj w/io someone fooling himself, would shun 
the religion of Abraham? 3 [with prep, j] to consider oneself too 
good for (9:120) <^ °je J^uijL Ijjcjj Vj f/iey should not consider 
themselves too good for him, or, they should not put themselves 
before or above him II [trans.] to wish, to desire (4:127) 'j 'dJ^'J>j 
"jjAjklii and you wish to marry them. 



373 



L& j raghab [v. n.] coveting, desire, wish, longing (21:90) 
Ija'jj Uc'j Uj jtij a«<i f/iey called upon Us out of longing and awe. 

Lifrtj raghib [act. part., pi. raghibun] hoping, desiring, 

wishing for, eager to (9:59) ^ to God alone we turn 

in hope, towards God [we look] desiring Him. 

r-gh-d meadow, garden; easy living, affluence, to live in 
comfort, to be pleasant and carefree (of living); to be weak, to be 
strained. Of this root, Sfcj raghad occurs three times in the 
Qur' an. 

jftj raghad [quasi-act. part., used adverbially] plentifully, 
abundantly (2:35) liija. lifcj a«<f &of/i of you eat freely 

therein as you will. 

f/th r -gh~ m nose, pride; to be angry, to reject, to dispute, aversion; 
to compel, compulsion; dust, soil; humiliation; escape, refuge, 
places of refuge. Of this verb, f&Xj* muragham occurs once in the 
Qur' an. 

}&\'J* muragham [n. of place] places of escape, places of 
refuge, alternative places to one's homes (4:100) Jjj- <ji j»A«j I>j 
I'jjjS litlji (j^j^l <jl '^i ^ w/iosoever emigrates in the cause 
of God will find in the land many alternative places in which to 
settle, and plenty. 

d/ui/j r-f-t remnants, rejects, to break into small pieces, to 
disintegrate, human remains, to decay, small pieces, dry broken 
grass. Of this root, cjlij rufat occurs twice in the Qur' an. 

Cilij rufat [v. n./n.] decayed remnants, dust (17:49) US \'d I J£j 
lijj^ '(jj^J^A bsl Ulijj UJie f/iey a/50 say, 'What? When we are 
turned to bones and dust, shall we really be raised a new 
creation?' 

r-f-th obscenity, indecency, indecent action or speech, to 
behave in an obscene manner, sexual intercourse. Of this root, 
Lija'j rafath occurs twice in the Qur' an. 



374 



^jrafath [v. n.; n.] 1 sexual intercourse (2:187) aLI <Jj»] 
J^U^ J) di'jll (.liall /f is permitted to you to lie with your wives 
during the night of the fast 2 foul or indecent speech (in an 
interpretation of 2:197) gkJI ^ Jj*. Vj jjl-a Vj £ij ^ f/iere should 
be abstaining from indecent speech/sexual relations, 
misbehaviour or quarrelling during the time of the pilgrimage. 

j/ui/j r-f-d augmentation, addition; help, support, assistance; to 
deputise, a king's deputy; to choose as a leader; share, portion, 
tributary. Of this root, two words occur once each in the Qur'an: 
iaj rifd and j jaj* marfud. 

jSj n/d [v. n.; n.] addition, support, gift, a load (11:99) IjM'j 
i ji'j^ll ijjll 'u&i Xa\M fji'j HA aji, they were pursued in this [life ] by 
a curse and on the Day of Resurrection, too; what afoul gift to be 
given! 

jja>» marfud [pass, part.] added on, loaded on, attached, given 
(11:99) ija>J isjll i^iuj sja I f/iey were pursued 

in this [life] by a curse and on the Day of Resurrection, too; what 
afoul gift to be given! 

r-f-r-f to flutter, to flap wings, to shiver; flaps, frills, sheer 
material; tent, the flaps of a tent, pillows, carpets, fine 
furnishings; to glitter; to favour with gifts, provisions, a flock of 
sheep. Of this root, <-ijSj rafraf occurs once in the Qur'an. 

<-*j*j rafraf [pi. of n. Aija'j rafrafatun] variously interpreted as 
meadows, soft furnishings or cushions (55:76) jliai t-ijij Jic 
jllaa. ^ jsjc. j f/iey w//Z Z?e reclining on green cushions and fine 
carpets. 

£/ui/j r-f- c to raise, to lift up, to hoist, to elevate, to erect; to submit; 
to rise; to glorify, to exalt, to honour; to eliminate, to remove; to 
cease, dry up. Of this root, eight forms occur 29 times in the 
Qur'an: ^a'j rafa c a 20 times; j4j rufi c a twice; jjlj rafl c once; 
rafi c atun once; ^j9>» marfu c once and Aiji'j^ marfu c atun three 
times. 



375 



jij rafa c a a [v. trans., pass. v. ^sj rufi c a] 1 to place high, to 
raise (12:100) ij>j*i\ ajjj! aAjj a«<i /ie raised his parents on to 
f/i<? throne 2 to raise/increase the volume (49:2) V I 'jjill I^IU 
J^jill cl^a j'ja ^jla! I jki'ji yoK w/io believe, do not raise your 
voices above that of the Prophet 3 to raise up, to lift (55:7) iUUlj 
'jl'jjJ l«j<ij an<f heaven-He raised it up, and He set the 

balance 4 to cause to rise, to cause to tower, to cause to loom 
(2:63)jji=ll fSSji liijj Ijjii jjj remember when We took your 
pledge, and made Mount Sinai tower above you 5 to exalt, to 
elevate (19:57) IjSc. aUkijj and We elevated him to an exalted 
position. 

jit j rafi c [act. part., fem. rdfi c atun] one who raises up, 
one who exalts (3:55) ^J) i&iljj ^M'i£> <^j?^ <UI il a«<f w/ien 
GoJ sa/<i, 'Jesus, I am causing you to die and raising you up to 
Me'; *(56:3) bringing about [lit. lowering [some], 

raising [ others ]] final Judgement. 

jjij rafi c [quasi-act. part.] high, exalted, sublime (40:15) 
JfjxW jj plkjill the Exalted in rank, Lord of the Throne. 

h£jAmarfu c [pass, part., fem. Jij^ marfu c atun] 1 raised 
(56:34) Xc J^'Jj and raised couches [also: honoured wives] 2 
exalted, elevated, honoured (80: 14) Ji. JiJ* exalted, purified. 

j/i-i/j r-f-q elbow, to lean on, to seek support, to support oneself; 
companion, husband, wife, to accompany; utilities, victuals; kind, 
to be kind, to be gentle and compassionate. Of this root, four 
forms occur five times in the Qur'an: jjsj rafiq once; jaj-a mirfaq 
once; mardfiq once and ij£J* murtafaq twice. 

Jjij rafiq [quasi-act. part./pass. part., also coll. n.] companion 
(4:69) liij j w/iaf excellent companions these are! 

ja>« mirfaq I [v. n.; n. of place] assistance, aid, solution; way 

OUt (18:16) laa Js£ JJ ] °a£J Alok j 'j^ ; Ijjli 

fafo? refuge in the cave. God will unfold of His mercy to you, and 
furnish for you, out of your situation, a solution (or, a way out) II 
[pi. n. mardfiq] elbows (5:6) o^'j^il J>£a jVj I jLocli 

was/i your faces and hands up to [also interpreted as: including] 



376 



the elbows. 

Ji5>» murtafaq [n. of place] something upon which one leans, 
such as a couch, an armchair, or a cushion, a comfortable place 
(18:31) 'G&Ja i'uimVj L&'j& Jie. \+g 'diSL therein they will 

recline on couches; what a blessed reward!, what a pleasant 
resting place! 

<-j/<j/j r-q-b neck, responsibility; slave, war prisoner; an elevated 
place, a watching post, to watch, to observe, to guard, to regard; 
to stand in awe of, to show deference, to pay attention to 
someone. Of this root, seven forms occur 24 times in the Qur'an: 
Lisjj yarqub three times; s-^ji yataraqqab twice; LssjJ ^irtaqib 
four times; "oj&J* murtaqibun once; LuSj raqlb five times; <&j 
raqabatun six times and CJ3 j riqab four times. 

LSJi yarqub [imperf. of v. Lij raqaba, trans.] 1 to wait for 
(20:94) (^TjS Lssfjj JjjIjIJ ^ da dj£ °J ' "u/^ I feared you 
would say, 'You have caused dissent among the children of Israel, 
and would not have waited for what I [might] have said' 2 [with 
prep. ^ to have regard for, to respect (9:8) I jSJj, V ISjlc. I Jj^h 'Ji'j 
4li Vj V] if they were to get the upper hand over you, they 
would not respect in [dealing with] you any tie, either of kinship 
or treaty. 

ljSjjj yataraqqab [imperf. of v. V, trans.] to be on the look-out 
for something (28:21) Liaji UjU. jr'_>i so he left the city, fearful 
and on the look-out. 

LjSj'J "irtaqib [imper. of v. VIII, trans.] 1 watch out for (44:10) 
jji jllij iUUl ^ Lajjli watch out for the Day when the sky 
brings forth visible smoke 2 observe, watch (54:27) jVj! 4 
jjJalal j °4S0^ ^ ^4 We are assigning the she-camel as a test for 
them; so watch them [ Salih ] and be patient. 

^jjjSjjj murtaqibun [pi. of act. part. Ir&'J* murtaqib] (those who 
are) watching or waiting for something (44:59) 'jj^lA fin] 
so wait; they [the disbelievers] too are waiting. 

LiAj raqlb [intens. act. part.] keen watcher, keen observer, 



377 



keeper (50:18) lye Ligj a£1 VI JjS 1> U he does not utter a 
word except [that] there is a keen observer beside him, at the 
ready. 

AjSj raqabatun [n., pi. CJSj ri^afe] 1 neck (47:4) lJIjII Li'J^a 
striking the necks 2 slave (58:3) <&j jjJ^ the freeing of a slave; 
*(21:77) csi [those who spend their money [ in the cause of 
liberating slaves [lit. in f/ie neefcs]. 

j/j/j r-q-d sleep, to sleep, to lie down; sleeping place, bedding; 
grave, resting place; to be lazy, to be phlegmatic; to settle in one 
place; to become tattered. Of this root, two words occur once 
each in the Qur'an: S Jj ruqud and '£Ja marqad. 

jjaj ruqud [v. n.; pi. of quasi-act. part. jSIj raqid] sleeping; 
asleep (18:18) SjSj '^j Ual£j! ^ j yow would have thought they 
were awake, though they were asleep. 

jF>» marqad [v. n.; n. of place] sleeping; place of sleep (36:52) 
liisj^ '(> Uuj^ I> litjlj a/as /or us!, who has raised us up from our 
sleeping places? 

j/j/j r-q-q ownership, slavery; parchment, scroll, written record; 
thin, to thin out, to be sheer, to become tattered; to be weak, to be 
tender; to be clear, to glimmer. Of this root, Sj raqq occurs once 
in the Qur' an. 

a > , t 

Jj raqq [n.] vellum, parchment, scroll (52:3) jj J on a 
wide-open parchment. 

f/ti/j r-q-m speckles, speckled snake, markings, stripes, writings, 
dotting, to mark, to dot, to write; a great number; side of the 
valley, place where flood waters gather. ^jSjII "al-raqlm, classified 
under this root, is considered by some philologists to be a 
borrowing from Greek. Of this root, two forms occur three times 
in the Qur'an: jLij raqlm once and " ? marqum twice. 

'^jraqim [n.; quasi -pass, part.] variously interpreted as the 
name of the town from which the Men of the Cave came; a plate 
of lead or stone upon which the name of those men were 



378 



recorded, or the name of their dog (18:9) (-4^ LjIaIJ b> °^ 
Uk^ l^U* '(> IjjlS ^jUj did you find the Companions in the Cave 
and °al-Raqim, among all Our other signs, so wondrous? 

^ja'jj marqum [pass, part.] inscribed, written (83:9) " ? j£>« LAjS a 
clearly inscribed record. 

ts-j/jj/j r-q-w/y sand dune, ladder, to climb, to ascend, ascension, 
to advance; a charm, a spell, incantation. Of this root, four forms 
occur once each in the Qur'an: Jij5 tarqa; I yartaqu; 
ruqiyy and <Jil j rag?. 

^jj tarqa [imperf. of v. 'Jij raqiya, trans, with prep. Ji\ to 
ascend through, to climb (17:93) ?'CLA\ ^ Jiji °j or you ascend 
into the sky. 

J&ji yartaqi [imperf. of v. VIII 'irtaqa, intrans.] to 

gradually and deliberately ascend (38:10) o^Ji^'j ^ J4 5 °?' 

ljCuVI «ji I jaj'^ia ^44h ^>'j o?" w kingdom of the heavens and the 
Earth and all that is between them theirs?, then let them ascend 
to the knowledge/power [commensurate with that]. 

"Js'j ruqiyy [v. n.; n.] ascending, ascent (17:93) J**. '<£gj 
ojjij Qj£ Lilc Jj2 [even then], we will not believe in your 
ascension until you bring down on us a book that we would read. 

J&j raqi [act. part.] one who ascends; one who treats the sick 
by reciting certain utterances (75:27) Jlj |> JjSj and it is said 
'Who is [the/a[ faith-healer?' 

J&'Jti) 'al-taraql (see <j/j/^ t-r-q). 

j r-k-b mount, to mount, to ride, to board, a travelling group, 
caravan, boat; to accumulate, to stack up; complex; to commit; 
knee, to injure one's knee. Of this root, seven forms occur 15 
times in the Qur'an: L£j rakiba nine times; L£j rakkaba once; 
LsSIji mutarakib once; L£j rato once; JjUSj rukban once; LASj 
n'fcaZ? once and rafcw^ once. 

ljSj rakiba a [v., trans.] 1 to mount, to ride (40:79) J*V ^1 
'jjKti l^wj tjjSjp] Go<f /s w/io provides livestock for 



379 



you, that you might aquire riding mounts from them, and you 
might-from them-obtain food 2 to board (18:71) USj lil jS*. UUajLi 
l^Sja. ^ijJUl so they proceeded until they boarded the boat, and 
he made a hole in it 3 to progress, to move on/upward (84:19) 
jjjL 'jc. Uuk cJjS'Jil yow w/ZZ progress, one stage after another. 

LiSj rakkaba [v. II, trans.] to compose, to put together (82:8) ^ 
dLSj iU U s'jjla y in whatever form He chooses, He composes 
you. 

LiStji* mutarakib [act. part, of v. VI L£lj2 tarakaba] to stack 
up on top of one another, to cluster, to be in rows (6:99) <j Ukja.fi 
IjSrji Ga. iia jrjaj lja-i»a. 4io l3a.ji.la fJjiS CsGj f/zen with it We 
produce the shoots of everything [every plant], then from it We 
bring forth vegetation, from which We produce grains in 
close-stacked rows. 

LiSj rakb [coll. n.] travelling party, group of travelling 
camel-riders, caravan (8:42) LiSjSj csjlaall Sj&Hj UjJ s>£Aj ^ul j) 
J£j [remember] when you were on the near side [of the 
valley], and they were on the far side, and the caravan was below 
you. 

'd^'j rukban [pi. of coll. n. L£j rakb/pl. of quasi-act. part. <-£lj 
rakib] riders, riding, being on a camel or horseback (2:239) ^ jli 
UUSj 'j Vla-ja //yow are in a state of fear [from an enemy], then 
[pray] on foot or while riding. 

iJSj rikab [coll. n.] mounts, particularly camels (59:6) *l3 U'j 
h^-j V j L&a- i> ^Jc- f^akj' ^ ^ j^j ^ <^ whatever God gave as 
spoils to His Messenger from them [his opponents], [are those for 
which] you did not have [in the course of capturing them] to spur 
on [also: you did not have to fight] horses or [other] mounts. 

LijSj rakub [quasi-pass. part, used collectively] riding animals 

(36:72) 'jj^ti l^a'j *(4JjSj ^Ullij and We matZe f/iem [the 

animals] manageable for them [humankind], so that from them 
they might [obtain] riding mounts, and from them they might 
obtain food. 



Y^/j r-k-d to abate, to stagnate, to become still, to become sluggish, 



380 



stagnation, stillness. Of this root, i£l jj rawakid occurs once in the 
Qur' an. 

is) jj rawakid [pi. of fem. act. part. sjSIj rakidatun] still, 
stagnant, motionless (42:33) ?jp> Jic- 'u^=^ jtjjj ^Sl^ y ;/ 
£fe w«7/j, He stills the wind, so that they [the ships] would lie 
motionless on its [the sea's[ back. 

r-k-z mysterious sound, low indistinct sound, whisper; to 
stick, to fix a pole in the ground; mineral deposits, gum; fixing 
point, position; brains, control. Of this root, jk j rikz occurs once 
in the Qur' an. 

j*j rikz [n.] whisper, whimper, weak indistinct sound (19:98) 
I J4S ^-"j ji iaJ t> J* oj^ Lfc* f445 IjSJaI '^Sj how many a 

generation We have destroyed before them!, do you perceive a 
single one of them [now[, or hear from them so much as a 
whisper? 

o»I&Ij r-k-s a group of people; to turn upside down or back-to-front, 
to be inverted; to relapse, to fall back; a bridge; a weak, 
indecisive person. Of this root, two forms occur once each in the 
Qur' an: 'okj °arkasa and 'o4'J "urkisa. 

o*l°J 'arkasa [v. IV, trans., pass. 'q4-'J J urkisa] to cast back, to 
cause someone to relapse or go back into the bad state they were 
in, to reject (4:88) I J±£ Uj '^S'J aISj Jjjja 'q^^ ^ J^l Ui how is it 
with you, that you are two parties regarding the hypocrites, when 
God has made them relapse [ into their unbelief] for what they 
have committed? 

o^j^/j r-k-d to beat, to hit with legs or feet; the sides of an animal, 
to urge an animal to run by beating its sides with one's legs; (of 
birds) to beat wings in flight, to beat the ground with one's feet, 
to run fast, to run away; to quiver. Of this root, 'o^Ji yarkud 
occurs three times in the Qur' an. 

oiSjj yarkud [imperf. of v. o^&'j rakada, intrans.] 1 to beat 
with one's feet, to kick, to stamp on the ground (38:42) '<^h>ji 'o^-'J 



381 



Ija stamp with your foot!, this is cool [water] for 
bathing and drinking 2 to run away, to escape, to take flight 
(21:12) 'aJ^'Ji JJb lij Glut I jLoi w/zew f/iey felt Our might 
[coming upon them[, how they ran away from it! 

Zj<£/j r-k- c to bow, to kneel; to submit, to surrender, to yield; to 
regress, to deteriorate in health, to fall on hard times, to become 
poor. Of this root, four forms occur 13 times in the Qur'an: ^Sjj 
yarka five times; ^Slj raki c once; raki c un four times and 

££j rukka three times. 

jSjj yarka c [imperf. of v. '^fj raka c a, intrans.] 1 to obey, to 
submit [to God] (77:48) 'ay&'Jj V I j*£J J4 1 Jj? VIj and if it is said to 
them, 'Submit [to God]', they do not submit 2 to worship (3:43) 
£a (^jlj <^ADj prostrate yourself and bow down in 
worship with those who worship 3 [jur.] to perform the daily 
prayers in the prescribed manner (22:77) \ j&'J \ 'jjill 
J^j I jijc-lj I jiklulj vv/io believe, perform the daily prayers [lit. 
Z?ow <iow« a«<i prostrate yourselves] and worship your Lord. 

jSIj raki° [act. part., pi. jj^lj raki°un] 1 one falling to his 
knees or prostrating himself (38:24) Liij ajj 'jiiUi so he 

asked his Lord for forgiveness, falling down on his knees, and 
repented 2 one who worships (2:43) I y£J j slS'jll I jiWj s^Ul I 

£-« maintain the prayer, pay the prescribed alms, and 
worship with the worshippers. 

y.'j rukka [intens. pi.] ones who are constant at their bowing 
*(22:26) PjU-JI £$'J\ constant worshippers [lit. those who are 
constantly bowing and prostrating themselves]. 

r-k-m heap, to heap up, to gather, to hoard, to pile up; large 
herd; middle of the road. Of this root, three forms occur once 
each in the Qur'an: '^ji yarkum; \ j£>« markum and J>l£j rukam. 

f»*jj yarkum [imperf. of v. '^Sj rakama, trans.] to pile up, to 
heap up, to gather together (8:37) J*c X^xj diuaJI 

^4^- ij <^>V^ ] -*^- and He places the bad on top of one another- 
heaps them all up together-and puts them in Hell. 



382 



^ jS'jji markum [pass, part.] heaped up, piled up, stacked up 
(52:44) f>j£>> Lilal« I jlji ILsU* f U«U U14 \'JJi 'Jfj an<i [even] if 
they were to see a piece of heaven falling down, they would say, 
'[Just] stacked-up layers of clouds. ' 

^Uj rukam [quasi-act./pass. part.] something in piles or in 
layers; heaped (24:43) p uJ^ p UU^ iill y ji jj 

cfo yow no? see that God drives the clouds, then gathers them 
together, then makes them into a heap ... ? 

Ojdjj r-k-n corner; power, might, to be mighty, strong ally, support, 
to find support in, to lean upon, to rely upon; family; calm, 
confident. Of this root, two words occur twice each in the Qur'an: 
JjS'jj tarkan and "c£j rukn. 

'l&h tarkan [imperf. of v. 'jS'j rakana, intrans. with prep. ^]] to 
incline towards, to seek support in (17:74) 'oSj5 ciiS 'J V'jTj 

!>LJa Ulu J^jlj had We not made you stand firm, you would almost 
have inclined towards them a little. 

"cfc'j rukn [n.] corner; support; might (11:80) j s'jS ^ yJ "cj jl <J15 
AiAu j£j ^ jli /ie sa/<f, '// o«Zy / had power against you, or 
could rely on a strong support [lit. take refuge in a fortified 
corner]'', *(51:39) but he relied on his support [lit. 

turned away with his power]. 

C/f/j r-m-h spear, lance, to lance; to gallop, to beat the ground with 
two hoofs together. Of this root, ^Uj rimah occurs once in the 
Qur' an. 

S A S> A - 

j^Uj rimah [pi. of n. jjwj rumh] spears, lances (5:94) <1S 
°{£kL> jj aJIu iLaH 'qa God is sure to test you with some 
game [that] your hands and spears [can] take. 

j/f/j r-m-d dust, ashes, to become dusty, to become ashes, to 
become grey; to be famished, to perish, to become poor; eye 
disease. Of this root, iUTj ramad occurs once in the Qur'an. 

jUj ramad [coll. n.] dust, ashes (14:18) ^jjII ^ cJ&Si ^UjS '^ALL\ 
Uu^le fjj ^ their deeds are like ashes that the wind blows 



383 



furiously on a stormy day. 

J/V/j r-m-z sign, signal, nod, wink, gesture, motion, to signal, to 
gesticulate, to move lips or eyes without uttering a sound; to 
move, to quiver. Of this root, "j^J ramz, occurs once in the 
Qur' an. 

>«j ramz [v. n.; n.] signal, sign, making a sign, gesturing 
(3:41) l>j VI f4 Lh^I ^ Vl ^i; yowr sign w f/iaf yow w/ZZ no* 
speaZc to people for three days, except by gesturing. 

o^/V/j r-m-d extreme heat of midday sun, hot stones, to become 
very hot (of sand and ground), to burn one's feet on sun-baked, 
stony ground; to have aches and pains; to become very thirsty; to 
bake inside hot ashes; to sharpen. Of this root, 'jliimj Ramadan 
occurs once in the Qur' an. 

'c^oaj Ramadan [proper n.] the ninth month of the Islamic year 
during which the annual obligatory fast takes place (2:185) 'J^> 

'■ CL^k 'JjLill if is f&e month of Ramadan in which the Qur' an was 
revealed as a guidance for mankind, clear proof of that guidance 
and as a standard for distinguishing between right and wrong; so 
any one of you who is present that month should fast. 

f/V/J r-m-m to mend, to patch up; animal halter; to decay, decayed 
remnants, rotten and decayed bones; the word rumman is 
classified by the philologists under this root and also under root 
til/?/ j r-m-n. Of this root, jLwj ramim occurs twice in the Qur' an. 

ramim [quasi-act. part.] rotten, decayed (36:78) !> 
jLwj ^a'j f Ui*J who can give life back to bones when they are 
decayed? 

rumman [coll. n. of foreign origin occurring three times 
in the Qur'an] pomegranates (55:68) lAjj J^j in them 

there are fruits-date palms and pomegranate trees. 



£&j rumman (see f/^/j r-m-m). 



384 



(i/f/j r-m-y to throw, to cast, to cast away, to throw off; to shoot at, 
to hunt, target, aim, projectiles; to come in succession; to accuse, 
to defame; share, usury. Of this root, rama occurs nine times 
in the Qur' an. 

i rama [v. trans.] 1 to throw out, to hurl (77:32) ^jS l^j 
Jl^sIIS jj£>i it hurls sparks as large as tree trunks 2 to pelt (105:4) 
Jjk^, 'qa s jIaaj f*^»j3 pelting them with pellets of hard-baked clay 3 
to throw [a spear], to shoot [an arrow] (in an interpretation of 
8:17) Ja'j Ail) s jSTj ciwj ij ci^'j U»j a«J yow f/irew [pebbles/a 
spear] (or, aimed [an arrow or a spear]) it was not you who 
threw, but God 4 to accuse (4:1 12) Ujjj <j fji p 'j AiJaa. Lau£j °(>j 
w/ioever commits a fault or a sin then accuses an innocent 
[person] of it 5 [jur.] to defame, to accuse of adultery, in 
particular (24:4) j>i jikli I jjIj pli. nVJ "ui^j 

lit s'jl^oi J4J I jL£i Vj s'-sk. "ojj^«j f/iose w/io accuse chaste women [of 
adultery ], and then fail to provide four witnesses— give them 
eighty lashes, and reject their testimony ever after. 

r-h-b emaciated or fatigued she-camel; to fear, to dread, to 
frighten, to threaten; monk, the state of being a monk, 
monasticism; small bone in the breast opposite the arm (the 
ensiform cartilage); sleeve. Of this root, eight forms occur 13 
times in the Qur' an: L>a°jj yarhab three times; jj**j2 turhibun 
once; Lja'jSU J istarhaba once; IJ^'j rahb once; rahbatun once; 
Lja'j rahab once; "u^'j ruhban three times and ^Ija'j 
rahbaniyyatun twice. 

lja'jj yarhab [imperf. of v. La'j rahiba, trans.] to fear, to stand 
in awe of (7:154) 'oJ^'Ji J^jjS '^a 'jjjil A^kjj (jii \^&l«a ^Ijftfl iil 
/ie picked up the Tablets, in whose inscription were guidance and 
mercy for those who stood in awe of their Lord. 

lja'jj turhib [imperf. of v. IV Lja'J "arhaba, trans.] to deter, to 
frighten off (8:60) <i oJ$>°j J^JI 4=>^j i>j f j 5 i> j^SjaiuJ U J4J I jV'j 
Aill jit a«<f prepare against them whatever forces you can 
muster, including warhorses, by which you frighten off the 
enemies of God and your own. 



385 



La'jLA °istarhaba [v. X, trans.] to seek to frighten, to strike 
with awe (7:116) pjlc. I j*J^'j ^Ull j^kl I they 
cast a spell on the eyes of the crowd and endeavoured to frighten 
them, and brought about work of great sorcery. 

La'j rahb [n.] awe, fear; sleeve; bone in the breast opposite the 
arm (28:32) t^kUa dlJ] * jlo jjc. °q* »U "-v- ^j^j »l 

i_a jll J> pMf yowr /za«<i inside your shirt and it will come out white 
without a blemish, and hold your arm close to your side, [ to free 
yourself ] from fear (or, tightly against the bones of your chest). 

5jAj rahbatun [n.] fear, awe (59:13) |> ul ^ 

Ail! indeed, you are [an object] of more fear in their hearts than 
God is. 

"t-Ajrahab [v. n./n.] fear, awe (21:90) Ija'jj lij Uijcij f/iey 
called upon Us out of longing and awe. 

*£&J ruhban [pi. of n. LaIj rahib] monk, ascetic (5:82) bV^j 

'jjjjkluy ant/ yaw are ,™r<? to /mc? f/iaf f/ie closest of them in 
affection towards those who believe are those who say, 'We are 
Christians, ' for some of them are priests and monks and they are 
not given to arrogance. 

AjJIjAj rahbdniyyatun [v. n.; n.] excessive fear (of God); 
monasticism (57:27) aIII J'j-^j *^ ^> & ^y^jj 

and monasticism they have invented-We did not ordain it for 
them, only seeking God's pleasure. 

1/— fc/j r-/i-/ group of people, particularly men, under ten in number; 
a person's family or tribe; mound covering one of the entrances to 
the jerboa's tunnels; to take large mouthfuls. Of this root, l*j 
raht occurs three times in the Qur' an. 

1a j raht [n.] 1 a group of people between three and ten in 
number, all related by family or loyalty (27:48) ajja*!! ^ 'j^j 
'jjajlaj Yj ij? ojV^ I* j f/iere was a i>a«(i of nine men in the 

city who spread corruption in the land and did nothing that was 
good 2 family, tribe, clan (11:91) ^IIaj VjTj Ifgla liji ^Ijil U)j 
^lliak'jl an d we find you very weak in our midst, but for your tribe, 



386 



J/-WJ 



we would have stoned you. 

j/_ fc/j r-/i-g lying, weak-mindedness; to approach, to cover, to 
overshadow, to eclipse, to catch up with; to reach adolescence; to 
be impetuous, to be peevish; to distress, to oppress, to humiliate. 
Of this root, three forms occur 10 times in the Qur'an: Ja'jj 
yarhaq five times; &'J> yurhiq three times and ja'j rahaq twice. 

i&'Ji yarhaq [imperf. of v. j»j rahiqa, trans.] to overshadow, 
to engulf, to stifle (10:26) Vj j5a J4* jVj i5*ly Vj ara<f neither 
darkness nor abasement shall overshadow their faces. 

Ja'jj yurhiq [imperf. of v. IV ja'J 3 arhaqa, trans.] to overtake, 
to treat harshly, to make heavy or excessive demands (18:73) V 
I'jLi ijJJ 'j^a ^jaA °jj V j Cyuij (^jji-ljj <io «of tafce me to task for 
forgetting and do not make excessive demands on me. 

JAj rahaq [v. n./n.] oppression, humiliation, weakness, 
damnation; demand (72:6) I>ll J> Jlkjj 'ojjjij o^V t> <J^ J ^Jj 
Ua'j JJb jilja a«<i f/iaf f/iere Ziave been [ certain ] men from 
humankind seeking protection with [ certain ] men of the jinn, so 
they increased the demands made upon them (or, they incited 
them to do more evil things). 

Oj— fc/j r-h-n pledge, security, pawn, to place as security; hostage, to 
give as hostage; to venture, to risk, to wager; binding, to be 
subject to; to make constant. Of this root, three words occur once 
each in the Qur'an: Ijja'j rahin; ^Aja'j rahinatun and j rihan. 

*lH*j rahin [quasi-pass, part., fem. aiaj rahinatun] bound, 
pledged (74:38) ajja'j cjj^S U, JS every sow/ w held in pledge 
for what it does. 

rihan [v. n., pi. of n. J>j ra/z«] security, surety; pledges 
(2:283) Ala ja UjIS I jiaj j^" ^ °Jfj but if you are on a 
journey, and cannot find a scribe, then [the method should be 
that] securities are handed over. 

j/— fc/j r-h-w to be still, to be calm, peaceful, tranquillity; to be 
wide, to be ample; to go in succession; to enable; a ditch. Some 



387 



philologists consider "J*j rahw of Syrian or Nabatean origin. Of 
this root, rahw occurs once in the Qur'an. 

jij rahw [v. n.; quasi-act. part.] variously interpreted as still, 
opened up, parted, dry, furrowed (44:24) isk s^jjIj 
jjajil and leave the sea parted; they are a drowned host. 

C/j/j r-w-h wind, to blow, to fan; smell, scent, fragrant shrubs to 
sniff; to decay, to smell rotten; soul, spirit, the jinn, the angels; 
the evening, to go home, to return after the day's toil, to bring 
livestock home, to rest; great herds of animals, to pasture, grazing 
place; to depart, to walk away, to commence travelling; might, 
power, victory; mercy, bounty, pleasure, children; to do 
intermittently, to interchange. Of this root, seven forms occur 57 
times in the Qur'an: ^jjj turih once; ^Ijj rawah once; £jj rawh 
three times; £ Jj ruh 21 times; ^jj rih 19 times; ^Ijj riyah 10 
times and "jt=4j rayhan twice. 

jijjj turih [imperf. of v. IV, trans.] to drive home (domestic 
animals) in the evening, to return such animals home at the end of 
the day (16:6) ojp-j^ o^-j uj^lP J-4> fe? f^j in them there is 
for you beauty when you bring them home [to rest] and when you 
drive them out [ to pasture ]. 

jHjj rawah [v. n.; n.] returning home, going back; the return 
trip, the evening trip (34:12) *J&2> ^j'Jj "Jt^> l*jic. jyjll JjU^IUj and 
to Solomon [We subjected] the wind; its outward journey [took] a 
month, and its return journey [took[ a month. 

£jj rawh [n.] 1 mercy, grace, spirit (12:87) '<> I y I I '"^JL 
^ c'j j !> 1 sons, go and seek news of Joseph 
and his brother and do not despair of God's mercy 2 joy, 
happiness, tranquillity (56:88-9) 'cfaj'Jj ^jja o&J^ t> °u! ^ 
jxau Tjf he [the dying person] is of those brought near [to 
God], there shall be [for him[ joy, ease and a Garden of Delight. 

£jj ruh [n.] 1 soul, spirit (17:85) |> £ jjll j£ £ JJ* & ^ j^j 
^jjj and they ask you [Prophet] about the Spirit, say, 'The Spirit is 
[part] of the domain of my Lord' 2 breath, spirit (66:12) cj£l '£J*'j 
U^jj I> *4 l*Vj* J$ dj^ and Mary, daughter of 



388 



Imran; she guarded her chastity— so We breathed from Our spirit 
into her, *(2:87) ^isll £ Jji with the Holy Spirit 3 revelation, 
divine inspiration (42:52) U ^Ja CuS U UjJ '<> Ik jj ^IJ] bjkjl ^slfjkj 
Vj likewise We have revealed to you a revelation by 
Our command; you had not known [before this] what the Book 
was or what the Faith was 4 the Archangel Gabriel (19:17) UL>°Ji 
l^J Ik jj V^jIJ so W<? sent to her Our spirit and he took 
before her the form of a typical human being; *(26:193) b^Vl £ Jjb 
the Trustworthy Spirit, Archangel Gabriel. 

jijj rih [n., pi. ^Uj riyah] 1 wind (10:22) <_^eAi. j^jj t$ilk f/iere 
comes upon them a stormy wind 2 power, strength, spirit (8:46) Vj 
Liiij IjLi^a Ijc-'jlii aw<f Jo not dispute [among yourselves], 
lest you fail and your spirit desert you 3 smell, scent (12:94) JIS 
lJLJ} iafy ^ '{* y\ their father said, T perceive Joseph 's scent. ' 

"d^i) rayhan [coll. n.] 1 fragrant shrubberies, sweet-smelling 
plants (55:12) 'j^l^'j i ^ jj m^j ««<i gram in <fry blades, and 
fragrant plants 2 (in verse 56:88-9) variously interpreted as 
bounty, ease of living, immortality or fragrant herbs 't> b) 

<kj cJ^kj'jj £j'ja 'jjjjaiJI if /ie fme dying person] is of those 
brought near [to God], there shall be [for him[ joy, ease and a 
Garden of Delight. 

J /j/j r-w-d scout, person scouting for pasture land, to scout, to 
reconnoitre, to search, to seek; will, to want, to covet; to soften 
up, to dissuade, to entice, to tempt; handle, applicator. Of this 
root, four forms occur 148 times in the Qur'an: 'i'J "arada 137 
times; jjJ "urlda twice; 'SJ'j rawada eight times and lijj 
ruwaydan once. 

Jl'J °arada [v. IV, trans., pass. v. jjJ J urlda] 1 to want (9:46) 
sjc. <! I jiiV £ j>J I j'i'j had they wanted to go forth, they would 
have made preparations for it 2 to seek, to want to possess 
(18:28) U&ll sUkJI 4-uj ijji 'SS^. J5u Vj a«<i yowr eyes should not 
turn away from them, seeking the adornment of this life 3 to will, 
to decide (5:41) U^i 't> <! idLi ya teii Aill jjj y.j whomever God 
wills to test, you will not be able to avail him in anything against 
God 4 to attempt, to try (12:25) l'» jl. il'J y ;r> U cJi s/jg 



389 



said, 'What is [befitting] as a punishment for someone who 

attempted evil on your folk? 5 to intend (4:62) y aJSL "uj^ ^ P 

ttjSjSj bUA] V] UjJ f/iera f/iey come to vow, swearing by God, 'We 

only intended to do good and [bring about] reconciliation?' 6 to 

.... 'iii' 
desire, to like to do (28:27) y?l* ^1 i/jaJ Iik£a y aiJ / wish to 

marry you to one of these two daughters of mine; *(18:77) I'Jia. 

y=ii 'jt iijj a wa/Z o« the point of collapsing 7 to wish, to choose 

(2:233) Aciijajii »l y iiji y»i yy^ y^j^- y«jjajj cjiiiijiij 

mothers shall suckle their children for two whole years, for those 
who wish to complete the period of nursing 8 to seek (30:39) &j 
All! 4k j y^y sl£'j y« '£0* but whatever charity you give, seeking 
the Face of God. 

Jjlj rawada [v. Ill, trans.] to solicit, to seek to persuade, to 
endeavour to turn (12:61) 'jjieUl Ufj »M ijl jiu I jflS f/iey sa/cf, 
'We w?7/ Jo a// f/zorf we can to persuade his father [by artifice] to 
[yield him to us], indeed we will'; *(12:26) (S ^ij 'jc ^ she 

tried to seduce me [lit. she coaxed me of my soul]. 

fiTjj ruwaydan [dimin. of v. n. ijj rud, 'gentleness' used 
adverbially] respite, a while (86:17) lijj J4V>5 'joi^l J^a so grant 
the disbelievers a respite, let them be for a while. 

r-w-d greenery with waters and foliage, meadows, gardens, 
wide open places with water and vegetation, bottom of the valley 
covered with plants and drinkable water; to tame, to train; to 
exercise, to practise. Of this root, two words occur once each in 
the Qur'an: ^lajj rawdatun and aL^'jj rawdat. 

rawdatun [fem. n., pi. ££±>°Jj rawdat] garden (30:15) lila 
'oj'Ji=4 iJ °(4a plkALall IjLcj Ijiali yill a* /or f/iose who 

believed and did good deeds, they will be in a Garden, made 
happy. 

thh r ~w- c fright, to frighten, to take fright; to scare, to alarm, to 
surprise; to impress with beauty, to fire the imagination, to be 
inspired; to be extreme (in beauty); heart/soul/mind. Of this root, 
£jj raw c occurs once in the Qur'an. 



390 



jpjj raw [n.] dread, awe, apprehension, fear (11:74) 'jc. Laj Ilia 
J=jJ ? 'ja UliLaj lsj^ 1 ^c-Vj g^jjll then, when the fear left 

Abraham and the good news came to him, he began to plead with 
Us for Lot's people. 

thh r-w-gh to deviate, to swerve, to dodge, to go by a side road, to 
trick, a fox, to fox; to want; to approach, to come over; to hide. Of 
this root, £Tj ragha occurs three times in the Qur'an. 

£tj ragha u [v. intrans.] 1 to turn to, to make for, to approach 
(51:26) JWj »^ <S*1 so he turned to his folk and 

brought a fat calf 2 to attempt to do so in stealth (37:91) gTji 
jjjlflj Vi Jia J^JIi so /ie turned surreptitiously to their gods and 
said, 'Won't you eat?' 

rwm [proper name of Roman origin, used collectively, occurring 
once in the Qur'an] Byzantine Romans, citizens of the Eastern 
Roman Empire (30:2-3) o^ji\ J* ?Jj\ ciAc. the Byzantines 
have been defeated in a nearby land; * ?jjt name of Sura 30, 
Meccan sura, so named because of the reference in verses 2-6 to 
the defeat of 'the Byzantine Romans', at the hands of the Persians 
(613 A.D.). 

S*/<#/j r-y-b calamities; doubts, to suspect, to entertain; to accuse, to 
alarm. Of this root, five forms occur 36 times in the Qur'an: Lta'J 
'irtaba nine times; Lyj rayb 18 times; ribatun once; Lyja 
murib seven times and L&'Ja murtab once. 

LiUjl °irtaba [v. VIII, intrans.] 1 to be in doubt (49:15) Usl 
I J&ji ^ p a! JJJj aRj I 'jjill "ojV>S f/ze frae believers are the 
ones who came to believe in God and His Messenger and then 
had no doubt 2 to doubt, to cast doubt, to show doubt (5:106) 
li 'jTj 4j ^jUij V Juijl J <iSL jUua Sja so f&ey swear fry 
GoJ, if you have doubt over [their testimony], 'We would not 
barter [the truth] for any price even if he [the benefactor] is of 
[ our] kin. ' 

Luj rayb [n.] 1 doubt, uncertainty (2:23) Ufjj t_uj '«2sS y j 

H- . . . 

I jpU liji. (jlt zj yow /iav<? doubts about the revelation 



391 



We have sent down to Our servant, then produce a sura of its like 
2 accident, misfortune, fate, mishap (52:30) ^ 'oAj^ a£h f 1 
jjiJI Luj they even say, '[He is] a poet for whom we are awaiting 
the evil accidents of time. ' 

Ajjj ribatun [n.] doubt, uncertainty, indecision (9:110) Jjj V 
J^jS ^ I'ji ^ill J4jUi f/ie building they have founded will never 
cease to be a source of doubt within their hearts. 

LuJa murib I [quasi-act. part.] doubt-causing, causing to fall 
into suspicion (14:9) Mi>° liije-jj Cm IsU ^ Uj and we are in 
disquietude concerning that to which you call us II [quasi-pass, 
part.] dubious, suspicious, guilty (50:25) t_u>» a 
hinderer of the good, a transgressor and dubious. 

IjLjj*. murtab [act. part.] one who is doubting, doubter (40:34) 
LASj* Ui JJa ja '(> Gorf leaves the transgressor 

and the doubter to stray. 

o-/(i/j r-y-sh feathers, plumage, to fix feathers to (e.g. arrows); to 
be affluent, fine clothes and furnishings; to be hospitable; to 
bribe. Of this root, J^j rish occurs once in the Qur' an. 

ijuij rish [coll. n.] fine clothing, adornment, ornamental 
garments (7:26) IAuj tsJ'Ji '^i^- ^jj' '-^ Jtfi children 
of Adam, We have given you garments to cover your shameful 
parts-and as adornment [for you]. 

t/di/j r-y- c mountain, heights, roads; growth, to give a great yield; 
to return, to recur; to run, to spread; early stages (e.g. of youth). 
Of this root, jjj ri° occurs once in the Qur' an. 

jjj rl c [n.] height, suitable location, vantage point (26:128) 
jjjjkj Xjft. jjj JSj 'qjM [how come] you, in your folly, erect 
idolatrous altars [lit. landmarks] on every vantage point? 

0/ls/j r-y-n filth, rust; to cover, to engulf, to seal, to overwhelm, to 
overpower, to prevail. Of this root, 'jlj rana occurs once in the 
Qur' an. 

q\j rana I [v. intrans.] to encrust, to rust, to engulf, to corrode, 



392 



to stifle (83:14) "oj*-ij I jj^ k ^ 'jl'j Ji Sl£ «o indeed!, but 
what they have committed has corroded their hearts. 



j\y\ "al-zay the eleventh letter of the alphabet; it represents a voiced 
dento-alveolar fricative sound. 

j/lj/j z-b-d froth, foam, scum; butter; essence; to be angry. Of this 
root, only i>j zabad occurs once in the Qur' an. 

Jjj zabad [n.] foam, scum, froth (13:17) U CJj ilia. £J»jja 
lPO^' <jl '"^'i^ £iu a* /or f/ie /raf/i it vanishes with no 
consequence, but that which benefits humankind remains in the 
earth. 

j/<_j/j z-b-r stone, to line the inside of a well with stone; inscribing 
on stone, reading, writing, written record; stamina, patience, 
intelligence. The word jj/j zabur, meaning Psalter, which is 
conveniently classified under this root, is a borrowing either from 
Syriac or Hebrew. Of this root, three forms occur 1 1 times in the 
Qur' an: jj/j zabur three times; jjj zubur seven times and jjj 
zubar once. 

jjij zabur [n. pi. Ji'j zubur (1)] 1 [jj/jil ^al-zabiir] Book of 
Psalms (21:105) ^pUc. I^jjj 'o^Ji\ s j jkill JWj jjjjII ^ L&iS jSTj 
'jjkJlU We wrote/decreed in the Psalms, in addition to/after the 
[earlier] Scripture/Remembrance that, 'The earth shall be the 
inheritance of My righteous servants' 2 generic name for all 
revealed books, revealed book of divine wisdom, scripture 
(3:184) jjj^l i— AjSIIj jjjJIj pl-y^W 'j*^ I> J*»j Sr 1 -^ '-^ ^ if 
they reject you, so have other messengers been rejected before 
you, even though they came with clear evidence, revealed written 
texts, and the enlightening Scripture 3 divine record (54:52) cXs 
jj'jll ^ ojJki f^A all that they do is [noted] in the divine record. 



394 



jjj zubur (2) [pi. of n. s jjj zubratun] lumps, large pieces, 

1 A , , S 

fractions (23:53) 'j ja J^jjI Uu lj> I'jjj '^jjj J^jUl I jkkiia 
f/iey s/?Z/f their community (or, teachings) [lit. affair] into sects, 
each faction rejoicing in what they have. 

jjj zubar [pi. of n. sjjj zubratun] lump, large piece 
(18:96) JjjkJI jjj ^jjli /?n'«g me lumps of iron! 

(j/ij/j ^-fe-n to push, to kick; to sell dates on the tree by estimating 
their quantity; to divert, to keep good things away. ajjUj 
zabdn\yatun is considered by some as a borrowing from either 
Akkadian or Syriac. Of this root, only ajjUj zabdniyatun occurs 
once in the Qur'an. 

4jjWj zabdniyatun [pi. of n. possibly "juj zibniyy; 4j£j 
zibniyatun; ^l/j zabdniyy; cJj zdbin; or coll. n. without sing.] 
guardians of Hell (96:17-18) ajjLjjjI ^'ja* aIsU g-'ila Aim summon 
his comrades; We shall summon the guardians of Hell. 

j jjj za&wr (see j/^/j z-b-r). 

iron base of a spoon; arrow head; arching eyebrow; 
glass. Wj zujdja is regarded by some as a borrowing from 
Syriac. Of this root, only zujdjatun occurs twice in the 

Qur' an. 

zujdjatun [n.] glass container (24:35) j^Vj 't^L^A 
Jy> l-££ tjjl£ ^.U-jll the lamp is in a glass container, and the 
glass is like a shimmering star. 

j/jr/j z-j-r to scold, to rebuke; to forbid, to restrain, to prohibit; to 
drive away. Of this root, five forms occur six times in the Qur'an: 
ja-ijj "izdujir once; j^'-\>° muzdajar once; jVj zajr once; s jVj 
zajratun twice and CjI j=J j zdjirdt once. 

jV-0! 'izdujir [pass, of v. VIII] to be rebuked, to be repulsed, to 
be driven away (54:9) j^'Jj 1 j^j I jjiSa f/iey rejected 

Our servant, saying, 'He is possessed! ' and he was repulsed. 

jVj>« muzdajar [v. n.; n. of place] deterring, restraining; lesson 



c/j/c/j 



395 



to be learned (54:4) jVa>« *4 ^ f^Vl 't> 'fiilk jSTj ara<f f/iere have 
come to them some tidings [of past generations] in which [they 
should find] a deterrent. 

Jtjzajr [v. n.] scolding, reproaching, repelling (37:1-2) 
I'Jkj plalLJI j by those ranged in rows, who rebuke 

reproachfully. 

S jkj zajratun [unit, n.] a chasing away; a scolding; a cry 
(37:19) 'aJJ^H '(«* Ijji »JWj ^* ksji if is ^ a single call and-lo 
and beholdl-they will be [alive [ looking around. 

^'j^J zajirat [pi. of act. part. fern, s jaJj zajiratun] 
admonisher, one who rebukes, one who repels (37:1-2) plalLallj 
plja.ljlla U^=> &y f/ios<? ranged in rows, who rebuke 
reproachfully. 

j/jr/j z-j-w to urge gently, to assist along, to drive forward, to 
propel. Of this root, two forms occur three times in the Qur'an: 
ls^'J yuzjT twice and »U>« muzjatun once. 

tr^li vmz/F [imperf. of v. Vj zaja, trans.] to drive gently, to 
herd along, to gather together (24:43) <-ii)j p U^j, S J 'ji jJ 

do you not see that God drives the clouds, then gathers them 
together?! 

SU>» muzjatun [pass, part.] pushed, offered with reserve, poor, 
inferior, below standard (12:88) fVj- LiVj "J-^ 

\j^c ji^jj Jjkll U! t-ijti misfortune has touched us and our folk and 
we bring [only] poor merchandise, so fill the measure for us and 
be charitable to us. 

cAVc/j z-h-z-h to budge, to dislodge, to shift, to push away. This 
root can be regarded as a further derivative of the root c/c/j z-h- 
h. Of this root, ^ Jp»j zuhziha and ^j^'J* muzahzih occur once each 
in the Qur'an. 

CJ^J zuhziha [pass, v.] moved away, shifted away (3:185) !>a 
'jli jai Ja.j| j jUll jc. ^Jp-j w/ioever is shifted away from the 
Fire and admitted to the Garden will have triumphed. 



396 



muzahzih [act. part.] one who causes something or 
someone to be shifted or removed (2:96) jlL ud! 
J^u 'J lJ&II t> 5U.jk'j^ ja any o/ f/iem would long to be granted 
longevity for ever [lit. a thousand years], even though being 
granted longevity would not shift them from the torment. 

i-i/c/j z-h-f to crawl, to creep, to drag oneself along, (of an army) to 
advance en masse, to advance steadily and slowly, to march. Of 
this root, only Uk'j zahfan occurs once in the Qur' an. 

ui*j zahf [v. n. used abverbially] marching, battling (8:15) lij 
jll&l pAjJjS IjjiS 'jjjll JiSl w/ie« vok mee? f/ze disbelievers 

marching to battle, never turn your backs on them. 

ui/j/^/j z-kh-r-f gold, ornamentation, decoration, flowery talk, land 
covered with flowers. It has been suggested that the entire root is 
a borrowing from Syriac. Of this root, only <-ijij zukhruf occurs 
four times in the Qur' an. 

i-ijij zukhruf [n.] decoration, ornamentation, gold (17:93) 'J 
t-ijij '(> Cuj '^11 jjjSj or yow /?ave a house made of gold; 
*(6: 1 12) Jjill <-ijij alluring or deceitful words [lit. ornamented 
words]; * <-ijijll name of Sura 43, Meccan sura, so-named 
because of the reference in verses 35 and 53 to GoZJ 

'-h/j/J wooden sheep enclosure; entrance; lion's den; waterfall 

course; carpet, field full of flowers, y jj zarabTyy, meaning 
carpets, is considered by some as a borrowing from Persian, 
Syriac or Ethiopic. Of this root, only jj zarabTyy occurs once 
in the Qur' an. 

LriljJ zarabTyy [pi. of n. kiijj zarbTyyatun] luxurious carpets 
(88:16) 4j ^Jjjj and luxurious carpets outspread. 

£./j/J z-r- c to sow, to plant, to cultivate, to grow plants. Of this root, 
four forms occur in 14 places in the Qur'an: jjcj'JP tazra'wn three 
times; gTjj zurra c once; gj'j zar c eight times and £• jjj zwrw c 
twice. 



397 



(jjfrjjj tazra c w« [imperf. v., trans.] 1 to plant, to sow, to till 
(12:47) y>» jjtjji /ze sa/J, Tow should sow for seven 
consecutive years as usual' 2 to cause to grow, to cause to 
germinate, to give the power of growth (56:64) 'jkj jJ <j jcjjj J^ii 
ojf- S3* is it you who make it germinate or are We the grower [s]? 

£.Gj zurra c [pi. of n. g- J j zari c ] planters, sowers, tillers of the 
land (48:29) fcfjjfl '.*?■*; *4j>* tj'jZ^i Jiliululi sj'Ji olLui ^j^-l ^jj^ 
as seea's that put forth their shoots, strengthen them, and they 
grow thick, and rise straight upon their stalks, delighting the 
sowers. 

£.jj zar c [coll. n., pi. £ jjj zuru c ] plants, grain-producing 
plants, herbage (as opposed to trees) (16:11) jjjjjjllj ^ 
plj^JI JS I>j LsUeS/lj Jjajllj wjY/i if /fe grows /or yow plants, 
olives, palms, vines and all kinds of produce. 

tJj'jzurii c [pi. n.] plants, plantations (44:26) ^jjk jA£.j ^jjjj 
plantations and noble buildings! 

j/j/j z-r-q blue, to become blue; to pass through swiftly, to pass 
excrement. The term Sj3 "dzraq, which is usually translated as 
'blue', in fact covers a range of colours in Arabic including grey, 
green, and white and also means purity of water. Of this root, 
only (jjj zurq occurs once in the Qur'an. 

Jjj zurq [pi. of n. Jjjj :, dzraq] blue, grey, green, white-eyed 
(with terror); sightless (20:102) ixajj y^jklll j^Mj jji-aM ^ii fJ j 
ITj'j Jie Jay Jie Trumpet will be sounded and We gather the 
sinful, sightless. 

(i/j/j z-r—y to abuse, to scorn, to reproach, to humiliate, to consider 
insignificant. Of this root, only ^ j'iji tazdari occurs once in the 
Qur'an. 

j j Jjj tazdari [imperf. of v. VIII. lsIp'J "izdara, trans.] to 
despise, to show contempt (11:31) J4yjy y J^ 1 ' i/jAj 2 Vj 
I'jja. nor Jo / say concerning those you [lit. yowr eyes] despise, 
'God will not grant them goodness. ' 



398 



f/t/j z- c -m to claim, to allege; to undertake, to be leader, to lead, 
leadership. Of this root, three forms occur in 17 places in the 
Qur'an: 'jc'j za c ama 13 times; jc'j za c m twice and ^'j za c Tm 
twice. 

'^■'j za c ama u [v. trans.] 1 to claim, to allege (4:60) 'jjill > r 

PjcLkll /iave yow not considered those who claim (or, allege) to 
believe in what has been sent down to you, and in what has been 
sent down before you, desiring to turn for judgement to idols? 2 
to conjecture, to invent (17:56) I> j 'oiA \ jLjI JS say, 'Call 
upon those you invent [as deities] instead of Him. ' 

fftj za € m [v. n.] claim (6:138) V] l y^ ' Wi V "J?^. ijkj jLU<ii I jllij 
iUj 'o- f/zey [also] say, 'These are sacrosanct cattle and 
tillage [crops ]; none but those we wish may eat them' -so they 
claim! 

fjej za°Tm [act. part.] leader, one who is responsible, one in 
charge, guarantor (12:72) Ulj Jka. ilk sdLlI ^I'jla &j I jili 
^jc'j <j f/zey sa/c?, 'We are missing the king's cup and for whoever 
returns it there will be a camel-load, and I am the guarantor of 
that. ' 

j/ti/j z-f-r to carry a heavy load; onset of a donkey's bray, to groan, 
to exhale, to pant. Of this root, only jaa'j zafir occurs three times in 
the Qur'an. 

jjij zafir [n./v. n.] wailing, roaring, sighing, exhaling (25:12) lij 
IjjSjj U»mj t*i I j**- Jjbh t> (4^ j w/jen if [Hellfire] sees them 
from a faraway place, they will hear from it a rage and a roar. 

ui/ui/j z-f-f walking fast; wailing of the wind; teeth chattering; a 
bride's procession. Of this root, only jjajj yaziffun occurs once in 
the Qur'an. 

<-«jj yaziff [imperf. of v. <_i'j zaffa, intrans.] to hurry, to be in 
haste (37:94) 'jjajj <A\ I J&ati they came towards him in haste. 



f/ti/J z-q-m to swallow fast, to drink too much milk; fresh butter 



399 



with dates; plague; a certain foul-tasting, stinking tree said to 
grow in the Arabian region of Tihamah. Of this root, only f _£) 
zaqqum occurs three times in the Qur'an. 

zaqqum [proper n.] Zaqqum, a certain foul tree growing in 
the bottom of Hell with fruits like the heads of devils or of 
terrible serpents (44:43-4) ^Vl ^ui fJ ajll s'j^i *J the tree of 
Zaqqum will be food for the sinners. 

IjjSj zakariyya The philologists classify this word under the root 
jA4/j z-k-r, 'to fill up a vessel', while at the same time 
recognising it as of foreign origin; it occurs seven times in the 
Qur' an. 

UjSj Zakariyya [proper name] Zachariah (cf. Luk. 1.20-2) 
(3:37) tjjS'j Ifrikj Uluk tUj X^A'j jluk JJ^ I^jj l^£a her Lord 
received her [ the child] with gracious favour, and provided for 
her a goodly upbringing, and made Zachariah her guardian. 

The Qur'an (21:89) mentions that Zachariah pleads with God 
to provide him with an heir. While in prayer, he is given news of 
his son John, who will confirm the word of God and will be 
noble, chaste and one of the 'righteous prophets' (3:39). 

j/^/J z-k-w to grow, to flourish; to reach, to attain; to purify, to be 
purified. Of this root, seven forms occur 59 times in the Qur'an: 
zaka once; '^j zakka 12 times; ^"Jm tazakka eight times; ^S'J 
"azkd four times; zakiyy once; <S'j zakiyyatun once and slS'j 
zakatun (Qur'anic spelling s j£'j) 35 times. 

\S'j zaka u [v. intrans.] to reach a level of acceptability (by 
God), to attain enough purity; to increase in purity (24:21) YjTj 
IjjI jkl '(> U kx^ jj a3 JL^s were it not for God's grace 

and mercy towards you, not a single one of you would ever have 
attained [enough] purity [to be acceptable to God]. 

zakka [v. U. trans.] 1 to increase something (91:9) !> ^iai jS 
/ie indeed successful who causes it [his soul] to increase 
[in purity/piety] 2 to purify, to cause to grow in purity (9:103) ii 
aSjIo I> tofe /rom their possessions alms 



400 



J/J/J/J 



with which you cleanse them and purify them/cause them to grow 
in purity 3 to vouch for, to praise, to justify, to vindicate (53:32) 
(^3jI (>j ja ^SLjjl I jS'jS so Jo nof praise yourselves-He knows 
best who is mindful [of Him]. 

'Jz'Ji tazakka [v. V, intrans.] to seek purity, to strive for God's 
grace (35:18) <*i& <JZjk ^jji j£y !>j whosoever purifies himself 
does so only for [ the good of] his own soul. 

^'jS "azka [elat.] 1 purer/purest, more/most godly or virtuous 
(2:232) j«Jaij '^£1 ^'j JjSlj f/iaf w more virtuous/righteous and 
purer for you 2 better/best in quality (18:19) liUJa ^'j I^jI jMila 
Ai« (jjjj '^lii Zef /i/m /oo/c which is the best quality food, and bring 
you some of it. 

"j^jzakiyy [quasi-act. part.; fern. "<£jzakiyyatun\ 1 pure, pious 
(19:19) KiL A d£j J JJj bl Jli //<? said, 7 am o«Zy a 
messenger from your Lord, [come] to grant you a pure boy' 2 
innocent (18:74) *5£) /iow cowZg? yow kill an 

innocent person without [ it being in exchange for his killing of] 
another? 

SISj zakatun I [n., with the definite article, Sjkjll ^al-zakat] 
[jur.] one of the Five Pillars of Islam: the specified portion of 
certain types of one's possessions annually given/exacted as 
obligatory duty to God in order that the givers may purify their 
wealth and themselves; prescribed alms (cf. 4&i^> sadaqatun) 
(73:20) llajS aIII I jL^jalj sl£jll I jjlij s^lall I jiupj fee/? w/? f/ie 
prayer, pay the alms, and make God a goodly loan II [v. n.] 1 
purifying of the soul (23:4) 'qJ?& "^"3 "ua^j and who do 
[whatever they do[ for the purification [of themselves] 2 
[adverbially] in piety, in purity (18:81) Ijja. U4o 'J 
Uikj Ljjitj slS'j so we wished that their Lord should exchange him 
for them, [for one] better than him in piety and more inclined [lit. 
nearer] to mercy. 

J/j/J/j z-l-z-l to shake violently, to rock, to tremble, earthquake, to 
agitate. Of this root, three forms occur six times in the Qur'an: 
JjJj zulzila three times; JjJj zi'feaZ twice and VjO zalzalatun 



401 



once. 

Jj^j zulzila [pass, v.] 1 to be shaken by an earthquake (99:1-2) 
tp'jlj ^jVl pijij w/ie« f/ie Earth is shaken with its quaking 2 
to be disturbed, agitated (33:11) 1*^ Vt'jJj I JJ'jj 'jjLjijl 'J£l '^U* 
f/iere f/ie believers were sorely tested and deeply shaken. 

Jljij z/fefl/ I [n.] earthquake, earth tremor (99:1-2) pljlj lij 
l^l'jij o^j^' w/zen f/ze Earth is shaken with its quaking II [v. n. 
used adverbially] agitation, disturbance (33:11) ^ ^* 

I'jjAu Vl jlj I jljljj f/zere f/ze believers were sorely tested and deeply 
shaken. 

^00 zalzalatun [v. n.] shaking, Shockwave, trauma (99:1) "jj 
<ttUl AljTj f/ie trauma of the [coming of the] Hour will 
be a mighty thing; * Aljljil name of Sura 99, Meccan sura, 
so-named because of the reference in verse 1 to 'the Earthquake' 
that will herald the coming of the Hour. 

'-j/J/j z-l-f to approach, to draw near, to advance; to crawl; to 
ingratiate oneself, to seek God's pleasure; time span. Of this root, 
five forms occur 10 times in the Qur'an: utfjl "azlafa once; <-iTjl 
"uzlifa three times; 4iTj zulfatun once; zulaf once and ^'j 
zulfa four times. 

tiijS 'azlafa [v. IV, trans.; pass. i_i3°J "uzlifa] 1 to bring near, to 
cause to be near, to be made approachable, to be made accessible 
(50:31) jji^il piTJj and Paradise is brought close to the 
righteous 2 to cause to approach (26:64) 'jjji-VI p UTjj and We 
made the others approach the place. 

X^l'j zulfatun [v. n.] 1 nearness (in respect to physical station, 
rank or degree), approaching, being close at hand (67:27) I'j'j 
I j'jaS 'jjjll I jkj iiin^ Ailj w/ie« f/zey see /f there, close at hand, the 
disbelievers' faces will be grieved 2 [n.; pi. <-«lj zulaf span of 
time (in particular the first hours of the night) (11:114) s^lUl Jt'j 
tPI 't> Uljj jl^oll ^'jL undertake the prayer at both ends of the 
day, and during parts of the night. 

Lfil'j zulfa I [n./an irregular v. n. implying intensity] close 
proximity, closeness; a good deed sent in advance, an offering [to 



402 



God] (38:25) <-£« 'S^-'j t^'jJ ^'-^f- ^ "u)j ^ ^ We/orgave Aim 
f/iaf, his reward with Us is closeness to Us, and a good place to 
return to (or, for indeed he has offered a good deed that brings 
him near to Us) II [v. n. used adverbially] bringing near; as a 
good deed (34:37) ^'j tux. "fkija jjh '?&Yj Vj Uj neither 

your wealth nor your children to bring you nearer to Us. 

<i/J/j z-l-q to slip, to slide, to be slippery, to be smooth. Of this root, 
two forms occur once each in the Qur'an: <jj£ji yuzliqun and (jTj 
zalaq. 

SSiyuzliq [imperf. of v. IV, trans.] to cause to slip, to 
dislodge, to strike down (68:51) J^L jtfjjl I JJS- 'i£ 'Jfj 
jkill I JUu, the disbelievers almost strike you down with their looks 
when they hear the Qur'an. 

Jlj zalaq [v. n. used adjectivally] slippery; barren (18:40) J^*k 

Lord may well give me [something] better than your garden, and 
send down upon it a well-aimed thunderbolt from the sky, so that 
it becomes [nothing but[ smooth [barren] earth. 

J/J/j z—l—l to trip over, to slip, to cause to slip; to remove. Of this 
root, three forms occur four times in the Qur'an: Jj zalla twice; 
JJ °azalla once and JjU 'istazalla 1 1 times. 

Jj zalla i [v. intrans.] to trip, to slip (16:94) 1 
l^jjii jkj J>'j5 Jj5a '^Sij Jo nof wse yowr oatf/is as a means of deceit 
between you, lest you lose your good standing within the 
community /with God [lit. a foot should slip after being firmly 
placed]. 

JjS "azalla [v. IV, trans.] to cause to slip (off), to cause to fall, 
to dislodge (2:36) <g UlS ll« U4Vjaii l^i 'jUal^l U^'Ji Satan 
dislodged them from it [the Garden] and removed them from 
what [the condition] they were in. 

JjLi ^istazalla [v. X, trans.] to cause to slip, to lead into 
temptation (3:155) I ^ o^-v 'iP=^ '^3^ m in fact, Satan 
made them slip by means of some of what they [themselves] had 



403 



[previously] committed. 

f/J/j z-l-m to cut the loop of the ear; to emaciate through hunger; 
arrows, arrows used in divination in pre-Islamic Arabia. Of this 
root. Only ^aWazlam occurs twice in the Qur'an. 

fVjVI "al-^azlam [pi. of n. jJj zalam or j£j zulam] divining 
arrows (5:90) o4j ptfjVlj M^^'j J*^' m intoxicants, 

gambling, idols and divining arrows are an abomination. 

j/f/j z-m-r windpipe, playing a flute; base people; group of people. 
Of this root, only J*'j zumar occurs twice in the Qur'an. 

J*'j zumar [pi. of n. s jU 'j zumratun] groups of people, 
congregated bodies of people, patches, clusters (39:71) 'jjill j^'j 
\'Ja'j I Jj£> and those who disbelieve are driven to Hell in 

groups; * jijll name of Sura 39, Meccan sura, so-named because 
of the reference in verses 71-5 to sorting out people into 
'Groups' on the Day of Judgement. 

J/f/j z-m-l to run fast while veering to one side, to limp; to ride 
behind another person, a companion; to hide, to wrap oneself. Of 
this root, "al-muzzammil occurs once in the Qur'an. 

J*>»il 'al-muzzammil [an assimilated form of act. part. J*'Jl» 
mutazammil] the wrapped-up one (73:1) you [Prophet], 

enfolded in your cloak!; * J**jJ name of Sura 73, Meccan sura, 
so-named because of the reference in verse 1 to 'the One 
Enfolded in his Cloak'' , denoting the Prophet. 

j/A/f/j z-m-h-r (possibly an extension of root V^j z-m-h) to be 
angry, to be red in the face and eyes with rage; to glitter; to be 
gleeful; to be freezing cold. Of this root, only jjj^O zamharlr 
occurs once in the Qur'an. 

JiJ&j zamharlr [n.] extreme coldness (76:13) tl^i t«i 'jjlw ^ 
Vj seeing there neither sun [scorching heat] nor biting 

cold. 



404 



Jjj*Jj zanjabll [n., a loan word, from either Persian or Syriac, 
occurring once in the Qur'an] ginger (76:17) 'jk fel Oj^ij 
^Lukj'j l^kl'j- a«<i f/iey wi'ZZ £>e g/ven a drink infused with ginger. 

?/u/j z-n-m derivatives of this root are taken from the noun ^'j 
zanamatun, the lowest edge of the earlobe. It was customary in 
pre-Islamic Arabia to slit the lower earlobe of certain pedigree 
animals at one end and leave it hanging as a mark of their value. 
Metaphorically, S-^'j zanamatun came to convey the concept of 
attachment, zariim said of animals means pedigree, but of 
humans it is associated with servant, person of uncertain 
parentage and scoundrel. Of this root, fji'j zanim occurs only once 
in the Qur'an. 

fjjj zanim [quasi-act. part.] useless, ill-bred, ignoble, wicked, 
evil, (68:13) ^'j ^lli '^u coarse, and on top of all that, ill-bred. 

z-n-y to fornicate, to commit adultery, fornication, adultery; to 
be in a tight place, (of something) to be narrow. Of this root, four 
forms occur nine times in the Qur'an: oyy,yaznun twice; Uj zina 
once; ^1 j zani three times and aJi j zaniyatun three times. 

<jjjj yazni [imperf. of v. Uj zona, intrans.] to commit adultery, 
to fornicate (60:12) V "J '&=4± 'cA^yA\ fij ^1 t^tu 

• • • V j oS>4 V j laui A> Prophet, when believing women come 
to pledge to you that they will not ascribe God any partner, nor 
steal, nor commit adultery . . . 

Uj zina [n.] adultery, fornication (17:32) <jj U'jll I j^'ja Vj 
°Xu^ 'fX^j 2j^.li and do not go near fornication-it is an 
abomination, and an evil path [ to take ]. 

Ji\j zani [n./act. part.; fem. zaniyatun] fornicator (outside 
wedlock), adulterer (24:3) ^ ^ 'j V) V Ji'Ji the 
fornicating male/adulterer is only [fit to] marry [also: only 
fornicates with] a fornicating female/adulteress or an idolatress. 

J / A /j z-h-d to abstain, to renounce, to abandon, to forsake (pleasures 
and wealth), to withdraw. Of this root, ojjaI j zahidin occurs once 



405 



in the Qur'an. 

<^»lj zahidin [pi. of n./act. part. jaI j za/i/J] abstemious, 
abstinent, one who has no interest in worldly pleasures, one who 
has little or no interest in something (12:20) JaIjj »j^5j 
'jj^ljll 't> <ji I jjlSj Sj jiSud a«<i f/iey soZ<i him for a lowly price, a few 
dirhams, and they were not interested in him. 

j/ A /J z-h-r to flower, blossom; to be bright, to shine, to be radiant. 
Of this root, only i J*'j zahratun occurs once in the Qur' an. 

SJO zahratun [n.] flower, blossom; finest part of a thing, 
goodness; splendour, finery, beauty (20:131) U« ^Iujc- Vj 
U&ll sljkJI s'jAj ° ; 4^ IV'jj' ^ ,J ^- a <2«^ rfo nof gaze longingly at what 
We have given some of them to enjoy [of] the finery (or, 
abundance of good things) of this present life. 

j/ A /j z-h-q to expire, to run out, to pass away; to be fat; to be 
emaciated. Of this root, three forms occur five times in the 
Qur'an: zahaqa three times; &\j zahiq once and jjAj za/iwg 
once. 

JAj zahaqa a [v. intrans.] 1 to pass away, to die, to expire 
(9:85) 'jjj^ f*j *(4^ ijajjj a«<^ their souls depart while they 
disbelieve 2 to vanish, to disappear, to meet defeat (17:81) *lk JSj 
JLU3I Ja'jj jkll say, Tfte frwf/i /las come, and falsehood has 
vanished. ' 

JAlj za/j/o [act. part.] one who vanishes, dies, expires (21:18) 

against falsehood, and it triumphs [lit. breaks its head] and-lo, 
and behold-it [falsehood] expires! 

JjAj zahuq [intens. act. part.] one who is given, or much 
susceptible to vanishing (17:81) U^Ull *c& dM^I l^'j 
lajA j a«<i say, 'The truth has come, and falsehood has vanished- 
falsehood is bound to vanish. ' 

S/j/J z-w-j even number, pair, double, two things which are 
connected in some way; spouse, one of a pair; a species, type; to 



406 



cause trouble. Of this root, five forms occur 82 times in the 
Qur'an: <r 'jj zawwaja four times; '^Jj zuwwija 1 1 times; £°Jj zawj 
17 times; oVjj zawjan seven times and g\ JJ "azwdj 53 times. 

jr jj zawwaja I [v. II, trans.] 1 to make or give a mixture of 
two things (42:50) Uuic- iUu '<> Jikjj IjUIj Ul'jki J4Vjjj 'J or //e 
g/ves f/iem /Y/ie parents] an assortment of [offspring] males and 
females and causes to become barren whomever He will 2 to 
couple with, to pair with; to marry to (44:54) osp jjhh «^ 
moreover We will pair them with/marry them to wide-eyed houris 
II [doubly trans.] to give someone in marriage to (33:37) Ilia 
l^SUkjj YjLj \^ jjj a?i<f w/iew Zay<i /iac? formally ended his 
marriage to her [lit. completed a purpose from her], We gave her 
to you in marriage. 

£jj zuwwija [pass, of v. II] to be paired up, to be coupled 
(81:7) cjkj'j [y, jill lilj w/ien souls are paired [with their fellows]. 

jrjj zawj [n.; dual uVjj zawjan; pi. jrljjl "azwaj] 1 wife, 
husband, spouse (2:102) <j uj 5 !^ ^ 1 -4i a a from 

them [lit. f/iese fwo], they learned that by which they could cause 
discord between man and wife 2 companion, mate (39:6) I> 
l^a-jj V+j-a J*^- fj |Vj a^j created you from a single soul, then 
from it He made its mate 3 two, one of a pair, a pair able 
individual (6:143) jjuil j^J J>j u^l jl^all 't> pljj eight 
members of pairs [pairable animals]: two of the sheep and two of 
the goats 4 type, kind, variety (22:5) I^jJc- UTja lila s>U o^j^ 1 ts'jO 
fjj ^ i> ^"^J ^jj ^J^ 1 vow perceive the earth lifeless, 
yet when We send down upon it water, it stirs and swells and puts 
forth [vegetation] of every joyous kind. 

J /j/j z-w-d provisions, to take provisions for a journey, food. Of this 
root, two forms occur once each in the Qur'an: I jijjj tazawwadu 
and i j zad. 

Ajjj tazawwad [imper. of v. V, intrans.] to take food and other 
provisions for a journey (2:197) <_sj^ /j^ Jp- 'ip I j^jjSj furnish 
yourselves with [the necessary] provisions: indeed, the best 
provision [to take with you in your journey to the Hereafter] is 



407 



being mindful of God. 

Jlj zdd [coll. n.] food provisions (in particular for a journey) 
(2:197) cs'j^ll jIjII jji s jli IjijJSj furnish yourselves with [the 
necessary] provisions-indeed, the best provision [to take with 
you in your journey to the Hereafter] is being mindful of God. 

j/j/J z-w-r whole, centre or upper part of the chest, cleavage; twist; 
leaning towards; paying a visit, visitor; perjuring oneself. Of this 
root, three forms occur six times in the Qur'an: zurtum once; 
jjIjj tazawar once and jjj zur four times. 

jtj zara u [v. trans.] to visit, to come to *(102:l-2) j2l£2ll 
jjlIJ Jijj jZ*. striving for more distracts you until you die [lit. 
visit the graves] . 

jjIjj tazzawar [imperf. of v. VI with pref. 2 elided, jjl'j22 
tatazawar, intrans. with prep, 'jc] to swerve away from, to 
bypass, to steer clear of, to veer away from (18:17) lil i/j2j 
jj^l cjli 'jc. jjl'jj Calk yo« comW see f/ze 5W, as rose, 
veering away from their cave towards the right. 

jjj zilr [n.] falsehood, perjury, false testimony (58:2) J^lj 
Ijjjj <Jj^' !> '*J^ oAj 5 ^ indeed they utter abominable (or, 
blameworthy) words and falsehood. 

J/j/j z-w-/ to disappear, to go away, to cease, to vanish; to abate, to 
calm down; to practise. Of this root, two forms occur four times 
in the Qur'an: J j zala three times and J jj zawal once. 

Jj zala u [v. intrans.] to disappear, to vanish, to collapse 
(35:41) 

iy A=J QA \ j] till j jjlj VjJ5 (jl LpO^'j pljAuJI i^jn'i j -ull j] 

»ij Go<f keeps/holds the heavens and earth lest they vanish; if 
they did vanish, no one else thereafter could keep/hold them. 

Jjj zawal [v. n.] vanishing, extinction, end, ending (14:44) JJj! 
Jjj 'qa J£l U. Jja '(> '^jwi! I jj jS2 die? vow nof swear before that there 
would be no ending for you? 

^/(i/j z-y-t oil, particularly olive oil, to oil, to anoint; olives, olive 
tree. Of this root, three forms occur seven times in the Qur'an: 



408 



CLuj zayt once; ^jji'j zaytunatun once and oi%"j zaytun five times. 

£«j zayf [n.] oil, olive oil (24:35) jU w<u 'jTj ^y'j 
its o?7 almost glows even when no fire touches it. 

OSnj zaytun [coll. n.] 1 olives (95:1) jiujJIj j^Jlj by the figs 
and the olives 2 olive trees (16:11) Jjajllj 'oJ%$'j ^jj 31 ^ ^ 
... LjUtVljWiYA Zf 7/e grows for you plants, olives, palms, vines ... 

zaytunatun [n.] an olive tree (24:35) Jja-S I> is J 
fj-rtj fuelled from a blessed olive tree. 

■Vts/J z-y-d to increase, to grow, to multiply, increase, growth. Of 
this root, five forms occur 62 times in the Qur'an: 'ij zada 49 
times; 'iijl 'izdada eight times; sijj ziyadatun twice; ijj* mazZii 
twice and zay<^ once. 

Jtj zada i I [v. intrans.] to increase, or to become more, in 
number, quantity, size (37:147) 'aAud °J ^ »^°J'j We senf 
him to a hundred thousand people or more II [v. trans.] to cause 
to increase, to strengthen (9:124) UUuj J^'ja I jiali 'jjill liU as for 
those who believe, it has strengthened them in faith. 

jbjj "izdada [v. VIII, intrans.] 1 to acquire an increase 
(12:65) l££ il^jjj we wZZZ Ziave the increase of a camel-load 2 
to increase in (48:4) ^» ' j^^l ^sUl Jji ^ill ji 

J^LJ //e Zf Zs w/io sent down tranquillity into the hearts of the 
believers, that they might increase in faith in addition to the faith 
they already possessed. 

SjLj ziyadatun [n./v. n.] an increase, an addition, an excess; 
increasing, adding (9:37) Jikll ^ s'ijj Ud postponement of 

sacred months is indeed an excess in unbelief. 

Jj>« mazid [v. n.] augmenting, increasing, being more, being 
extra (50:30) I> J* Jj2jj oj^I J* ^jj w/?ow f/ie day 

We shall say to Hell, 'Have you become full?' and it will say, 
'Are there any more?' 

Jjj Zayd [proper name] Zayd 3 ibn Harithah, the Prophet's 
freed slave, one of the scribes who made written records of the 
Revelation. The Prophet married Zayd, his adopted son, to 



409 



Zaynab, his own cousin, but Zayd later divorced her and the 
Prophet took her as his own wife. These verses show the marriage 
to have been lawful since adoption does not create blood relations 
that preclude marriage (33:37) V 'Jsi t^Ukjj IjLj \^u> jjj ^l^S Ilia 
I jJaj Jj^ia I'jlia lij f^jUc-'i jrljj jr'ja. 'jjiajiJI <^Ic. '(jjSj w/ie« Zayd 
had formally ended his marriage to her [lit. completed a purpose 
from her], We gave her to you in marriage-so that there might be 
no fault in believers marrying the ex-wives of their adopted sons 
after they no longer wanted them. 

£./t?/J z-y-gh to deviate, to turn aside, to swerve, to turn away. Of 
this root, three forms occur nine times in the Qur'an: j-lj zagha 
six times and zaygh once. 

£lj zagha i [v. intrans.] 1 to deviate, to turn away (61:5) &la 
J4jjS iiil g-l'j I jclj w/zew f/iey wewf astray, God led their hearts 
astray 2 to go wild, (of eyes) to fail to focus, to roll [with fear] 
(33:10) jaliaJI Ljjlill t^i^j jU-aiVI pfcl'j ilj w/iew f/ie eye* strayed 
[with fear], and hearts rose into the throats. 

£)J "azagha [v. IV, trans.] to cause to deviate, to cause to turn 
away (3:8) L2j'ja ij Iskj l£jB j- jj V luj our Lord, cause not our 
hearts to swerve after You have guided us. 

jjj zaygh [n.] deviation, perversity (3:7) jjj J^jjIS ^ 'jjill uli 
eliil Aia AjUis Li "ujiiua as /or those in whose hearts is 
perversity, they, desiring dissension, pursue the ambiguous in it 
[the Book]. 

J/ts/j z—y-l separation, sorting out, distinguishing between; 
disappearance. Two different verbs are classified under this root: 
Jj zala [imperf. Jljj yazalu which, with preceding negative 
particles U« or V, means 'still' or 'continuing to be'] and Jj zala 
[imperf. djiyazilu which means 'to sort out'] Jlj^Jlj zdla/yazalu 
occurs eight times in the Qur'an (six of which are with V) and two 
derivatives of the other form of the verb occur once each: U£j 
zayyalana and IjEjj tazayyalu. 

3ji V/Jj L» ma zala/la yazalu [sister of 'cJS q.v.] it does not 



410 



cease to, it is still, it remains, it continues (11:118) J*^ 1 its jJj 
'jjjjlkii 'jjll 'jj V j sV'j ^ o^l ^«<^ your Lord willed, He would have 
made humankind one nation, but they continue to be different; 

(21:15) OiVU- \\ ; aa JjkUIjik ^z. 'filjcJ iUj Cjllj £0, f/lflf C?iC? «Of 

cease to be their cry, until We made them like a mown field, 
silent. 

Jjj zayyala [v. II, intrans. with adverb 'Jjj bayna] to separate 
one from the other, to sort out, to make distinct (10:28) Uj&j Ijjj 
inUfi ja '^lil I jS^il 'jjjiil Jjii Ikj^. the Day We 

gather them all together, We will say to those who associate 
partners with God, '[Stay in] your place, you and your partner- 
gods!' Then We will separate them, the one from the other. 

Jjjj tazayyala [v. V, intrans.] to become separated, to be sorted 
out, to become distinct (48:25) U«J Uljc. 1 jj& oi-^ 'jfc? 'J 
had they been clearly separated, We would have chastised the 
disbelievers among them with a painful chastisement. 

ci/ts/j z-y-n to decorate, to ornament, to adorn. Of this root, four 
forms occur 46 times in the Qur'an: 'Jj'j zayyana 16 times; 'Jjj 
zuyyina 10 times; cjjjjl "izzayyanat once and zinatun 19 times. 

'6ij zayyana [v. II, trans.] 1 to adorn, to decorate (37:6) li'j 
L_iflj£ll J-ujj liftll iUU We have adorned the nearer sky with an 
adornment, the planets 2 to make seemingly fair, to make alluring 
(6:43) 'dJ^i ^ 'jUalill J4 1 and Satan made their [bad] 
deeds alluring to them. 

6i3> "izzayyana [an assimilated form of v. V 'Jj'jP tazayyana, 
intrans.] to adorn oneself, make oneself alluring (10:24) li) J**. 
CjjjjTj Ijijij Lpa'jS/l pjil wnft'/ f/ie earth has taken on her 
ornaments and adorned herself. 

AJjj zinatun [n.] 1 adornment (18:7) l+i Ajjj lPO^I ^ U uikk Uj 
We Ziave made all that is on the earth as an adornment for it; 
*(20:59) Ajjjll 'fJi the feast day [lit. the day of decoration] 2 
treasure, valuables, jewellery (20:87) ju j I> \'J'jJ UHk USTj 
we were laden with loads of the people 's jewellery 3 luxury 
and pomp (10:88) liftl! ^ Vlj^l'j abUfj 'jjeji ciuli iLj Ujj 



411 



Our Lord, You have given Pharaoh and his chiefs splendour and 
wealth in this worldly life. 



o*l sin 



C&A "al-sin the twelfth letter of the alphabet; it represents a 
voiceless dento-alveolar fricative sound. 

** sa- a particle prefixed to the imperfect, occurring 1 12 times in the 
Qur' an. It denotes the near future, as opposed to the distant future 
which is signified by particle <J>J>* sawfa. Some grammarians 
assert that particle - (sa-) denotes continuance in the future, 
rather than mere futurity, as can be deduced from verses like 
(2:142) IjjSc IjjIS (jjll ^jL| 'jc. JJkVj U« (jAill t> il^JI the 
weak-minded people will [continuously] say, 'What has turned 
them away from the prayer direction they used to face?' 

j jaLA 'al-Samiriyy (see J?/o» s-m-r). 

J/Vo" s-°-l asking, inquiring, requesting, quest. Of this root, nine 
forms occur 127 times in the Qur' an: s&dla 85 times; JjL. 
su"ila 19 times; jjtliJ tasa^alun nine times; J>« sw7 once; J>- 
sw'aZ once; Jjt— sfl 3 ?'/ four times; jJjlu. sa'ilfn three times; JjjI^ 
mas^iil four times and jjl mas 'ulun once. 

jtu< sa°ala a I [v. trans.; imper. JLl •'iVa/ and sa/; pass. v. 
Jj1« su^ila] 1 to ask (29:63) f U«U 't> Jjj °i> J^t* 'jjTj a«<i j/yow 
asfc them, 'Who sends water down from the sky ' 2 to question, to 
interrogate (21:63) uj^M 1 °oj ^ ("Ajm* ^ /ze sa/J, 

Wo, /? was f/i/s greaf one o/ them that did it— question them, if 
they can talk' 3 [with prep, jc] a) to inquire after, to seek 
information of (33:20) i> "oj^ seeking news of you b) to 
query, to seek clarification (18:76) °jc dUlL y Jl 

/ie sa/<f, 'If I query anything after it [this], do not keep 



413 



company with me' c) to seek advice, to seek guidance (2:219) 
jJxA\'j J^A\ jc. ^IjjiLj they ask you [Prophet] about intoxicants 
and gambling d) to be taken to task, to be called to account 
(16:93) uj^" ^ jlLulj you will certainly be called to account 
for your deeds; *(21:23) J*^ &c. V He is His own master [lit. 
He is not called to account for what He does]; *(2:1 19) jc. jt^ Vj 
^^Jl i_AllJ [Prophet [ You will not be responsible for [lit. 
questioned about] the inhabitants of the Blaze; *(28:78) jc. Jlli Vj 
"jjljklll J^jjj if « o/no flva/Z to question the sinners about their 
sins [lit. the sinners will not be questioned about their sins] 4 
[with prep, j] to demand, to urge (70:1) Jiu JjL, jL a man 
[mockingly [ demanded the coming of [the threatened] 
punishment II [doubly trans.] to ask someone for something, to 
beg (20:132) ^a'jjj jaj ISjj ^Utuu V We <fo nof asfc of you any 
provision; We provide for you. 

jjilui yatasa'lun [imperf. of v. VI; intrans.] 1 to question one 
another (18:19) '(4^ 1 jtllil °JbL£*j ^lliSj and thus We woke them, so 
that they question one another 2 to request things from one 
another (4:1) jjtluu ^ill <13l I jSjIj be mindful of God, in whose 
name you make requests of one another. 

J>- su°l [n./v. n.] request (20:36) ^J&i ^yj ja /fe 
sai<f, 'You have been granted your request, Moses. ' 

Jl>m su°dl [v. n.] asking for, demanding (38:24) J>^ i^LUi jii 
Ji\ av.i /ie wronged you by demanding your ewe [ to be 
added] to his ewes. 

JjU sd 3 il [n./act. part.] 1 beggar (70:25) ^j'j^ll j jalil /or 
beggar and the deprived 2 one who asks, one who seeks 
information or knowledge (12:7) jJjllill CjUli aj^Ij *— ^ jl£ '^1 
in Joseph and his brothers, there are lessons for those who seek 
them 3 one who demands or requests (70:1) JjL- jL a 

man [mockingly [ demanded the coming of [the threatened] 
punishment. 

Jjiuw mas'ul [pass, part.] 1 one who is questioned, 
interrogated (37:24) jjl jjI^ °44 J«* j^j o«<5? f/iem, /or f/iey are 
to be questioned 2 [something] exacted, honoured; to be 



accounted for, to be answered for (33:15) V JjS '<> AilU Jx&c I JS. 
Vjl^ Aiil ^ jUjS/I 'jjTJ yef f/iey /ia<f previously made an 
agreement with God that they would not turn tail and flee, and an 
agreement with God shall be exacted. 

?Mo» s-°-m to be averse, to be weary, bored, to be fed up, to be 
disdainful; to tire. Of this root, only f Ly yas'am occurs three 
times in the Qur' an. 

ftuii yas'am [imperf. of v. 'f^ sa'ima, intrans.] 1 to become 
weary, to tire (41:49) jjaJI ?Vc.j '(> 'jlluVI V man never tires of 
praying for good things 2 to disdain, to be averse to; to neglect, to 
be lazy (2:282) IjjjS 'J\ Tjj*^. y IjXj Vj tfo raof disdain to 
write it [the debt] down, be it small or large. 

saba :y [n. occurring twice in the Qur' an] The Qur' an speaks of 
Sheba as an affluent community blessed with gardens rich with 
fruits of all kinds and extending all over their land, bearing 
witness to God's abundant grace to them, but instead of thanking 
Him, as they had been commanded, they turned away from Him. 
In retribution He unleashed upon them the great inundation, 
destroying their dam, withdrawing His grace and turning their 
land into one producing only stunted thorny trees. Sheba (34:15) 
JUuij jj^ 'jc. jljjk aJi's. ^jCno (ji 'jal there was for [ the people 

of] Sheba, in their dwelling place, a sign-two gardens extending 
to the right and to the left. The Qur' an also speaks of the Queen 
of Sheba, describing in 24 verses (27:20-44) her encounter with 
Solomon and showing her as a ruler of great wisdom, absolutely 
trusted by the male chieftains and warriors of her own people, 
who deferred to her ability to make decisions for the community 
at times of peril . . . The correspondence with Solomon, which the 
Qur' an details, shows the Queen of Sheba as a diplomat of great 
skill and foresight; * L-> name of Sura 34, Meccan sura, so-named 
because of the mention in verses 15-21 of the story of the people 
of 'Sheba' . 



^/^/o* s-b-b reason; ladder, connection, rope; to revile; severance. 



415 



Of this root, three forms occur 11 times in the Qur'an: Liu. sabba 
twice, <_ul«, sabab five times and uU "asbab four times. 

Lvui saZ^a u [v., trans.] to revile, to abuse (6:108) 'jjill I Vj 
Jji^ Ijjc <J1I I jSoua Ail! jji '(> "oj^'jj do not revile the [deities] they 

[the disbelievers] call on beside God, lest they in 

hostility/revenge revile God without knowledge. 

ljIuj sabab [n.; pi. JjJ ^asbab\ 1 rope, ladder (22:15) I> 

(Ja pallia ^K'qjl fi Lalal l L-UxaJ ^.la^ia e^p-V'j Ijj^ll oj.^i'n ^ji (jl 

ikuu U aiS lH*^ w/zoever thinks that God will not grant him 
assistance/aid/victory in this world and the next, let him stretch a 
rope/ladder up to the sky, [ then climb all the way up [ then let him 
sever [it], then let him see whether his guile does away with what 
enrages [him[ 2 means by which things may be accomplished, a 
way (18:84) Ul* jk ;> Jbiilij o±}i\ J* <! t&« Uj We established 
him in the land, and gave him of everything a way/some means 
[to achieve them]; *(2:166) LAI^S/I CaJaSj all bonds between 
them became severed (or, they became completely lost). 

d[i^[QM s-b-t resting, keeping the Sabbath. Of this root, three forms 
occur nine times in the Qur'an: CjS4^yasbitun once; cILA "al-sabt 
six times and cjUL subat twice. 

(•jjjjLj yasbitun [imperf. of. v. sabata., intrans.] to come 
into the Sabbath day, to keep the Sabbath (7:163) '{J* '^-^ f^yti ij 

how their fish came visibly to them 
on their Sabbath day, but on the day when they did not have the 
Sabbath they did not come. 

cl^A "al-sabt [n.] the Sabbath (4:154) J Ijiki V do not 
break the Sabbath. 

&lLi subat [v. n.] resting (25:47) ^sllj HO Jjlll ^ J*^ l^I j*j 
UjL. //e it is who made the night a covering for you, and sleep as 
rest. 

^/lj/^ s-b-h to swim, to cover a long distance; to spread or disperse 
in the land, to dig or burrow in the earth; to be active, to toil; to be 
free, to declare as free from impurity. Of this root, five forms 



416 



occur 89 times in the Qur'an: jj^y yasbahun twice; ^ sabbaha 
42 times; J^x^ subhan 41 times; ^Ll, tasbih twice and 
musabbihun twice. 

£j3uLj yasbahun [imperf. of v. sabaha, intrans.] to trail or 
pass along, to trail in space (36:40) Vj j^ill «JlJj3 j 1^1 V 
'j^kiiy cilia JSj jljjll JjJll ;Y is not for the sun to overtake the 
moon, nor can the night outrun the day-each passes along in an 
orbit. 

jjIm sabbaha [v. II, trans.] 1 to declare to be free of every 
imperfection, impurity, or of everything derogatory; to glorify, to 
exalt God alone above whatever is imparted to Him, to glorify 
Him (7:206) (jj^V"'j *^j"v""jj i^'^^f- 0° ujj. 1 ^"'" 1 .! tj! 
f/iose wfto are vv/f/i your Lord do not disdain Him— they glorify 
Him and to Him they prostrate themselves 2 [also with no obj.] to 
sing the praise of, or to worship [God] (19:11) j> <«jS JSs. ^'jai 
liic j s'jSj I jkJL, 'jl J^jlJ (jkjls jk-»ll /ie came out of the sanctuary to 
his people, and signalled to them— 'Worship [God] morning and 
evening'; *(68:28) '<jJ=ZLz Vjj '{SI JS1 "f» ji^'J wisest of them 

said, 'Did I not say to you, "Will you not glorify God?'" [in other 
interpretations: 'will you not submit [the affair] to the will of 
God?!', or, 'will you not section off [a share for the poor]?!'] 3 
[with so-called 'redundant' prep, li (J jjIjII to be 

constant at glorifying God, to wholly submit to His command 
(64:1) tj tsA'JZJ ,ji U All j4uy everything that is in the 

heavens and Earth glorifies God, [stands as signs of His glory] 4 
[with prep, j] to be constant in the praise of (39:75) J^jj 6j=4^ 
they are constant in the praise of their Lord 4 to serve/glorify 
(20:33) IjjjS iA\X«\ 'Js so that we can serve/glorify You much. 

Uj^ sabhan I [n./v. n.] range, scope; opportunity for action; 
toiling, work (73:7) XjL jl^ll ^ y in the day-time, you 
have an opportunity for toiling II [v. n.] (act of) swimming; 
floating; sailing; gliding; fast running, sweeping ahead (79:3) 
ptajlUlj and the ones sweeping ahead at full speed. 

cjUjtm sabihat [ pi. of fem. act. part. sabihatun] ones who 
swim, swimmers; floaters; gliders; fast running horses (79:3) 



417 



pUajUJIj and the ones sweeping ahead at full speed. 

^UjL subhana [v. n., always in construct (Sit^4), with a 
nominal item denoting God, used interjectionally] 1 praise and 
glory be to ...! (17:1) ^] fljaJ i> ^ ?iuu ls'J^ ls.-^' 6^4^ 

LS ^=ii\ gfory £>e to to Him who made His servant travel by 

night from the Sacred Mosque to the Furthest Mosque 2 
[interjection with prep. 'jc. (in contexts where unfitting attributes 
are associated with God)] may He be exalted above [such a 
thing]! (6:100) 'oJh-^i ^f- oik ^ 1 jSj^j a«<i 

they attribute/invent sons and daughters to Him without any true 
knowledge-far and exalted is He above that by which they 
describe [Him]! 

jtu^j tasblh I [n./v. n.] praising, exalting, worship (17:44) 'jSTj 
oJt^ Y though you do not understand their [all beings] 
praise/praising/worship II [n.] supererogatory prayer (24:41) js J£ 
V-.j)'in"ij Aj^L^. fo/y each He knows its prayer and glorification 
[also interpreted as: every creature knows their own prayer and 
glorification]. 

a jV'' ' ««\ ) ' al-musabbihun [pi. of act. part, musabbih] those who 
praise God, the pious (37:143) qrv^ti j> 'j^ *i ^«<5? not 
been one of those who glorified God. 

Llluii 'asbat [borrowing from Hebrew occurring five times in the 
Qur'an] tribes of the children of Israel (7:160) O-^ 

IkUli and We cut them up into twelve tribes, [distinct] 
communities. 

^j^/a* s-b- c number seven, to make up a group of seven, to be the 
seventh; animals and birds of prey (this meaning is said to be 
derived from seven, which is considered a perfect and powerful 
number). Of this root, three forms occur 28 times in the Qur'an: 
£H sab c 24 times; oj*^ sab c un three times and sabu c once. 

qui sab c [card, no.] seven (69:7) JU1 WjL^ He 

mustered it against them for seven nights. 

aj»MM sab c un [card, no.] 1 seventy (69:32) 'dyu^ J* 



418 



; jiLola lil'jj awo* ro/Z /w'm in a chain [ the measurement of which is ] 
seventy cubits 2 countless times, innumerable times (9:80) °Jil£ y 
•41 jiiu '(jla s'j^ 'jjaulu even // yew as/c forgiveness for them 
seventy times, God will not forgive them [ no matter how many 
times you may ask]. 

'al-sabu [coll. n.] wild beasts, animals and birds of prey 
(5:3) ... VI ^jUI JSI t«j ... ; ^ll ciL«'jk forbidden to you 

[for food] are dead un- slaughtered animals [...] and what has 
been savaged by a beast of prey, save that which you [yourselves] 
have managed to slaughter while it was still alive. 

^j^/a* s-b-gh to be ample, complete, abundant; (of garments and 
attire) to be long and overflowing; ease of living. Of this root, two 
forms occur once each in the Qur'an: "asbagha and cliJ^ 
sabighat. 

jjU 'asbagha [v. IV, trans.] to bestow generously and 
abundantly, to lavish (31:20) SjAli gj'j and He 

has lavished on you His bounties, apparent and hidden. 

cjUuLu sabighat [pi. of fem. n. <±J^> sabighatun] full-length coat 
of mail (34:11) iJLJI ^ 'J£j pUull. Jac.1 J [saying, to him] 'Make 
full-length coats of mail, and measure well the links. ' 

j/lj/jjj s-b-q being ahead, in front, outpacing, outstripping. Of this 
root, six forms occur 37 times in the Qur'an: sabaqa 
twice; £nJ "istabaqa five times; jji* sabq once; ijjLu. sabiq eight 
times and masbuq twice. 

Jj*- sabaqa i I [v. intrans.] 1 to go past, to go before (20:99) 
(jLo 'aa U f Ujl '(j* lil^ iw way We relate to you 

[Prophet] stories of what went on before; *(8:68) <M "(> Litis Vjl 
^ /z<3 J 1/ no? been for a decree from God that had already 
been issued; *(11:40) JjSlI £L> '<> VI except those against 
whom the sentence has already been passed [lit. the word has 
passed against them] II [v. trans.] 1 to do something before 
others (7:80) oj^jJI J> j»I 1> 4? f££u«« U ^J^Ull 'j_£o /iow can you 
practise the obscenity which not one community before you has 



419 



ever committed? 2 to outrace, to outstrip, to beat someone to 
(46:11) Ajlj Ujalu, L rj>i. 'jl I jioli 'tjjjil I j'jiS 'jjill Jlij and those 
who disbelieve say, concerning the believers, 'If it [the new faith] 
were good, they [the believers] would not have beaten us to 
[embracing] it' 3 [with no obj.] to go beyond reach, to be ahead, 
to outstrip, to win (8:59) I I Jj£> 'jjill I>^j Vj disbelievers 
should not think they have won. 

IjLLa sabiqu [imper. v. Ill, intrans.] to vie or race with one 
another (57:21) J^j |> s'jiiSi I vie for forgiveness from your 
Lord. 

"istabaqa [v. VIII, trans.] to race for, to compete for 
(12:25) UjUj an<i f/iey raced for the door. 

&*sabq [v. n., used adverbially for intensification] getting 
ahead of others, outracing, overtaking (79:4) cjtfiUli 
overtaking swiftly. 

JjLuj sabiq [act. part.] one who precedes or gets ahead of others 
in a race, outstripping (35:32) aIII jib pljjiAj and of 

them some are outstripping [others] in good deeds, by God's 
leave. 

Jjj**» masbuq [pass, part.] one who is outstripped, overtaken, 
outdone, outrun; one who is stopped, prevented (56:60) UjJi t>j 
LTj c/^l We ordained death among you, and we 
are not to be outrun [also: stopped]. 

J/lj/^ s-b-l road, highway; cause; (of rain) to fall down in heavy 
showers, (of clothes) to be down to the ankles; (of wheat) to put 
forth its ears. Of this root, two forms occur 170 times in the 
Qur'an: tSiL>sabll 160 times and JLi subul 10 times. 

Jjfw sabll [n., pi. JjL. subul] 1 highway, road (15:76) lW-J Wfj 
fgu indeed they [the towns of the people of Lot and Midian] are 
on a highway remaining [till now]; *(2:177) JjjUI J$ the 
traveller/wayfarer; *(9:5) °(4W" Ijlii sef f/iem /ree [lit. release 
their way]; *(4:34) ^ ^en Jo «of acf against them 

in any way; *(4:88) ^Lui« j»j 'Ja you will never find for him a 
way out; *(29:29) JjjUI 'uj^=£ yew way/ay travellers [lit. yaw cwf 



420 



off the highway]; *(40:11) ^Uu* <M J*^ God gives them 
another way out 2 cause (61:11) '^S^i'j '^I'^L Jjj^ 
and you struggle for His cause with your possessions and your 
persons; *(42:42) Jjiill ^j^jki 'jjill ^ JjiLJI Uuj f/iere is cause to 
act only against those who oppress people 3 [with the definite 
article] the right path, the power of reasoning, the ability to 
discriminate between good and evil, the way to God (76:3) U] 
IjjiS Cal'j I'jSLS ll] JjaLJI We guided him to the [right] way; then he 
is either thankful or ungrateful 4 way of this life (80:20) JjjUI p 
i j^ghen He [God] enabled him to find a way. 

CijdjQM s-t-t as a result of a regressive assimilation between the 
sounds j Idl and <j" I si the cardinal number Ciu. (six) and its 
derivatives are traditionally classified under root Cj/cj/<_>« s-f-f 
instead of root oVY^ s-d-s. Of this root, two forms occur eight 
times in the Qur'an: £±* sitt seven times and sz'ffm once. 

Cu* sto [card, num.] six (50:38) U4«j Uj !>ajVlj pl'jaUl GsL jSTj 
Ulu- Uj ? a ^^We created the heavens, and the earth, 
and that in between them in six Days, and no weariness touched 
Us. 

sittin [card, no.] sixty (58:4) 1 n5' «« fUili ^ ^ 
and anyone unable to do this should feed sixty needy persons. 

j/Ci/oi s-t-r to cover, to conceal, to hide; to take cover; veil, 
covering. Of this root, three forms occur once each in the 
Qur'an: ojj?^ tastatirun; J^sitr and jj^mastur. 

JlLu tastatir [imperf. of v. VIII] to cover oneself, to hide 
oneself (41:22) °=£j JL Vj '^.'Jlal Vj j^Ju °jl 'jjj?i^ j>jj£ U>j 

yef yow <i/<i «of fry to /yowr ^«<i actions] lest your ears, your 
eyes and your skin testify against you. 

Ji** sitr [v. n./n.] covering, veiling, sheltering; veil, shelter 
(18:90) Iji-" fejj 'jt« f>*J ^ fjS ^11=2 (j n'o i *! ! lij 
wnri/ /ie reached [ the time/place of] sunrise, he found that it rises 
on a people for whom We had not provided shelter from it. 

jjjLw mastur [pass, part.] hidden, invisible (some 



J/£/<J" 



421 



grammatically-orientated commentators consider the passive 
participle here in this context to convey the meaning of the active 
one jl^ saf/r) (17:45) ujVjj V 'jjill 'j^j ^ Uk?. 'jlijSJI ^IjS lilj 
IjjjIw Oka. s'ji-Vlj w/ien yaw recite the Qur'an, We place between 
you and those who do not believe in the life to come a hidden 
barrier (or, a covering). 

j/jt/ch s-j-d prostrating with the forehead touching the ground; 
submission; adoration; worship. Of this root, eight forms occur 90 
times in the Qur'an: ^ sajada 35 times; j_>?1. (1) sujud four 
times; JaL« sajid once; jj.ia.ll. sajidun 11 times; all. sujjad 11 
times; j jkL (2) sw/wif twice; masjid 22 times and 

masdjid six times. 

j^uj sajada u [v. intrans] 1 to prostrate oneself or bow down in 
humility (17:61) ^ftl I jikU <ffiO US ilj We said to the 

angels, 'Bow down before Adam' 2 [jur.] to prostrate oneself as 
part of the prescribed prayers (4:102) '^Ijj I> I jj jS^ia I jiklu lli a«<i 
f/iey /iav<? completed their prostration, let them fall to the 
rear behind you 3 to submit and accept the Faith (84:21) Lsja lijj 
jjikly V 'jlijall when the Qur'an is read to them, they do not 
accept [lit. prostrate themselves] 4 to prostrate oneself in 
adoration and worship (7:206) jc 'qj'j&Zm V ^ jjill jj 
'jjik-y ^j^4^?j f/iose w/io are w/fA yowr Lonf do not disdain 
from worshipping Him— they glorify Him and to Him they 
prostrate themselves 5 to follow the order set by God for the 
Universe (55:6) 'Js^'j 'f^j the plants and the trees 

prostrate (or, fall into the Grand Design). 

jjaL (1) sujud [v. n./n.] prostrating, prostration (48:29) ^ 
j jkLlI Jil '(> jkj f/ie/r mar/c is on their faces from the traces of 
prostration/prostrating. 

sajid [act. part./n.; pi. Al« sujjad; jjV1> (2) sw/w<f and 
jjjja.U sajidun] 1 one who prostrates himself (7: 1 1) i^uLj V] I jikli 
'jj.ja.HJI 't> 'jSj ?/zey /e/Z prostrate, all save for iblis-he was 
not one of those who prostrated; *(9: 1 12) jjj-VI jjiaO jjiSljll 
jiilll jc. jjAUll j <_s j'J«^11j f/iose who never fail to perform the 
prayers [lit. in bowing, prostrating themselves] and those who 



422 



enjoin goodness and forbid evil; *(39:9) liaL« JjIII *UI* c^li J* '<> 
Mifj /j'wit consider] the one who spends the night in devotion, 
[prostrating himself and standing] in constant prayer 2 one 
humbling himself, one submitting (7:120) 'oi^^ s'jkUl ^ifj 50 ?&e 
sorcerers fell down in complete submission. 

sujjad [intens. act. part.; pi. of sajid] prostrating in 
worship, humility or out of respect (7:161) \%^> LjUII I jk'ij awe? 
enter f/ie gate humbly; *(22:26) Pj^iJ g^jll constant worshippers 
[lit. f/zose w/io bow and prostrate themselves] . 

V masjid [n. of place.; pi. masajid] 1 mosque (9:108) 
*A ' ? jsj 'J Jkl ^ JTjl '(> ^'j^ll ^ lal^l 1*4 ^ *f£ V never stone? 
in it; a mosque founded on consciousness of God from the first 
day is more fitting a place for you to worship in [it]; *(17:1) 
J'jkJI .iV i n'J toe Sacred Mosque in Mecca; *(17:1) <^-asSn W. ^1 1 toe 
furthest place of worship, in Jerusalem 2 place of worship (18:21) 
lialw "(jjijjl ^ I jilc "(jjill Jli said toose w/io had control 
over their affairs, 'We shall build over them a place of worship. ' 

* SjaUl name of Sura 32, Meccan sura, so-named because of 
the reference in verse 15 to the believers' 'falling down' in 
worship when the Divine messages are recited to them. This sura 
should be distinguished from Sura 41 which is called sj^UI or 

or (see ^ ha mim and Jod^f-s-l). 

j/jr/o" s-j-r to fill, to flow, to overflow; to stretch, to elongate; to set 
on fire, fuel. Of this root, three forms occur once each in the 
Qur'an: ojj^Ayusjarun; ciJ^L, sujjirat and masjur. 

Cijjz^j yusjariin [imperf. of pass. v. jal> sujira] to be stuffed, 
to be packed in, to be thrust (40:72) J-^ ij P f* ^ ij into 

scalding water, and then into the Fire, they are thrust. 

jkli sujjir [pass, of v. II] to be filled to the point of 
overflowing; to be set on fire (81:6) ojaii jl^JI lijj w/ie« toe seas 
over (or, w/zen f/iey are se? on fire, or, w/ien f/iey are joined 
together in one overflowing mass). 

jjzLjia masjur [pass, part.] the one which is filled, the one 



423 



which is set on fire (52:6) jjal^l J*2\'j and by the ocean 
ever-filled. 

J/^/o" s—j—l the commentators and philologists who derive the two 
words lW- sijill and JjLu sijjil from this root base their judgement 
on the semantic connection they see between these two words and 
the basic concepts associated with this root. These include: great 
buckets full to the brim with water, the amount of water contained 
in large buckets, large buckets at the mouth of a well; turn-taking 
in a duet and handling, in a relay (hence the meaning of dialogue, 
record, recording etc.). Others consider the two words as 
borrowings into pre-Islamic Arab times: lW- sijill from Ethiopic 
and JjW- sijjil from Persian. Recent scholarship, however, 
suggests a Greek origin, through Syriac, for JW-- sijill. In the 
Quran J^JI "al-sijill occurs once while JjW- sijjil occurs three 
times. 

Jaj^ sijill [n.] scribe, overseer of records; written scroll 
(21:104) Jstt "J^ iUiJ ijj^ 'fy, on the Day, We roll up the 
skies the way a scribe rolls up scrolls (or, the way a folded up 
scroll rolls up/enfolds [its] writings). 

JAj^ sijjil [n.] baked clay (15:74) i> tfjMj and 

We rained on them stones of baked clay. 

ci/^/o 1 s-j-n prison, imprisonment, confinement, detention. 
Philologists who derive the Qur'anic word sijjin from this 
root suggest 'containment' as the semantic link between the two, 
but it has also been suggested that it could be a borrowing from 
Latin 'insignia', the Roman emperor's stamp which used to be 
affixed to important records. Also it has been suggested that this 
root was borrowed from Persian or Ethiopic. Of this root, five 
forms occur 12 times in the Qur'an: jkl^ yasjun once; Cj^A 
yusjan twice; o±> j^U masjunin once; ci**> sijn six times and ci*+* 
sijjin twice. 

Cx^yasjun [imperf. of v. trans.; pass. v. yusjan] to 

imprison, to detain (12:35) Co*. JZ*. VnV.njl Iji'j U &o '<> J4 1 ^ P 
but it occurred to them, [even] after seeing the evidence [for his 



424 



innocence], that they should imprison him for a while. 

masjunin [pi. of pas. part, masjiin] one imprisoned 
(26:29) 'jjjjkl^l 'q* ^WA V lsj^ 6^ if you take any god 

other than me, I will make you among the prisoners. 

C&&» sijjin [n.] a written record enumerating the bad deeds of 
the wicked (83:7-9) " ? jsj- Lik jjku. U jj Uj jJLu. ^ jtkill y 
f/ie to o/ f/ie wicked is in Sijjin, what will explain to you what 
Sijjin is? -a clearly numbered list. 

tg/G./o" s-j-y (of the night) to become silent, quiet or still, to calm 
down, to become tranquil, placid. Of this root, only saja 
occurs once in the Qur'an. 

Lf ^ saja u [v. intrans.] to be quiet, to be still, to be tranquil, to 
be serene (93:2) J±L* lij JjMj and by the night, when it grows still. 

"/c/^ s -h-b to drag, to pull along the ground, to trail; cloud, cover, 
film. Of this root, two forms occur 11 times in the Qur'an: 
yushabun twice and sahab nine times. 

^jjaLj yushabun [pass, imperf. of v. trans. Lski« sahaba] to be 
pulled, to be dragged (54:48) J*.j jbll ^ 'dJp^A 'fji on the 
Day when they are dragged through Hell on their faces. 

ljU^ sahab [collec. n.] clouds (7:57) iiisL VIS OH« cM lij j^. 
iUll <j Uljj'ii clU il wnri/ when they [the winds] bear heavy clouds, 
We drive them to a dead land, and send down water. 

Cij^lo* s-h-t to eradicate, to scrape off; unlawful gain, illicit earning. 
Of this root, two forms occur four times in the Qur'an: >'^'nj 
yushit once and cJ^L, suht three times. 

Qai i m yushit [imperf. of v. IV, trans.] to eradicate, to destroy 
completely (20:61) <-jISu ^V . nft IjoS aIII I j'jjsj V Jo nof invent 
lies against God, lest He obliterate you with punishment. 

cjklj suht [n.] illicitly gained money, ill-gotten property (5:42) 
<'<■*' «\\ jjllSI t-iiSll 'jjcllu. eagerly listening to falsehood and 
greedily consuming ill-gotten gains. 



425 



-VcAo 1 s -h- r to be turned from one's course of action; to fascinate, to 
enchant, magic, sorcery, conjuring, works of magic; the last third 
of the night, time just before the breaking of dawn; lungs, 
stomach, food and drink; nourishment. sihr, magic, is 

considered by some scholars to be a borrowing from either 
Akkadian or Aramaic. Of this root, 14 forms occur 63 times in the 
Qur'an: sahara twice; jjjkU tusharun once; J=~» sihr 27 
times; J J=>*» sihran once; jaiu. sahir 12 times; jl j^U sahiran 
once; ujj^^ sahirun once; saharatun eight times; 

sahhar once; jj^l^ mashur three times; mashurun once; 

musahharin twice; sahar once and jUIJ 3 ashar twice. 

sahara u [v. trans., pass, v, tushar] 1 to enchant, to 
bewitch (7:132) jji°>«j ^ j^-i ^ U'j^lul juli j* <j UjIj 
whatever spell you bring to us to bewitch us with, we will not 
believe in you 2 to be deceived, deluded (23:89) j/j^l^ lA* then 
how can you be so deluded?! 

jau^sihr [n./v. n.] 1 sorcery, witchcraft, magic (2:102) b^j 
'jslJI '^liil 'jj^Eu IjjiS 'jJaliill if was the devils who disobeyed, 
teaching people witchcraft 2 work of sorcery or magic, spells 
(7:116) jW-j I jjajS^Ij ^Ull jiLI I jj^- they cast a spell 
on the eyes of the people and endeavoured to frighten them and 
brought about a great work of sorcery 3 enchanting, bewitching 
(20:66) (jil^i til J=a I> ^Jj l&h 'c'iX' n T- j °j4^ 'jp to and 
behold, through their sorcery their ropes and staffs were made to 
appear to him to be moving. 

jalm sahir [act. part./n. ; dual jl sahiran; pi. s j^-u. 
saharatun] 1 sorcerer, magician, enchanter (20:63) jlj^HJ jlii jl 
Ua Jv-^ f4^'j i> ?^kj=4 °J lAlh f/iese fwo are sorcerers who 
desire to drive you out of your land with their sorcery 2 learned 
person (in an interpretation of verse 43:49) ^Ej bi gol jaAUl t«jfc 
'jji^ ^jj learned man/sorcerer, call on your Lord for us, 

according to His covenant-we will certainly accept guidance. 

sahhar [intens. act. part.] master sorcerer (26:37) jL ^jjL 
^ to summon every accomplished sorcerer to you. 

jjalw mashur [pass, part.] bewitched (17:47) VI uj^ 2 j! 



426 



dido- 



Ijjklu* you are only following a man who is bewitched. 

i^J^Ja musahharin [pi. of pass. part, jk^l musahhar] 
completely bewitched; one who created with a stomach and lungs 
in order to eat, drink and breathe, i.e. a mere human being 
*(26:185) 'jjJkliJI 't> cJ Ud but they replied, 'You are bewitched' 
(or, only a human being) [lit. you are one created with stomach 
and other organs for eating and drinking]. 

sahar [n.; pi. jUlJ :, ashar] dawn, the time just before 
dawn, the small hours of the night (3:17) jLal»S/b 'qij&LZJ'j and 
those praying for forgiveness before dawn. 

(blzJo* s ~h-q to grind into fine dust; to be far off, to go very deeply. 
Of this root, two words occur once each in the Qur'an: 
suhqan and sahiq. 

UkL suhqan [v. n. used interjectionally] away with! (67:11) 
jj«Ul ulllaV likLa away with the inhabitants of the blazing Fire. 

Jja^ sahiq [quasi-act. part.] distant; faraway, very deep 
(22:31) cP^ Ji y?J\ J or the wind flings him in a 

faraway place. 

j' '->' ■ " { "ishaq (see alphabetically). 

J/^/o 1 s-h-l to scrape off, to strip off, to slice; to strike; shore of a 
sea or a great river. Of this root, only Ja.U sahil occurs once in the 
Qur'an. 

JaLu sahil [n.] shore, riverbank (20:39) (J?J!LAj Q\ Ai£Ja let the 
river/ sea [ the great waters] cast it on the bank. 

j/£/o" s-kh-r to force, to constrain, to be made subservient, to use as 
a subject of forced labour; to ridicule. Of this root, seven forms 
occur 42 times in the Qur'an: jilu sakhira 11 times; 
sakhkhara 22 times; ojj >' ^ "J yastaskhirun once; sakhirin 
once; sikhriyyan once; I3jii« sukhriyyan once and 

musakhkhar four times. 



427 



sakhira a [v. intrans. with prep. i>] to scorn, to ridicule 
(49:11) '(4v Ijja- IjjjSj y <^i»c- '(> 'jil^ V no people should 
jeer at others, lest they he better than them. 

'jLm sakhkhara [v. II, trans.] 1 to cause to be subservient 
(43:13) lift lii in (jill (j1">'iin I jl jijj ajIc JsjjjjIuI li] IjjSii so 

that you may remember the favour of your Lord when you are 
seated on them and say, 'Glory be to Him who has subjected this 
to us' 2 to make something of use to another (14:33) cPI J^J 'jil>j 
'J^ill j a«<i //<? ma<f<? f/ie night and day useful to you. 

^jj^j^j yastaskhiriin [imperf. of v. X, intrans.] to encourage 
one another to ridicule, to scorn, to act in a scornful way (37:14) 
'ujj 5'"'''"3 I'Jj l^jj ««<5? resort to ridicule when they see a sign. 

rjjijj sikhriyyan [nominalised v. n.] object of ridicule, 
laughing-stock (38:62-3) J jAl 't> J^jJu US VI?. j i/jj V Ul U I jSij 
jllfljVl ^4-^ Hatlj J»l Ijj^- 'pftUiaJ f/zey w/ZZ say, 'W/iy Jo we not see 
those we thought were bad and took as a laughing-stock?, could 
it be that our eyes have missed them?' 

GjiL sukhriyyan [nominalised v. n.] forced labour; servitude; 
labour force (43:32) ll^j ' ^' . nVi iiil plVjJ i3j* f^ 3 *) 
Ijjil. anj We raised some of them above others in rank, so that 
some of them may take others in servitude. 

jLuL» musakhkhar [pass, part.] 1 subjected, made subservient, 

compelled to work or serve (7:54) ,jL Clll^J-^i i n o ^J~> 'ill j ^J^allj (JJAu il lj 

the sun, the moon and the stars, all of which are made subservient 
by His order 2 sustained (16:79) ?UUl 'J*. J* cIj^U JAA\ \'JJi jj 
Aill VI ^ <io ?/zey «of /oofc f/ie &/nfs, sustained in the air of 

the sky, nothing holding them up except God? 

HtJo* s ~kh-t wrath, anger, displeasure. Of this root, three forms 
occur four times in the Qur'an: Jail sakhita twice; Jail! 'askhata 
once and Jail sakhat once. 

iaa^ sakhita a [v. intrans.] 1 to become angry, to condemn, to 
become wrathful (5:80) *f$e. Jail. 'J °4^l ^ so vile 

is what their souls have put forward for them that God has 
condemned them 2 to be dissatisfied, to grumble (9:58) IjJaVj y'j 



'j jkal^ °=a 13 Igi- Z?wf ?/ f/iey are not given [a share] of it, they 
become angry. 

JaiU "askhata [v. IV, intrans.] to cause to be angry, to incur 
wrath, to cause displeasure (47:28) *JJ^aj I j* jS j aJSI JaiU U. I jkil 
f/iey practised things that incurred God's wrath, and disdained to 
please Him. 

laLu, sakhat [n./v. n.] anger, wrath, rage, condemnation (3:162) 
<M Lalaj *G °(>S aIII Jj^=j t$ i>™ owe w/io pursues God's 

good pleasure like the one who has incurred God's wrath? 

j/u" s-d-d blocking, closing, plugging; to direct, to be to the point, 
to be correct. Of this root, three forms occur six times in the 
Qur'an: "i-. sadd three times; j/jUl "al-saddayn once and aoI* sadid 
twice. 

Am sadd [n./v. n.] blockage, dam, barrier; blocking (18:94) J*^ 
IjjjJ yow sef m/7 a barrier between us and them. 

"al-saddayn [dual of n. "i-. sa<i<f] the two dams, the two 
barriers (18:93) 'ua ^ ,;s ] unt ^ when he reached a place 
between two [ mountain ] barriers . . . 

jjiuj sadid [quasi-act. part.] apt, correct, straight, pertinent, to 
the point (33:70) I'^Ia YjS 1 jl jS'j aIII I jSil be mindful of God, speak in 
a direct fashion and to good purpose. 

J /o" s -d-r flowing down, continuing without interruption; lote 
tree. Of this root, only s jV> sidratun and jV s/dr occur twice each 
in the Qur' an. 

S Jiut sidratun [n.; collect n. jV> ^/<ir] lote tree (34:16) 'jA'ji 
JJ5 jV i> f I^Sj J» j JSI ara<i We replaced for them their two 
gardens with two others that yielded bitter fruit, tamarisk bushes 
and a few lote trees; *(53:14) s jV f/ze Lofe free marking the 
end of the road, the pinnacle Lote tree, the Lote tree of maximum 
limit, the Lote tree beyond which neither angel nor prophet may 
pass and which casts its shade over Paradise, this tree, said to be 
located either in the sixth or seventh Heaven, marks the point 



429 



beyond which progression, physical or abstract, cannot be made. 
At this tree the Prophet experienced, during his night ascension 
through the Heavens, visions beyond human comprehension. 

o*/i/o* s-d-s (see cJcJq* s-t-i) the number six is the basic concept 
associated with this root. Of this root, two forms occur five times 
in the Qur'an: o*±u> sudus four times and okjL« sddis twice. 

tn'i* sudus [n.] one sixth (4:11) 'o&A U4-^ c& £jH'j and to 
his parents, to each one of the two, the sixth [part]. 

(jajlui sddis [ord. no./act. part.] a sixth one; the one that makes 
five into six (58:7) '^jII. ja V) Vj «or are there five but He 
is their sixth (or, He makes them into six). 

<£-j/j/o» s-d-w/y to stretch the hands forward, to elongate, to stride, 
to do a favour to; to neglect, to cast something away. Of this root, 
only sudd occurs once in the Qur'an. 

jJum sudd [v. n. used adverbially] in vain, aimlessly, alone, 
neglected (75:36) <_s*-^ «C« '3 '■'"'v does man think he will 

be left alone [to his own devices, or, not taken to account]? 

v/jIo* s-r-b to seep in, to leak out, to flow out; an underground 
passage; to flock, a flock; to be blurred. Of this root, three forms 
occur four times in the Qur'an: U>« saraban once; Ju sarab 
twice and ljjLu. sarib once. 

h'j^ saraban [v. n. used adverbially] by stealth, furtively; 
tunnel-like (18:61) Ij>« <^ ^W" ^jp- they forgot 
their fish, which made its way into the sea furtively (or, dipping in 
the water). 

ljI sarab I [n.] mirage (24:39) Jju*. lJ'jIuS °4JLii I jjik 'jjillj 
f/ie deeds of those who disbelieve are like a mirage in a desert 
II [v. n. used as quasi-act. part./n.] moving, travelling (78:20) 
Oj^, Ciil£a JUaJI PjShj when the mountains are set in motion and 
become a moving object (or, and become like a mirage). 

Ljjtm sarib [act. part.] moving about openly; sallying; moving 
about in stealth; skulking (13:10) <> !>j JjSil jJ I> ^ 



430 



J/v/j/o- 



jl^ilb s-ijl^j lP^ j 'ja among you is he who conceals 

his words and he who speaks them openly, he who hides himself 
under cover of night, and he who sallies by day (or, he who 
appears by night and hides himself by day). 

J/'-h/j/o" s-r-b-l wrapping, garment, a coat of mail; to crumble Jl/>« 
sirbal is considered as an early borrowing from Persian. Of this 
root, only JjJ jl« sarabll occurs three times in the Qur'an. 

JjjIj*- sarabll [pi. of n. Jl/>« sirbal] attire of any kind, coat of 
mail (16:81) j>£iij d^j^j Jjj'j^ ^ ant/ He has 

appointed for you garments to protect you from the heat and 
garments [of armour] to protect you from your own might. 

^/j/o" s-r-j saddle, saddle making; lantern, to light up a lantern. 
g\j»> siraj is considered by some philologists to be a borrowing 
from Persian. Of this root, only ^1 siraj occurs four times in the 
Qur'an. 

siraj [n.] 1 lantern, lamp (71:16) Oj 3 
'qI^i and He set the moon in them for a light and He set the 
sun for a lamp 2 guidance (33:45-6) Ij^Lj I'jaU 'SjLJJ Uj ^ill l^llj 
I'jji l^Jj^j Uclij Ijjjjj Prophet, We have sent you as a 

witness, as a bearer of good news and warning, as one who calls 
people to God by His leave, as an illuminated lamp. 

Zhlo* s ~ r ~h to g° to pasture, to set free. Of this root, four forms 
occur seven times in the Qur'an: qj^-'J^ tasrahun once; ^'JJ 
"usarrih three times; U.I ji* sarahan twice and tasrih once. 

£)j*j^ tasrahun [imperf. of v. intrans.] to go out to pasture 
(16:6) 'jj^'jli 'jia.j 'dJ^iy J^. t^ji '^Slj and in them there is 
beauty for you when you bring them home [to rest] and when you 
drive them out [ to pasture [. 

£jui) 'usarrih [imperf. of v. II, trans.] to set free, to release, to 
grant a divorce to (33:28) 'j&iJ "jolUtja ^jjjjj Ij&I 'jjjj "juS 'J\ 
!>L^ Iklj^ "jjSk'j^lj if you desire the present life and its finery, then 
come, I will make provision for you and release you [from the 



j/j/O" 



431 



bondage of marriage] in an amicable way. 

Ut>* sarahan [v. n.] releasing, setting free (33:49) 
^LiA Ikl'jlu 'ji mafce provision for them and release them in 
an amicable way. 

jjjuu tasrih [v. n. of v. II] setting free, releasing (2:229) jpLkll 
jllkb Jtjjl^ 'j hjj*-^ u^j* divorce is [revocable only] 

twice, [ after which husbands are ] either to keep [ their wives ] in 
an acceptable manner or release [them] graciously. 

*/jIo* s-r-d to put things in a consecutive manner, relating in a 
sequence; to interweave; coat of mail, to make a coat of mail. It 
has been suggested, however, that the sense of 'coat of mail' is a 
borrowing from Persian. Of this root, only ij>* sard occurs once 
in the Qur'an. 

j>ui sard [n.; v. n.] links in a coat of mail; making links in a 
coat of mail (34:11) SjJi ^ 'j&j pUull. Jil j [saying to him,] 
'Make full-length coats of mail, and measure well the links. ' 

<j/ J /j/o" s-r-d-q tent and awning. It has been suggested that this 
root is a borrowing from Persian. Of this root, only jl. suradiq 
occurs once in the Qur'an. 

Jjljl* suradiq [n.] awning, tent, pavilion, a cover of smoke, 
dust or fire in the shape of a tent (18:29) J^j Llkl IjU jj^lUill Ujjc.1 Ul 
l^ii'jl. We Ziave prepared for the wrongdoers Fire whose pavilion 
will surround them from all sides. 

j/j/l>" s-r-r the inside, base (e.g. of the head or the navel), innermost 
part of an object; secrecy, secrets; seat, bed; pleasure, to please, to 
delight. Of this root, nine forms occur 44 times in the Qur'an: jLa 
tasurr once; 'jJ 'asarra 18 times; JJJ "israr twice; >« s/rr 11 
times; jjjL. swrwr once; jjj— masrur twice; jjI >« sara'ir once; 
pI jl» sarra 3 twice and jjL. swrwr six times. 

>*i tasurr [imperf. of v. II, trans.] to delight, to please, to 
make happy (2:69) 'jjjkUll S J^> l*jjl £|la *lj£-a s'jSj l^jl /? should be a 
bright yellow cow, that delights the onlookers. 



432 



[yd "asarra [v. IV, trans.] 1 to conceal, to keep as a secret 
(12:77) '£1 lAjjj JJj u^ji UjJi to Joseph kept it [secret] to 

himself and did not reveal it to them 2 to convey in secrecy, to tell 
in confidence (66:3) <Jj "jA '4 J an d when the 

Prophet told something in confidence to one of his wives; 
*(20:62) ls'j^I 'jj^ so they conferred secretly 3 to treasure, to 
hide (12:19) <cX^ ijjj'j pic. l& is'jt&i 'Good news! Here is a 
boy!, ' and they treasured him as merchandise 4 (possibly, 
according to an opposite meaning of 'JJ "asarr) to reveal, to 
declare, to manifest (10:54) LjISJI rj'j 111 ^.lil! I an<f they will 
be openly remorseful when they see the chastisement (or, 
according to the more popular interpretation, secretly). 

JJJi 'israr [v. n.] 1 concealing, conning, scheming (47:26) ^lli 
'fk'J'JjJ pkj <Mj J«Vl o^«j ,ji ^Skj^jla aIII Jjj U I jijS 'jjill I jlli j4jL f/iaf 
was so because they said to those who hate what God has sent 
down, 'We will obey you in some matters', but God knows their 
secret scheming 2 [adverbially] confidentially, secretly, privately 
(71:9) 1'J'JJ J4J cSJjJj j4J cPj p / have tried preaching 
to them in public and speaking to them in private. 

"jut sirr I [n.; pi. J jJ °asrdr] 1 secret (43:80) V ul ojf^H ^ 
jJUjaJj (>a>« Jo f/iey ?/iznA; We cannot hear their secret talk and 
their private counsel? 2 mystery (25:6) J» jUl ^ill Aljjl J5 
say 7f was sen? aoww by Him who knows the 
secrets/mystery of the heavens and earth' II [adverb.] in private, 
secretly, furtively (2:235) l>« I> j^ljS V 'jSTj £>wf Jo raof moie 
agreements with them secretly. 

jjju! surur [n.] pleasure, happiness (76:11) Ojj^j 
ana" He accorded them radiance and gladness. 

jjjLw masrur [pass, part.] well-pleased, rejoicing (84:9) 
4Ja! return to his people well-pleased. 

p\'JiA 3 al-sarrd^ [n.] (in opposition to f ljLill al-darra , q.v.) 
happy state of life, freedom from adversity, happiness (3:134) 'jjill 
'jjsii f/iose w/io g/ve oof/i in prosperity and 
adversity; *(7:95) *l>Jj liUli ^ js I jllij a«<i f/iey sa/J, 

'Hardship and affluence befell our forefathers' (or, ?&ey /za^ a 



<-j/j/LH 



433 



mixture of good and bad— they led a normal life). 

JJ^surur [pi. of n. jj>« sarir] couch, throne (43:34) U'jl '^yj^j 
'jjjSu l^Jc VJJmj and [would have made] for their houses gates [of 
silver], and couches upon which they recline. 

thl 'o* s-r- c speed, to hasten, fast, quick. Of this root, four forms 
occur 23 times in the Qur'an: £■ jL-y yusari nine times; £}j*> sari c 
10 times; lei sira c an twice and f^'jJ "asra c twice. 

^JjjLyusari c [imperf. of v. Ill, intrans. with prep. ^] to hasten, 
to speed up (23:56) pI'J^JI J* ^ jllu We hasten to them the good 
things. 

j-iy sarl c [quasi-act. part.] swift, prompt (13:41) ja'j 
t-jUioJI a«<i //<? « 5W?yi at reckoning. 

lei sira c an [pi. of quasi-act. part. sari , used 

adverbially] in haste (70:43) lel'j^ vLlikVl 't> 'jj^Ip^ f !*! on f/ie Day 
f/rey emerge from the graves in haste. 

£>4 n asra c [elat.] swifter/swiftest (6:62) 'jJi-O j*j and 
//e is the swiftest of all reckoners. 

"tyj/o" s-r-f to be heedless or negligent, to pass by or leave behind, 
to exceed all bounds, to be extravagant or immoderate. Of this 
root, three forms occur 23 times in the Qur'an: ufJJ "asrafa six 
times; <_il JJ °israf twice and jja>i musrifun 15 times. 

uijU "asrafa [v. IV, intrans.] to be extravagant, to go beyond 
the limit, to be wasteful (25:67) 'jl£j I jj55j JJj I ja>-4 I jiia lil 'jjillj 
ITal'ji aii and f/iose w/io, vv/ien f/iey spend, are neither wasteful 
nor stingy, but keep between these to a just balance; *(17:33) 't>j 
JjSII i_i JJi ^La ULkllo ajT^I Ulxa. tiaa H jDia Jj5 and w/iosoever w s/a/n 
unjustly-We have given a mandate to the custodian of his rights, 
so let him not be excessive in slaying, let him stay within the 
boundaries of the law. 

<_2I Ju 'israf [v. n.] exceeding the bounds, extravagance, lack 
of moderation (3:147) UjJ ^ WJJfj lijii Ul USj onr LorJ, 
forgive us our sins and extravagance in [conducting] [all of] our 



434 



affairs. 

£ja JuL musrifun [pi. of act. part. musrif] extravagant 

person, one who exceeds the limits in his actions (7:31) IjK'j 
'jj JjJJ Lau V <jj Ijj jIuj Vj I ji>SI j and eat and drink [ as We have 
permitted]-do not be excessive-God does not like excessive 
people. 

df/j/o 1 s-r-q to steal, pilfer and to take away by stealth. Of this root, 
four forms occur nine times in the Qur'an: jj" saraqa four times; 
jj£J "istaraqa once; jjU sang twice and j j5 jL« sariqun twice. 

saraqa i [v. trans.] to steal, to burgle (12:77) jjl^ y I jlli 
JjS 'j^a £i jjlu f/iey sa/<f, 7jf /ie steals, [there should be no 
surprise], for a brother of his stole before [him] [lit. they said, 'If 
he steals, then a brother of his stole before [him]]. ' 

JjjU "istaraqa [v. VIII, trans.] to endeavour to take away by 
stealth *(15:18) £«U j'j£J /ie w/io eavesdrops [lit. stea/s f/ze 
hearing] . 

jjLm sang I [n.] thief, burglar, filcher (5:38) A3 JUI j jjUlj 
U4ijj' ' j*-^ as /or f/ie fftie/; male a«<i female, cut off their hands 
II [act. part.; pi. oj»J~> sariqun] thieving, burglars (12:70) p 
'jjS jUJ J^jj £p> f/ien a cn'er called, 'People of the 

caravan! You are a thieving people! ' 

Yc/j/o 1 s-r-m-d to be continuous, to be incessant. Philologists 
consider this root a further derivation from root j/j/o" s—r-d 
(q.v.), but Penrice suggests that £t'J>* is 'apparently of mixed 
Persian and Arab origin.' Of this root, only li»>« sarmadan occurs 
twice the Qur' an. 

\±a'j*m sarmadan [adjectivally used.] continuing endlessly, 
perpetual (28:72) I> juUiill fJi I'ia'jlu 'J^ill <M Jkk y J4ji'J 
^ji 'jjjiSlil JoL J^ub Jil 'jjc aJ] say, 'Have you considered if God were 
to make daylight perpetual over you until the Day of 
Resurrection, who is the deity besides God that could bring you a 
night in which you rest?!' 



435 



ls/j/o 1 s-r-y to seep, (of liquids) to spread unobtrusively; to remove; 
to travel by night. Of this root, three forms occur eight times in 
the Qur'an: isy^. yasrl once; isjJ "asm six times and UjL. 
sariyyan once. 

^jLj yasrl [imperf. of v. intrans.] to seep, to spread, to travel 
by night (89:4) lil JP'j by the night when it passes 
through/runs its course. 

jJJi "asm [v. IV, intrans.] to travel by night; [with prep, j] to 
cause or enable to travel by night, to transport someone by night 
(17:1) »Suu ij'jJ (^ill "u 1 ^ Glory be to Him who made His 
servant travel by night. 

1j>- sariyyan [n./act. part.] running stream of water, rivulet (or 
person of note and importance [from the root j/j]o" s—r—w], as 
suggested by some commentators) (19:24) 'J ^Jpj VI 1*^2 I> UliUa 
t^jjkj du'j J*k to a voice cried to her from below, 'Do not 
sorrow (or, do not fret), your Lord has provided a stream (or, a 
person of consequence, that is the infant Jesus) under you.' 

* name of Sura 17, Meccan sura, so-named because of 

the mention in verse 1 of the 'night journey' of the Prophet. Also 
called JjjI j4 ^ (see JjjI>J 3 isra 3 iT). 

C/ia/o 1 s-t-h to be flat, flattened, to spread out, upper side. Of this 
root, only rkW , « sutihat occurs once in the Qur' an. 

jtiaL sutiha [pass, v.] to be made flat, to be flattened, to be 
spread out (88:20) rkW , « UuS ^jVI Jlj and [don't they see] how 
the earth has been spread out? 

j/ia/ou s-t-r row of trees, palm trees, objects arranged in a sequence; 
written words in rows; falsehood; stories with no foundations. It 
has, however, been suggested that the root originated from a 
borrowing either from Greek or Persian. Of this root, five forms 
occur 16 times in the Qur'an: ojj^yasturun once; jjl=L^mastur 
three times; jJ=Li mustatar once; jjUJ 'asatir nine times and 
jku^a musaytir twice. 

^jjlaLj yasturun [imperf. v., trans.] to write, inscribe (68:1) 



436 



'jjjLl-y (JSllj by the pen!, and by what they [the scribes] write! 

jjSsLm mastur [pass, part.] 1 written, inscribed (52:2) ^Jufj 
jj^U* by a Book inscribed 2 recorded, laid down, detailed (33:6) 
Ijjjjalw lJj£1I ^ aii 'JS all that is in the Book, detailed. 

JslLIa mustatar [pass. part, of v. VIII] carefully recorded in 
writing (54:53) "J^LA jjjSj jjfu-a JSj every action, great or small, 
is recorded in writing. 

jjJaLj 'asatir [pi. of either n. s jjLU 'usturatun or of pi. jU=>li 
"astar\ fables (16:24) 'jjfjVI jj^lli I jlli J^jj Jji lit* °<4J JjI □j w/ie« 
f/iey are asked, 'What has your Lord sent down?' they say, 
'Fables of the ancients. ' 

Jajia* musaytir (also jJ4""> musaytir) [act. part., spelled with a 
oa (s) but pronounced as a ^ (j)] one in control (88:22) °=^i cLA 
j U'u you are not in control over them. 

j/Ja/ou s-t-w to assail, to assault, to pounce upon, to attack violently. 
Of this root, only yastiin occurs once in the Qur'an. 

(•jjkmj yastiin [imperf. of v. U=^ sata, intrans. with preps j and 
^sJc] to assault, to attack violently (22:72) 'jjlu 'jjilb "uj^ uj j ^ 
LuUli '{4$e. they almost attack those who recite to them Our 
revelations. 

Ijuji sa c atun (see £/o»/j w-s- c ). 

j/t/o 1 *- c -<i happiness, fortune; assistance; arm, power. Of this root, 
two forms occur once each in the Qur'an: I su c idu and 

sw^'d [pass. v. IV, with the initial i omitted - I ja*U "us € idu 
or in another reading I sa c idu, v. intrans.] to be made 
fortunate, to be blessed, to be made happy; to become fortunate, 
to become happy (11:108) ^Jl ^ \J^L> 'jjill as for those who 
were blessed with happiness (or, good fortune), they will be in 
Paradise. 

sa c ld [quasi-act. part.] fortunate, blessed, happy (11:105) 



cs/£/o" 



437 



ami some of them will be wretched and some happy. 

j/tJo" s- c -r intense burning of fire, to kindle a fire, intensity of 
thirst; madness; to fix a price to; fatigue, distress. Of this root, 
three forms occur 20 times in the Qur'an: cSjL* su cc irat once; 
sa c lr 17 times and j£* su c ur twice. 

Jum su cc ir [pass, of v. II] to be inflamed, to be set alight 
(81:12) Cj'J<1« JuakJI lilj when Hell is set alight. 

jjju- sa c Tr I [n.] blazing intense fire (25:11) *&\LXi LsiS '<yb 
I'jjj^ and We have prepared for him who denies the Hour, a 
blazing fire; * [with the definite article] Hellfire (42:7) Jjjji 
jj?UI ,ji ijjj2j <ivJI ^ a group shall be in the Garden and a group 
in Hellfire II [v. n., also used adverbially] flaming, burning, firing 
(17:97) Ijjal. '^Ujj cjja. U«k fj^k fil jt« //eZZ w Zto/r tome, wtoraever 
if abates, we increase them in burning. 

ju* su c ur [either v. n. of v. 'j?L, su c ira; or pi. of sa c ir] 
madness; ranks of fire (54:24) ^ lij Uj ikm IV'j ^ Ij^' I 
jilij they said, 'What?, a mortal, from amongst ourselves, a 
single person, we should follow?, then we would be in error and 
madness. ' 

<#/£./<>" s ~ c -y time span; strife, work, effort, to go about (one's 
livelihood), to go to; a portion. Of this root, two forms occur 30 
times in the Qur'an: sa c a 20 times and sa c y 10 times. 

L/ xu l sa c a a [v. intrans. with preps. and^] 1 to endeavour, 
to strive (2:114) <_ji i^-^j 4-»U Ig-d j^jj j <M ^11 « n qaa 
l^jlji wto cowZ<f to more inequitable than those who prohibit the 
mention of God's name in His places of worship and strive to 
have them destroyed/deserted? 2 move, walk, move about, run, 
hasten (20:20) LS ££ <ik lili lilMi to ftoew Zf <iovra and-lo and 
beholdl-it was a moving snake 3 to do purposefully, to act, to 
work for, to carry on one's business (53:39) U V) o 1 —^ btj 
ftof maw w/ZZ onZy tove wtof to has worked towards. 

Lf xu l sa € y I [n.] endeavour, strife, effort (18:104) 'jjjJI 
Uj'J sU^JI ftose whose efforts in this world go astray; 



438 



*(37:102) ^ ,«Jj Hia when he [the boy] reached the age of 
working with him [his father] (or when he reached the age of 
maturity) II [v. n. used adverbially] moving energetically (2:260) 
diiyL s j^i.j| p then summon them, and they will come rushing 
to you. 

s Sh-b debilitating hunger, fatigue, famine; thirst. Of this 
root, only masghabatun occurs once in the Qur'an. 

Ajil— masghabatun [n.] debilitating hunger, severe hunger 
(90:14—15) <iju> li juil>- ? jj <ji 'j or feeding, on a day 
of extreme hunger, an orphan of the kinsfolk. 

£/i-i/o» s-f-h base, bottom or lower part of a mountain; side of a 
mountain along which rain water pounds down unchecked; 
pouring down of water, spilling of blood; fornication. Of this 
root, three forms occur four times in the Qur'an: U. jil^ masfuhan 
once; jjailul musafihin twice and £±*°LJ* musafihat once. 

rjsLiA masfuh [pass, part.] spilt, shed, poured forth (6:145) V 

say, 7 do not find, in what has been revealed to me any that is 
forbidden to anyone [an eater[ to eat, unless it be an 
unslaughtered dead animal, or spilt blood ... ' 

> «" musafihin [pi. of act. part. ^iL^ musafih, fern. pi. 
cjU^iUii musafihat] ones who commit acts of fornication, 
adulterers (4:25) p ULak^ t_i jj^L J> j5l* j *o$Ja5 jib b* 

plaiHi jjc. so marry them with the consent of their people and 
give them their dowries in accordance with the norms [taking 
them] in wedlock, not as adulteresses. 

j/i-i/o" s-f-r to reveal; to sweep away; to travel; (of daylight) to 
come or break. Philologists classify books and scribes under this 
root on the strength of shared radical consonants. The latter two 
concepts are, in fact, borrowings from Aramaic and/or Syriac. Of 
this root, six forms occur 12 times in the Qur'an: j£j 'asfara 
once; s jal^ musfiratun once; s JL> safaratun once, JL* safar seven 
times; J£J (1) 'asfar once and J£J (2) 3 asfar once. 



439 



3 asfara [v. IV, intrans.] to shine through, to reveal itself 
(74:34) j£i lij jti-all j &y f/ze rfwn /f brightens [lit. uncovers 
its face]. 

SjiLA musfiratun [act. part, fem.] bright, shining, radiant 
(80:38) Sjaui ia-'jj a jlj on that Day some faces will be beaming. 

sJLi safaratun [pi. of n. jalu. safir] scribes (80:13-15) 
fjL, LgAi fj^o <t [written] on honoured, exalted, pure 
pages, by the hands of scribes. 

jL* safar [n. pi. JilJ (1) "asfar] journey, trip (9:42) ll^'je 'jl 
^IjiiiV li^alS I'ja^j IjjjS z'f /ia<f a gain near at hand and a 
short journey, they would have followed you; *(2:283) JSc '£& 'Jfj 
JL* if you are on a journey. 

JLJ (2) J asfar [pi. of n. jL« sifr] book, tome (62:5) 'jjil JS* 
ljliu.1 J^u jl«aJI U^Lkj °j slj'jSlI I jJlk f/iose w/io /iave been 
charged with obedience to the Torah, but have failed to carry it 
out, are like asses carrying books. 

Zji-i/o" s-f~ c to taint black with other colours (in particular white), to 
slap with the open hand or (of a bird) with a wing; to drag along. 
Of this root, only (jLo nasfa c occurs once in the Qur'an. 

£i*-3 nasfa c [imperf. of v. ££* safi c a, intrans.] to drag, to seize, 
to grab (96:15) aI^UIU 'jkiluil JJ ^S. no indeed!, if he does not 
desist, We shall seize [him] by the forelock (or, smack him on the 
forehead). 

S/ui/qm s-f-k to shed tears or blood, to cause to flow. Of this root, 
only d&uuyasfik occurs twice in the Qur'an. 

<il£uj yasfik [imperf. of v. ^ safaka, trans.] to shed, to spill 
(2:30) *U"J idiuuj Ifrji luij '(> l^ja Jikjl <io Yom jc/ace on it [the 
Earth] someone who will sow corruption in it and commit murder 
[lit. shed blood] ? 

J/i-i/oi s-f-l to be low, to go low; to be base, to be vile. Of this root, 
five forms occur 10 times in the Qur'an: Jalu. safil twice; jjlalu> 
sdfilin once; <J£J "asfal four times; oj&J 'asfalin twice and 



440 



sufla once. 

JiLm safil [act. part.; pi. jjlaU safiliri] 1 lower part of an object, 
low positions (11:82) l+jaLa l^Jli. UEta. U^Ul »lk l!»la an<f so w/iera Owr 
command came, We turned it [the town] upside down 2 base, 
abject; dilapidated, shrivelled (95:5) <J£j iU&j ^ f/iera We 

reduce (or, restore, return) him to the lowest of the low. 

J£J °asfal [elat; fern. ,JiL sufla] 1 lower/lowest position, part, 
level (4:145) jbll J> <J£>«Vl s^jil <^s 'jjailiJI o) tfte hypocrites will be 
in the lowest depths of Hell 2 more debased, more degraded, more 
vanquished (41:29) o^V'j W "t> Vj J l£j I j'jaS 'jjill <Jlfj 

'jjlLVl j> UjLj llal'jal cjkj the disbelievers will say, 'Our 

Lord, show us those of the jinn and the humans who led us astray, 
that we may put them under our feet, and they be among the 
lowest of the low. 

cj/i-i/o" s-f-n to peel off, to bare; ship, ark, boat. Of this root, only 
kuL* safinatun occurs four times in the Qur' an. 

klAu, safinatun [n.; pi. <JL sufun] ship, boat, ark (29:15) »USaJi 
LslalJj so We saved him and those [with him] on the Ark. 

a/ui/qm s-f-h to be ignorant, foolish, impulsive, weak in the mind; to 
be base. Of this root, five forms occur 1 1 times in the Qur' an: '*jL> 
safiha once; a£u» safah once; aaU^ safahatan twice; safih twice 
and cl^ilu sufaha" five times. 

safiha a [v. trans.] to be ignorant, to commit degrading 
acts, to degrade, to be unwise, to lack good judgement, to act 
foolishly (2:130) Alii '<> V) ^aIjjJ JLU 'jc. Ljcjj 'i>j w/io would 
forsake the faith of Abraham but the one who fools himself? 

safahan [v. n. adverbially used] out of folly, foolishly 
(6:140) (Jcjiij "fAJVjl I jiia 'jjjJI jui jS f/iey /iave fosf indeed, 
those who kill their own children, foolishly, without knowledge. 

AAlim safahatun [n./v. n.] folly, weak mindedness (7:66) ^Sljjl U 
JaU^ we certainly consider you as being foolish [lit. see you are 
in foolishness]. 



441 



<uiui so/ift [n.; pi. e\&L sufaha 3 ] weak, or feeble-minded person, 
dim-witted person (2:282) V 'j Uj/ih 'j l^a^ tiM ^ISc. ls,^ bl^ 
JjjJIj ajTj JLiis ja d4 'J "j £>wf ?/ f/ze debtor is feeble-minded, 
weak or unable to dictate, then let his guardian dictate justly. 

j/j/t>" s-g-r heat of the sun, sunburn, sunstroke. Of this root, only 
jslu sagar occurs four times in the Qur'an. 

jlm saqar [proper name] epithet of Hell (54:48) 'dJ^A 'fji 
'fjA J^'j jUll on f/ie Day when they are dragged into 
Hell, on their faces, [they will be told], 'Taste the touch of Hell. ' 

Ja/j/o- s-q-t falling, falling down, falling off; to stumble upon; to 
deviate from; the low, base, reject. Of this root, five forms occur 
eight times in the Qur'an: Jaal« saqata twice; suqita once; 
tusaqit once; tusqit three times and JaSLu. sag/; once. 

■Ja£u- saqata u [v. intrans.; pass. v. Jail, suqita] to fall, to fall 
down (6:59) V) Jijj JaiLa Uj aw<i «of a leaf falls, but He 
knows it; *(7:149) J^jJjI f/iey came to wring their hands in 

remorse, became regretful, or, confounded [lit. it was made to fall 
into their hands, a reference, perhaps, to the striking of hands 
together as a sign of helplessness]. 

LSluij tusaqit [imperf. of v. Ill, trans.] to drop in a sequence, 
one after another, to cause to trail, to shower (19:25) s£jS 
lijk IjJaj and shake the trunk of the palm tree 

towards you, it will shower upon you ripe dates. 

JaM tusqit [imperf. of v. IV, trans.] to cause to fall down, to 
drop (34:9) ? UdJI 'q* LL£ '^c JaiLaj 'j or maie fragments from the 
heavens fall down upon them. 

iaatu< saqit [act. part.] falling down (52:44) J> UH4 Ij'jj j 
ji I jIjSj LLaL. and [even ] if they were to see a piece of 
heaven falling down, they would say, '[A mere] heap of clouds. ' 

i-i/tVo" s-q-f roof, ceiling, covering, roofing, thatching; (of a man) 
to be tall and bent. Of this root, two forms occur four times in the 
Qur'an: uL saqf three times and UuL suquf once. 



442 



uSlui saqf [n. ; pi. <-«iL. suquf and <_i jL* suquf] roof, canopy 
(21:32) Ikjak^ USu cLUl Uk^-j a«<i We made the sky a well-secured 
canopy. 

f/j/o s-q-m sickness, to be sick, to be ill-disposed, to be troubled. 
Of this root, only ^ saqim occurs once in the Qur'an. 

fj&u saqim [quasi-act. part.] sick, ill-disposed (37:89) jl JUi 
jLa^ He said, 7 am ill, or, sick at heart' (or, 7 am troubled 
[because of your worshipping of idols]'). 

<#/<j/o" s-Q-y to gi ye to drink, to water (animals, plants or land), to 
make drink. Of this root, six forms occur 25 times in the Qur'an: 
<yu« saga eight times; JEJ 'asaa six times; JL£J ^istasqa twice; 
Ajlia, siqayatun twice and Lai. s^aya once. 

JL» saqa i [v. trans.; pass. v. Ju* suqiya] 1 to give to drink, to 
serve a drink to (12:41) \'J*±. ajj Jl-ja Uakikl 111 (jkUl ^r,!. fellow 
prisoners, one of you will serve his master with wine [to drink]; 
*(26:79) ^jV' la; ji (^jJI j ana* f/ie one w/io fafces responsibility 

for me [lit. ana" //e w/io g/ves me to eaf ana" drink] (or, tofces care 
of me) 2 to irrigate (2:71) ijkll JjL& Vj lPO^ 1 Jj^ ^ 
is a cow, «of broken to plough the earth or water the tillage 3 
[elliptically, with no obj.] to perform the daily act/ritual of 
watering [animals or land] (28:23) J> &i '^.j iU jjj CJj 
jjji^j (jabll awo" w/iew /ze arrived at the water ofMidian, he found a 
crowd of people watering [their flocks]. 

JslJi "asqa [v. IV, doubly trans.] to make available for 
drinking, to provide for drinking (72:16) AijjWI JSe. I JJJCLJ jl 
ISit *l« '^aLusIuS/ ?J f/iey wem* straight on the path, We would give 
them abundant water to drink. 

JibjLJ, "istasqd [v. X, trans.] 1 to ask someone for water, to 
seek water (7:160) '■u'js alil^J j| ^L, ^ lukjlj ana* We inspired 
Moses, when his people asked him for water 2 [with no obj.] to 
seek sources for drinking or irrigating, to pray for water (2:60) ilj 
j^-JI ^Jliakj l_sjial UJaa aJJ$ Juji JjL&J, and [remember[ when 
Moses prayed for water for his people and We said, 'Strike with 



443 



your staff the rock. ' 

siqdyatun I [v. n.] making water available for drinking, 
providing water for drinking (9:19) «J SjUc-j jrlkll j>jkkl 
... jiVl aIHj '(>S (J'jkll Jo you equate giving water to 

pilgrims and tending the Sacred Mosque with [ the deeds of] those 
who believe in God and the Last Day ... ? II [n.] a drinking cup 
(12:70) Jakj (ji ^jIaJI Jkk ^jl^j ^ an<i w/ien /ie 

provided them with their provisions, he placed the drinking cup in 
the pack of his brother. 

bil" suqya [v. n.] giving to drink, watering, irrigating (91:13) 
4iU J '(4^ Jlia f/ie messenger of God said to them, 
[have regard for] God's camel and for her drinking. 

Lj/d/^ s-k-b pouring out of liquid, flowing forth. Of this root, 
only i_j jSIm maskub occurs once in the Qur'an. 

ljjSLm maskub [pass, part.] poured out, made to flow 
(56:31) sj jSl^ ? Uj and water made to flow. 

Ci/tSl/oi s-k-t being silent, becoming silent, silence, to stop talking, to 
stop moving; to abate. Of this root, only sakat occurs once in 
the Qur'an. 

cjiuj sakata u [v. intrans. with prep, °jc.] to let go of, to calm 
down, to abate (7:154) ii! Lui=ill J>*J* CL &* then when 
anger let go of Moses, he picked up the Tablets. 

s-k-r intoxicating drinks, intoxication, drowsiness, un 
consciousness; blocking a gap, corking a bottle. It has been 
suggested that intoxication, along with its derivatives, are 
borrowings from either Ethiopic or Aramaic. Of this root, four 
forms occur seven times in the Qur'an: 'JL* sukkira once; jS^ 
sakar once; s'jkl» sakratun twice and is jISL sukara three times. 

jl* sukkira [pass, of v. II] to be blocked up; to be intoxicated 
(15:14 15) lIijSIo Uuj I jllil jjkjkj <g I jlhq IjG ^Mr- Ukja jlj 

Ujllajl awj even i/Wc opened a gateway into Heaven for them and 
they rose through it, higher and higher, they would still say, 'Our 



444 



eyes are hallucinating/our sight is blurred. ' 

sakar [n.] intoxicating drink, alcoholic drink; sweet juice 
(16:67) link lajjj ku, oj-^ i-jIjc-VIj di=^ £*\J& 1>j from the 
fruits of date palms and grapes you take intoxicants and 
wholesome provisions. 

Sjkm sakratun [v. n.; n.] delirium, intoxication, tipsiness 
(15:72) 'oJi^i f*JjSl« ^ ^Jj^J Z?y yowr Zi/e, f/i<?y are wandering 
on in their wild delirium; *(50:19) s'jkl» throes of death [lit. 
f/ie intoxication/confusion of death]. 

jjsL, sukdra [pi. of n. and quasi-act. part safcrara] one 

who is drunk or intoxicated (22:2) ls'j^» L>»^ i/jG 

aw<i yow wiZZ see people as if they are drunken-though they are 
not drunk. 

0/£/o* s-k-n to be quiet, to be still, to be tranquil, to inhabit, to 
dwell; to be poor; knife. It is possible that sikkin is a 
borrowing from Syriac or Aramaic and 'i±£^ sakinatun from 
Hebrew. Of this root, 13 forms occur 69 times in the Qur'an: 
sakana 14 times; (jSU tuskan once; jSli 'askin five times; cJ^> 
sakan three times; c£^» sakin once; sakinatun six times; 
maskan once; o$L^ masakin 11 times; ^jjSl^ maskunatun once; 

maskanatun twice; miskin 11 times; ojS-" masakin 12 
times and jjLu jift&ih once. 

^jiuj sakana u [v. intrans. pass. v. (jSU tuskan] 1 to inhabit, to 
dwell in, to live in (14:45) I 'di^ cSs&a yow lived 

in the dwellings of those who wronged themselves before 2 to rest 
(27:86) jl+ill j 5^ I jj^yl jill Ukk bl Ij'jj jJ do they not see that 

We made the night for them to rest in, and the day for sight/to 
see?; *(6: 13) J^'j J* ^ the creation, collectively, or 
all created beings belong to Him [lit. all that rest by night and 
rest by day belong to Him]; *(7:189) l$J uSlJ so that he might 
find peace and tranquillity in her company. 

Cj&*\ 'askin [imper. of v. IV, trans.] 1 to house (without rent) 
(65:6) I> 'fjjSlu dji. '(> s jA jj£J /lowse f/iem /7/ie wives yow are 
divorcing] in the same way you house yourselves, according to 



445 



your means 2 to establish in, to settle someone in (14:37) j>\ tuj 

S3 - ,<^5-g - - 

^jkUl agj .lie j-jj jjc. '(> iiuSU owr Lord, I have settled 

some of my offspring in an uncultivated valley, close to Your 
Sacred House 3 to cause to infiltrate, to cause to seep through 
(23:18) ij f^Ul t> UTjij We sewf wafer <fow« 

/rom f&e sfcy in <iwe measure and settled it into the earth 4 to 
quieten, to bring to a standstill (42:33) "6^=^ '^43 u^i ^ 'd 
sj^i (Jc. z///e wills, He stills the wind, so that they [boats/ships] 
lie motionless on its [the Sea's] back. 

Oiui sakan [v. n./n.] 1 dwelling, a place of rest (16:80) J*V 
liSLi '^Sjjjj '(> j>£l a«<f Go<f has appointed for you, of your houses, 
places of rest 2 peace and tranquillity (9:103) "Ji J^»j 

J45 "uS^ and [Prophet] pray for them-your prayer is a comfort to 
them 3 rest, resting (6:96) U£-> cP c^V 1 # "7 ^ 

cleaver of the dawn, and He made the night for resting. 

£gL* sakin [act. part.] motionless, still (25:45) UyS '<&j jj jj 
USU, aJj^J cLi 'jTj Jkll o« have you not considered the way of your 
Lord, how He lengthens the shadow? -had He willed, He could 
have made it still. 

AJjiu- sakinatun [n.] 1 peace and tranquillity (9:26) Jjj] 
'jji<i>JI Jic-'j (Jc. ajjjS^ f/ie« GoJ sen? ca/m onto His 

Messenger and the believers 2 good tidings (in an interpretation 
of verse 2:248) J>£jj 'a* <g ^ °u> ^ b) proof of 
his sovereignty will be that the Ark [of the Covenant] will come to 
you, containing [ the gift of[ tranquillity from your Lord. 

c£*a maskan [n.; pi. masakin] a dwelling place (34:15) jSI 
pUi. ^jC , ^ JjU f/iere vras /or f/ie people of Sheba, in 
their dwelling place a sign, two gardens. 

iij&tA maskunatun [pass, part.] inhabited, lived in by people, 
used as a house * jt£ ^jsH buildings not used for private 

occupancy [either vacant or public buildings] (24:29) 
£1 j-lla l^jj <j jS^a jjc. tjjij I jkjj *J yow w/ZZ «of Z?e blamed for 
entering vacant/public buildings [lit. uninhabited houses] in 
which there is some errand/business for you. 

AjsLiA maskanatun [n.] misery and abasement, wretchedness 



446 



(2:61) AjSl^lj Alill J^jc humiliation and wretchedness were 

stamped upon them. 

miskln [n.; pi. o^ 1 -" masakin] 1 poor, humble, weak 
person (18:79) ^ 'u^^ 4jjaU lit as /or f/ie boat, it 
belonged to some poor people working on the sea 2 [jur.] a 
person qualifying for alms on the grounds of owning far less than 
his daily needs but, because he begs, is considered to be in a 
better situation than the jiii (faqir) (q.v.) (9:60) CjIIiLJI UjJ 
. . . jjSlunJ j charity is only for the destitute and for the poor, 
(76:8) l^yjij 1 \!5' «* <Jz- j>t*J=>JI 'ojV'^jj and they give food, 

for the love of Him [also interpreted as: even though they long for 
it themselves], to a [begging] poor person, an orphan and a 
captive. 

£jiu< sikkln [n.] knife (12:31) IjjS^ JVj l£ cdi'j a«J gave 
eac/z one of them a knife. 

^/d/o» s-l-b to strip, to peel off; to plunder, to carry off by force; a 
row of palm trees, road. Of this root, only yaslubhum occurs 
once in the Qur'an. 

ljIu-j yaslub [imperf. of v. L>L. salaba, doubly trans.] to 
plunder, to snatch away, to rob, to carry off (22:73) J4^4 Wj 
Ai« a jjaiiuy V Ulu an<i f/ie /Z/e5 ro£> f/iem o/ something, they can 
not rescue it from them. 

cAVo* s-l-h arms, arming, fortifications; (of camels) to become 
fleshy; excreting. Of this root, only <*XJ ^aslihatun occurs four 
times in the Qur' an. 

*^LJ "aslihatun [pi. of n. ^iL silah] arms, weapons (4:102) 
'^ZiSj 'j J^jia. IjiitjTj and let them be on their guard and [be armed 
with] their weapons. 

cAVo* s-l-kh to strip off the hide, or skin, of an animal, to pull off; 
to bone, to extricate; (of months) to pass away, to depart. Of this 
root, two forms occur three times in the Qur'an: jLj naslakh once 
and jLul °insalakha twice. 



447 



fcX^i naslakh [imperf. of v. jcL» salkha, trans.] to extricate, to 
peel off, to strip away (36:37) 1^ jl^ill <i« ^Laj Jjlll '^1 QVj 

and a sign for them is the night, from which We strip the daylight, 
and-lo and heholdl-they are in darkness. 

jLut 'insalakha [v. VII, intrans.] 1 to pass away, to become 
detached (9:5) J>jUl 'J^\ ^.Ld lili w/ien the [four] forbidden 
months have passed 2 to cast off, to abandon, to forsake 
(7:175) jtLjU LjjUli Jlidi ^ill f$e. JSj a«<i rec/te to them the 
story of the one We gave Our messages, yet he tore himself away 
from them. 

Jjj^Iui salsabil, a quintupal word, occurring once in the Qur' an. It is 
also classified under various other roots: o*/d/o* s-l-s (to be 
smooth, easy flowing, soft, easy of manner); J/oyj/o* s-l-s-l (to 
be sweet and thirst quenching); and J/J/o* s-l-l (to extract gently 
and unobtrusively). Also said to be a borrowing. 

Jjfui- salsabil [quasi-act. part.; n.] palatable and easy on the 
gullet; choicest of wine; proper name for a spring in Paradise 
(76:17-18) and 
they will be given a drink infused with ginger from a spring called 
Salsabil. 

J/oVJ/o" s-l-s-l the word silsilatun is classified by the 

philologists either under o»/d/u» s-l-s, (to be smooth, easy 
flowing, soft, easy of manner); and under lI/oV^/d* s-l-s-l, (of 
water) to be sweet, palatable or easy flowing. It is not difficult to 
see the semantic connection between these and the derivatives 
meaning 'chain' and 'sequence'. However, a foreign origin has 
been suggested for <LaL,, either from Syriac or Aramaic. Of this 
root, two words occur three times in the Qur' an: <lJu silsilatun 
once and silasal twice. 

AiuiU silsilatun [n.; pi. J-^l. salasil] chain (69:32) aL^L, ^ p 
JjSLAi Itljj 'qJ^ t^ji and roll him up in a chain the length of 
which is seventy cubits. 

■k/J/<_>" s-l-t power, authority, mastery; to prevail, to predominate; 



448 



being hard; argument. A foreign origin for the word JJaL. sultan 
has been suggested, either through Syriac or Aramaic. Of this 
root, two forms occur 39 times in the Qur'an: JaL. sallata twice 
and ^JaL, sultan 37 times. 

JaL sallata [v. II, trans.] to give power or authority over others 
to a person, to set someone upon someone else (4:90) Aill *U °jTj 
^jjjlila hV . nl GoJ /ia<f willed it He could have set them 

upon you, and they would have fought you. 

^jUaiL sultan [nominalised v. n.] 1 power, control (14:22) Uj 
J ffi»unli J^jjc-i 'J V) jlLL. '(> ^ far I [ Satan ] had no power 
over you, but that I called you, and you answered me 2 status 
(69:29) AjjlkiL jk. my status has vanished away from me 3 
proof, supporting evidence (52:38) pula aj| jX. J4 1 ?l 

^LkHoj or do they have a ladder to eavesdrop on?, then let 
their eavesdropper produce a clear proof 4 mandate (17:33) 't>j 
JjSII ^jjluj UUalla 4jLJ ULa. iaa 11 jlh* JjS a«<i w/ioever /las 
slain unjustly— We have given mandate to the custodian of his 
rights, so let him not be excessive in slaying 5 permission, 
authorisation (55:33) jUaai |> I jiijj 'J VwVit.nl jl o^Y'j W j^"^ 
jUaLu V] 'jjiiii ^ 1 j-^ lPC&I'j assembly of jinn and 

humankind, if you can pass through the regions of heaven and 
earth, then pass— you will not pass except with an authorisation 
('scientific' interpreters of the Qur'an see in this verse a prophecy 
foretelling space travel) 6 convincing explanation (27:21) '^'^h 
^jj! ^IkLaj ^jjjUi jl ajIjA 'j lijAu / will punish him severely, or 
kill him, unless he brings me a convincing reason for his absence. 

"-•/J/o - s-l-f to go past, to precede, to come to an end; to go over; to 
level up; to give an advance, previous generations. Of this root, 
three forms occur eight times in the Qur'an: <_kL« salafa five 
times; <-iEJ °aslafa twice and UL. salafan once. 

<JIui salafa u [v. intrans.] to go past, to happen in the past 
(4:23) LiL ii U. VI 

Forbidden to you are your mothers, being married to two 
sisters simultaneously-with the exception of what took place in 
the past. 



J/J/o- 



449 



(Jlwi 'as/a/ [v. IV, intrans.] to have previously acted, 
committed, achieved, done (10:30) ^^aU U. ^ JS jli ^IUa ?/iera 
an<i f/iere every SOM ' w «7/ experience what it did in the past. 

lilLi salafan [v. n.; n.] a thing of the past, precedent (43:56) 
'oij0^ ULi JiUEiii We macfe f/iem a f/img o/ ?/ze past and an 
example for later people. 

d/J/o" s-l-q to throw on the back, to flay with a whip; to insult; to 
scald; to lacerate the skin; boiling, cooking lightly by boiling; 
intrinsic nature. Of this root, only £ JL» salaqukum occurs once in 
the Qur'an. 

Jim salaqa u [v. trans.] to hurt, to insult, to lacerate (33:19) liji 
iV JiJL jjijiL, i_i'jaJI Liaj to w/ie« /ear passed, they lash at 
you with sharp tongues. 

^/J/o" s-l-k to go along, to pursue a course of action; to enter into, 
to infiltrate, to insinuate, to cause to be absorbed; to thread a 
needle; thread; passage. Of this root, only ^IL. salaka occurs 15 
times in the Qur' an. 

&£u salaka u [v. trans.] 1 to open up (a road), to pave (20:53) 
^ l^ja J^l l^ILoj 1*4- o^jVI J*^ w/io spread out for you 

the earth, and opened up for you in it ways 2 to cause to enter, to 
squeeze in, to cram in, to shove in (74:42) 'JL> ^ J^kL U what 
drove you into the Scorching Fire? 3 to infiltrate, to insinuate 
(26:200) 'jj- J=^fl L_ijia ^ JUSL, ant/ thus We insinuate it 
straight through the hearts of the guilty 4 to roll up, to truss 
(69:32) I jSUJi lilji 'jj*>> ^ ^ a«<i roZZ /i/m in a 

chain the length of which is seventy cubits 5 to follow an 
appointed path (16:69) JL> Ju* &'jh jk ;> jk then 

eat of all kinds of fruits and follow the paths of your Lord, [made] 
accessible [for you [. 

J/J/t>" s-l-l to extract gently and unobtrusively, to pull out strands of 
wool; pedigree, breed; to move about stealthily. Of this root, two 
forms occur three times in the Qur'an: oj^i yatasallalun once 
and aI>11. sulalatun twice. 



450 



(•jjllmjj yatasallalun [imperf. of v. V, intrans.] to steal away, to 
move about stealthily (24:63) liljl oj^^ ua^ ^ f^s '-^ Got/ /s 
well aware of those of you who steal away surreptitiously. 

ifc^ sulalatun [n.] extract, essence, strain, stock (23:12) jSTj 
jjJa *(> aLlL. *(> 'jlluVI ULk indeed, We created man from a stock of 
clay. 

f/J/o" *-/-m peace, safety, tranquillity; completeness; being free 
from obstacles; to submit to, to become resigned to; to hand over; 
ladder, staircase; to receive, to stroke, finger bones. Of this root, 
18 forms occur 140 times in the Qur'an: sallama six times; 'jLl 
'aslama 22 times; ^L, silm once; {L* salm twice; ^L, salam five 
times; qjA^ salimun once; £L» salam 42 times; fjL. sa/fm twice; 
^XJ ^ islam eight times; (Jl" muslim twice; muslimayn 
once; muslimun 36 times; 3-«Li muslimatun once; cjULi 

muslimat twice; <^Lw musallamatun three times; ^uLi tasllm three 
times; jj/ X . n ,,^ mustaslimun once and ^1* sallam twice. 

fLi sallama I [v. II, intrans.] 1 to submit to a verdict, to give in 
(4:65) UtjLa c^laa Ik'j^ J^^ii ^ I jiaj V ^ a«<i f/iey 

w/ZZ /m<f no constraint in their hearts regarding your judgement, 
and yield completely 2 [with prep. Jfc] to greet, to salute 
(24:27) I^Sa! JSs. I j^Luj and greet their inhabitants; *(33:56) I _>L*> 
ITuLa IjlLoj ajIc. bless him [the Prophet] and salute him with 
greetings of peace (or, surrender yourselves completely to his 
guidance) 3 [with no notion of an obj.] to spare [from a bad 
outcome], to bail out, to save the day (8:43) J^Lsil Ij^S J4^rj jlj 
^IL, <S1| s j£Tj j^Vl (ji ^"jlnSj /ia<i //e shown them to you as many, 
you would certainly have lost heart and disputed about the 
matter, but God saved the day II [v. II, trans.] to hand over 
(2:233) ^ J * " l^j -^j^ 1 " y l "" , p^O' ujj 

and if you wish to have your children suckled [by 
someone other than the mother] there will be no blame attached 
to you, provided you pay an agreed amount in a fair manner. 

f£j 'aslama I [v. IV, intrans.] 1 to surrender, to submit, to 
devote oneself (3:83) j <sIyLA °(> jiJ <!j 'jjijj jjj jjiil 
Ia'jSj li°jJ=. Jo ?/iey seek anything other than submission to God?, 



451 



Everyone in the heavens and earth submits to Him willingly or 
unwillingly 2 to resign oneself, to come to accept (37:103) U«xJ llii 
tjj^Jl aJjj so when they came to accept and he laid him upon his 
forehead 3 to profess the religion of Islam, to become a Muslim 
(49:17) IjlLJ 'j L^Lt 'jjiu they count it as a favour to you 
[Prophet], that they have become Muslims II [v. IV, trans.] 
*(2: 1 12) All A^kj }fJ I> he who submits his whole being to God 
[lit. face]. 

silm [n.] peace; self-surrender (a large number of 
commentators, however, interpret this word as meaning 'the 
religion of Islam' in spite of contextual incompatibility) 
(2:208) Ail£ jXJ Ijkil 'jjjJI I^jIIj yow w/io believe, enter 
wholeheartedly into complete submission to God. 

fLu salm [n.] peace (8:61) 1*1 juaAa I jkjk y/j owf if they lean 
towards peace, then lean towards it [as well[. 

****** 

jjluj salam I [n.] peace, end of hostility (4:90) JJi Jȣ jTjSc.1 jli 
UuL. J^jlc. \S1 aIII J*k Ua fSjlj 1'jsll j jtlij so // f/iey /gave yaw 
a/one and do not fight you, and offer you peace, then God gives 
you no way against them II [quasi-pass, part.] wholly devoted to, 
wholly belonging to (39:29) '^jlsui ilS'ji ajs %.j ^ aM L/>Ja 
Jk'jl UL, ili-jj God sefs /orf/z a parable-of a man belonging to 
partners who are at odds with one another, and a man belonging 
wholly to one man. 

tijalL* salimun [pi. of act. part. jJU salim] safe and sound, not 
threatened (68:43) 'jjilll. fVj Pj-U^ J] 1 '-^j ^<?y were 

invited to prostrate themselves when they were safe [but refused]. 

fiL* salam I [n.] 1 peace (5:16) ^lUl Jj1» k&'Jja j ^£1 ,> aM aj 
Mf/j w/i/c/i Go<i guides those who follow what pleases Him to the 
paths of peace; *(59:23) pUJI oaJtfH the King, the Holy One, 
the Source of Peace; *(6:127) £L2\ jta Paradise [lit. the house of 
peace] 2 safety, security (21:69) '^'3, l^»j lijj <^j£ jUU US 
f/?K?7 We 'Fire, be coolness and safety for Abraham' 3 

greeting of peace (56:91) j^l lJUJ y« jL!>Las a«<i so 'Peace be 
on you' [will be said to you] by the companions on the Right; 
*(6:54) 'Peace be upon you' II [adverbially] 1 greeting 



452 



of peace to you (51:25) U^l. I jJlia I jk'j ij f/iey wen? m to see 
/i/m a«<i said, 'greetings of peace'; *(56:26) &X*> !>U V] ow/y 
agreeable speech [ will they hear in Paradise ] [lit. but a saying of 
'Peace, peace'] 2 being clear, or quit, of (25:63) 'jj^^ lijj 
U^L. I jjli anJ w/ien the ignorant speak to them, they say: 'We have 
nothing to do with you [lit. are quit of you] ' (or, they say 'in 
Peace ') . 

juL* salim [quasi-act. part.] 1 pure, wholesome, sound, free of 
evil (26:89) j& I> V] except for the one who comes 

before God with a pure heart 2 sick, heavy, troubled (in one 
interpretation of 37:84) ^ lJu aj'j e U. ij w/ien /ie came to his 
Lord with a troubled (or, a pure) heart. 

? %J 'islam I [n.] total surrender (3:19) ^ 'i*. '<j&\ "Ji 

True Religion, in God's eyes, is total surrender [to Him] 2 [with 
the definite article 3 al- 3 islam\ the religion of Islam (5:3) ^jjII 
tup i ' ijj a j j (jiuu ffife. ciakjlj j»Smj CiLSl today I have 

perfected your religion for you, completed My blessing upon you, 
and sanctioned for you Islam [the total submission to God] as 
religion II [v. n.] (act of) surrendering, submitting (9:74) I _jH3 jSTj 
jkj Ijj^j jKll ?/iey certainly did speak the word of 

disbelief and became disbelievers after having submitted. 

^Amuslim [act. part.] 1 one who submits [to God] (2:133) i£u 
q XI y^-jj l^lj j1V.nl j JjcL^jj jxjAljj] tdjUi i ^ Ij we will 
worship your God and the God of your fathers, Abraham, Ishmael 
and Isaac, one single God-we submit ourselves to Him 2 one who 
professes the faith of Islam (22:78) Ija ^Jj °i> ai^H f&L* > 
//e has called you Muslims-both in the past and in this [Book] 3 
one showing obedience (27:38) "afe4^» J>jXi °J ls^S f^' 

which of you can bring me her throne before they come to me in 
obedience [to my bidding]? 

musallamatun [pass, part.] 1 free of faults, free of 
blemishes (2:71) Ali V d/jkJI ^jilaj Vj L>i»jVl j£ <Jj^ ^ t>] 
l^ja ;Y « a cow, not broken in to plough the earth or water the 
tillage, perfect and unblemished 2 handed over (4:92) J& ; uLi fy'j 
aJaI and compensation/blood money handed to his [the victim's] 



453 



folk. 

(uLu taslim [v. n. of v. II, adverbially used] 1 surrendering, 
yielding (4:65) £ uLa Iji^L^j c^lai IVj^- <jl ' ^ 'fi an d 
then they will find no constraint in their hearts regarding your 
judgement, and yield completely 2 greeting with the words 
'peace' (33:56) I I jL= bless him [the Prophet] and 
salute him with greetings of peace (or, surrender yourselves 
completely to his guidance). 

^j j i LjIJa mustaslimun [pi. of mustaslim; act. part.] those 
submitting, surrendering (37:26) 'o j«l m' no indeed!, 
they will be in complete submission on this Day. 

^um sullam [n.] ladder (52:38) <& 'q J->/1 jX. $ or do they 
have a ladder from which they [are able to[ eavesdrop? 

^LulL Sulayman (see alphabetically). 

j/J/l>" s-l-w consolation, solace. The philologists derive i$ salwa, 
quail, from this root, but it has also been suggested that the word 
is a borrowing from Aramaic. Of this root, only isjL* salwa 
occurs three times in the Qur'an. 

^jluJI "al-salwd [coll. n.] quail (7:160) lSj-^j "6^ ^jji'j 
^liajj U pl^Ja 'qa \ JS and We sent down upon them manna and 
quails; eat of the good things We have provided you. 

(jUiui Sulayman [proper name, of Hebrew origin, occurring 17 times 
in the Qur'an] the Prophet Solomon (1 Kings XI. 1-10) 
(27:16) and Solomon succeeded David. 

The Qur'an relates how Solomon was endowed with wise 
judgement (21:78); how God gave him command of the wind and 
the jinn (21:81) and enabled him to understand the speech of 
birds and insects (27:16); and how God tested him by placing a 
body on his throne and how he repented as a result (38:34). His 
death was noted only as a result of his body collapsing after the 
insects of the earth had gnawed the staff upon which he had been 
leaning (34:14). Stories about Solomon appear in Suras 27 and 
34. 



454 



j/f/o - s-m-d to be elevated, to raise the head and thrust out the chest 
in pride; to be heedless; to be playful; to be careless. Of this root, 
only ojz^L* samidun occurs once in the Qur' an. 

x»Lm sdmid [act. part.] (one who is) proud; playful; rejoicing; 
heedless (53:59-61) "oj&" Vj Q /iV . xS j 'oJf^u tluiJI l& J>al 
'jjlallu Jo you marvel at this statement, laughing heedlessly 
instead of weeping, and playfully amusing yourselves? 

j/p/o* s-m-r the colour brown, colour of dusk; moonlight, nightly 
chats (i.e. chats conducted in the moonlight), socialising by night. 
The philologists derive "ijjA^ samiriyy from SjJ-JI "al-sdmiratu, a 
tribe of the Children of Israel, which in turn they regard as a 
derivative of this root. Of this root, two forms occur four times in 
the Qur' an: I j*L« samiran once and '^jXJ "al-Sdmiriyy three 
times. 

jaLm samir [act. part; coll. n. ; n. of place] one who participates 
in a night-time chat; a group of such people; a place where people 
gather at night for conversation (23:66-7) J^Sa '{Sge. Jiu jjU* i$ 
'jjj^j ljfe.ll. <i jjjjai^ jjloSjj 'f^j^l j& time and time again My 
messages were recited to you, but you turned arrogantly on your 
heels, and spent the evenings making fun of it [the Qur' an] in 
your place of gathering. 

'^j^tuJI "al-Sdmiriyy [n.] someone from the tribe of Samaria, a 
Samaritan (20:95) Uj^i 1^=^. Li Jla Moses said, 'And what was 
the matter with you, Samaritan?' 

The Qur' an states how this man took advantage of Moses' 
absence and corrupted the faith of his people by turning the gold 
they had been carrying into an effigy of a calf and then 
convincing them that it was their god. Moses declared him 
untouchable and banished him after making him witness the filing 
away of the effigy of the calf and scattering it in the sea. Asad 
puts forward an interesting theory describing the man as an 
Egyptian schemer, a 'stranger, foreigner' convert who joined the 
Exodus but was still adhering to the cult of Apis (see note 70 on 
20:85). 



455 



s-m- c to hear, to listen; fame. Of this root, 11 forms occur 
185 times in the Qur'an: ^ sami c a 78 times; "asma c a 11 
times; g^J "asmi c twice; dy^i yassamma c un once; '^J 
"istama € a 16 times; sam c 22 times; sami c 47 times; 
QjcU^ samma c un four times; musmi c once; musma c 
once and £^LLmustami € twice. 

sami°a a [v. trans.] 1 to hear (24:16) U> I jlS^ ij V'jTj 
l^j jiSaj 'J UJ 'jjL if only when you heard it you had said, 'It is not 
[proper] for us to speak of this!'; *(2:171) VI VUa 

dumb animal [lit. one who hears nothing but a shout and a cry] 2 
[with prep, j] to hear of (12:31) be? I> cjLalu Ilia 50 
she heard of their malicious talk, she sent for them 3 to have the 
faculty of hearing (19:42) 'j^±n Vj V U« iSu jJ w/ry Jo yow 
worship something that can neither hear nor see?! 4 to listen 
(41:26) jlijsll ' V I jjaS 'jjill Jlij f/ie disbelievers say, 'Do 
not listen to this Qur'an' 5 to obey, to listen to (36:25) £±U\'e <^jl 
(jjLalii / believe in your Lord, so listen to me/obey me 6 to 
know, to acknowledge (58:1) Wjj <J <^M*j ^1 JjS 4111 jS 

aJII jj GoJ /ias heard the words of the one who disputes with you 
[Prophet] concerning her husband and complains to God. 

£*J "asma c a [v. IV, trans.] 1 to cause someone to hear, to 
reach the hearing of (43:40) Ji-oll cM, can you [Prophet] 
make the deaf hear? 2 to give the ability of hearing to (8:23) jjj 
J4*^V Ijja. ^ -Ull 'fJc. ?/ GoJ /ia<f known there was any good in 
them, He would have made them able to hear. 

_j gJJi "asmi c bi [exclamation (also possibly the imperative of 
<*-«lJ ^asma c a)\ 'How sharp of hearing!' (19:38) j^l'j /iow 
sharp of hearing, how sharp of sight [they are]! 

£jju^j yassamma c un [an assimilated form of 
yatasamma c un, imperf. of v. V, intrans.] to eavesdrop, to 
endeavour to hear (37:8) L-ulk l£ |> 'uj"4j cs^VI XJI Oj*^ V 
they cannot eavesdrop on the Supreme Assembly/Heavenly Host, 
and they are pelted from every side. 

£*£j J istama c a I [v. VIII, intrans.] 1 to listen in (72:1) y '^j 
JjaJI "jij aJ /ias revealed to me that a company of 



456 



the jinn listened in [on a recitation of the Qur'an] 2 [with prep. J] 
to listen to, to accept and obey (20:13) j^LAa ^jjiiJ Ulj / 

Ziave chosen you, so listen to what is being revealed II [v. VIII, 
trans.] to hear (21:2) J>aj » j^jU V] di'jkl '^'j 'j* j£j U 
whatever new revelation comes to them from their Lord, they but 
hear it while they are playing. 

sam° [n./v. n.] 1 the sense of hearing (32:9) *4 p 
jU^S/lj '^AA\ 'f£\ J«kj jj '<> f/iew //e moulded him; He breathed 
His spirit into him; He gave you hearing, sight... 2 (act of) 
hearing (18:101) "jj*jja£ "j V I _>jl£j lsj^p i>- ?LLf- cr? u^' 
f&ose w/zose eyes w